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Women Shaping the World:
Women Globe Makers
Judith Tyner
NACIS
October 2016
The Literature
Stephenson, E.L. (1921) Terrestrial and Celestial Globes: Their
History and Construction
Yong, Ena (1968) C...
Globe Use through History
Scientific Instrument
Educational Tool
Symbol of Power and Wealth
Toy
Women’s Roles in
Globemaking
Publishers
Pedagogues and Inventors
Students
Production
Publishers
Wives, Widows and Daughters
Senex Globe
Mary Senex took over her
husband’s firm on his death in
1840 and ran it until 1855.
David Rumsey Website
Please to send me … “a pair of Mrs. Senex’s improv’d
Globes, recommended in the Transactions of the Royal
Society, (or Nea...
Cushee Globe
Elizabeth Cushee inherited her
husband’s business in 1732
Edith Putnam Parker, 1939
Pedagogues and
Inventors
Textbook on Globes
David Rumsey Website
Astronomy Textbook
Courtesy Westtown School
Elizabeth Oram,
Globe Patent, 1831
“ As this instrument is the invention of a lady, we will, of
course allow her to tell h...
Ellen Eliza Fitz,
1875 Patent
Fitz Globe
Miss Cowley
Dissected Paper
Globe, 1785
Mrs. Johnstone’s
dissected paper
globe, 1812
Image, the Whipple Museum
Marie Tharp Globe
Students
Samuel Gummere, Astronomy, 1822 , Courtesy Westtown School
Student Globe
Elizabeth Mount 1822
Yale Library
Schoolgirl Map
Caroline Chester, Litchfield
Academy, 1822
Schoolgirl maps were quite
professional in appearance
Silk globe,
Inked names, graticule and outlines in silk
thread
Rachel Cope globe, 1816,
courtesy the Leslie Family
Celesti...
“A” for Graticule
“F” for Geography
Production
“It is obvious…that few of the ‘makers’ to whom we attribute globes
actually worked with their hands. They were...
Globe makers ca. 1940s
Women at Rand McNally
Bellerby Globes
Thank You
Judith.Tyner@csulb.edu
Women Shaping the World: Women and Globes
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Women Shaping the World: Women and Globes

NACIS 2016 Presentation
Judith Tyner Geography Dept., CSU Long Beach
Globes today are looked at as toys or teaching aids for the elementary schools or as decorative objects for the home. But in the 18th and 19th centuries, globes were scientific instruments and while they were used in schools they were used to teach mathematical or astronomical geography; they were not mere toys. While the history of women in cartography has only recently begun to be studied, women's contributions to the creation of globes have been almost totally ignored. Yet women have been involved in globe making since at least the 18th century, there have been at least nine U.S. patents for globes and tellurians granted to women and globes were edited and sold by women. This paper looks at the history of women in globe making and at some specific women and their globes.

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Women Shaping the World: Women and Globes

  1. 1. Women Shaping the World: Women Globe Makers Judith Tyner NACIS October 2016
  2. 2. The Literature Stephenson, E.L. (1921) Terrestrial and Celestial Globes: Their History and Construction Yong, Ena (1968) Catalog of Early Globes Lister, Ramond (1965, 1979) Maps and Globes Dekker, Elly and Peter van der Krogt, (1993) Globes of the Western World. Sumira, Silvia (2014) Globes: 400 Years of Exploration, Navigation and Power. Warner, Deborah Jean (1987) “The Geography of Heaven and Earth” Rittenhouse
  3. 3. Globe Use through History Scientific Instrument Educational Tool Symbol of Power and Wealth Toy
  4. 4. Women’s Roles in Globemaking Publishers Pedagogues and Inventors Students Production
  5. 5. Publishers Wives, Widows and Daughters
  6. 6. Senex Globe Mary Senex took over her husband’s firm on his death in 1840 and ran it until 1855. David Rumsey Website
  7. 7. Please to send me … “a pair of Mrs. Senex’s improv’d Globes, recommended in the Transactions of the Royal Society, (or Neal’s improv’d Globes, if thought better than Senex’s) the best and largest that may be had for (not exceeding) Eight Guineas.” Benjamin Franklin, June 20, 1752 “The …Globes also came out well; but we think Mrs. Senex has impos’d on us in the Price of the Globes, there being 2 pair in this Town of the same Size and the same Prints, both bought at the same Shop, for 6 Guineas the pair. Please to speak to her about it.” Benjamin Franklin, Nov. 16, 1752 From Benjamin Franklin to William Strahan:
  8. 8. Cushee Globe Elizabeth Cushee inherited her husband’s business in 1732
  9. 9. Edith Putnam Parker, 1939
  10. 10. Pedagogues and Inventors
  11. 11. Textbook on Globes David Rumsey Website
  12. 12. Astronomy Textbook Courtesy Westtown School
  13. 13. Elizabeth Oram, Globe Patent, 1831 “ As this instrument is the invention of a lady, we will, of course allow her to tell her story in her own way, without any animadiversions of ours, which might mar the narrative, or involve us in inextricable difficulties.”
  14. 14. Ellen Eliza Fitz, 1875 Patent
  15. 15. Fitz Globe
  16. 16. Miss Cowley Dissected Paper Globe, 1785
  17. 17. Mrs. Johnstone’s dissected paper globe, 1812 Image, the Whipple Museum
  18. 18. Marie Tharp Globe
  19. 19. Students Samuel Gummere, Astronomy, 1822 , Courtesy Westtown School
  20. 20. Student Globe Elizabeth Mount 1822 Yale Library
  21. 21. Schoolgirl Map Caroline Chester, Litchfield Academy, 1822 Schoolgirl maps were quite professional in appearance
  22. 22. Silk globe, Inked names, graticule and outlines in silk thread Rachel Cope globe, 1816, courtesy the Leslie Family Celestial Globe, courtesy Chester County Historical Society
  23. 23. “A” for Graticule “F” for Geography
  24. 24. Production “It is obvious…that few of the ‘makers’ to whom we attribute globes actually worked with their hands. They were, for the most part, coordinators of teams which included geographers and/or astronomers who supplied the information, cartographers who drew maps on the separate gores, engravers, printers, people who made the globe balls, women with nimble fingers who pasted the gores onto the balls, people who colored the maps, inventors who devised the stands, and metalworkers and woodworkers who made them.” (Warner, 1987, p. 20)
  25. 25. Globe makers ca. 1940s
  26. 26. Women at Rand McNally
  27. 27. Bellerby Globes
  28. 28. Thank You Judith.Tyner@csulb.edu

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