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Developments in Digital Business 
Guest Lecture on E-Tourism
Lecture outline 
Role of ICT 
E-Tourism 
Definitions 
Outcomes 
Characteristics of Tourism 
History of ICT in touris...
Role of ICT 
ICTs are now critical for strategic management of organizations as they allow: 
Expansion into new markets 
...
Increasing Speed of Uptake of Technology 
35 years for radio to reach 50 million 
13 years for television to reach 50 mi...
E-tourismisthedigitizationofalltheprocessesandvaluechainsinthetourism,travel,hospitalityandcateringindustriesthatenableorg...
E-tourism Includes All Business Functions 
E-commerce and E-marketing 
E-finance and E-accounting 
E-HRM 
E-Procuremen...
Outcomes of E-tourism 
Itrevolutionizesallbusinessprocesses,theentirevaluechainaswellasthestrategicrelationshipsoftourism...
Outcomes of E-tourism 
(Cont.) 
E-tourismincreasinglydeterminesthecompetitivenessoftheorganizationandthereforeitiscritica...
Characteristics of E-Tourism 
Easy access on the tourism products to world wide audience 
Systematic approach to selling p...
Problems with Traditional Approach 
Smalloperatorstotallydependentonconditionssetbylargecompaniesinthesupplychain 
Oftent...
Outcomes of E-tourism 
“e-Businessrequiresacustomer-centricviewandashiftawayfrommassproductiontomasscustomizationandfromse...
Drivers for e-Business in Tourism 
Economic necessity 
Rapid advancements in technology 
Reduced cost 
Ease of access ...
History of ICTs in Tourism 
CentralReservationSystems(CRSs) 
Introducedbyairlinesin1960s 
Hotelsthencameonboard 
Domin...
History (Count.) 
Untilmid1990s,overhalftheworld’selectronictransactionswereintourism 
Largelyairlines 
Destinationmana...
History (Count.) 
For many years, industry based on: 
Traditional supply chain 
Brochures 
Free-sale allocation 
Tele...
Suppliers 
Manufacturers 
Distributors 
Retailers 
Customers 
(Supply Chain Management Systems) 
(Inventory Management Sys...
26,2 
63,6 
10,3 
43,6 
2000 
2012 
Africa’s International Tourist Inflow and Revenue 
Tourist Inflow 
Revenue from Inflow...
$26.48 
$40.00 
$52.91 
$65.11 
$75.78 
$84.96 
$93.65 
0 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
2010 
2011 
2012 
2013...
Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia 
Allow small businesses to compete internationally 
Dispose of unwanted inventor...
Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) 
Changedthestructureoftheindustry 
Many intermediaries will be reduced t...
Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) 
Sophisticated yield management to maximise profits 
Initially only airl...
Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) 
E-marketing can be used as a low-cost tool. 
ICT can help Tunisia sell ...
Overcoming the Market Reach issue 
The world is now a Global Village reachable at a click 
Internet has made it possible...
An overview of the supply chain of e-tourism 
•General attributes of a tourism product: 
1.Flight online 
2.Hotels online ...
How it can be used on a B2B platform 
•Requirement for B2B platform 
1. Detailed and clear information 
2. Secure database...
Business to Business 
•Extranets between Hoteliers and tour operators, travel agents to travel agents, tour operators to t...
Customer to Business 
•One stop shop to buy flights, hotels, car rentals, insurances, activities, etc. in a single website...
Corporate Business 
•Creating company database. 
•Giving access to a specific user, along with login credential and system...
Business to Consumer 
•E-commerce applications is, where the consumers purchase air tickets 
•E-Platform is, where the cus...
Consumer to Consumer 
•Consumers informing other consumers over good or bad practice on the tourism products purchased onl...
The Tunisia Advantage 
•The geographical location/Accessibility
The Tunisia Advantage 
•The culture/language 
Tunisia is a melting pot for various cultures. This unique mixture of cultur...
The Tunisia Advantage 
The climate is an important factor for tourism in any country. Having the benefits of an all-year r...
Focussing on Tunisian Hotels online 
•Direct contract can be obtained from all hotels 
•The hotel inventory and rates are ...
•Once the mark up is set up, the hotel is activated as a live mode on the system. 
•Therefore any client making a search c...
•The hotel is sent a reservation notification upon receipt of payment by the client. 
•A voucher is generated by the syste...
Focussing on Tourism Activities 
•The activities provided by the various tour operators can also be inputted in the system...
•The rate of the particular activity is inputted 
•Any mark up is added 
•The activity is made ‘live’ on the system. 
•Any...
Focussing on Fixed Packages 
•A fixed package is one which consist of: 
1.Flights 
2.Hotel accommodation 
3.Airport transf...
•The system has separate modules for Airlines, Hotels, Activities 
•Fixed Package module enables the service provider to a...
•The mark up can also be added. 
•The fixed package can also be targeted to specific market depending upon the market requ...
The ‘CLUB’ destination 
•Creating your own club 
•Eg: Look Voyages, selling Tunisia to Europe. But using e-platform, a hot...
•The hotels which are eligible for being a club destination can adopt the E-tourism approach. 
•The tour operators can be ...
•This will promote higher rate of return to the hotels 
•The customer will feel more connected towards the destination 
•A...
Sell Online 
•The products to be sold have been defined as Airlines, Hotels, Activities and Fixed Package. 
•The inventory...
ADMIN Module 
•The admin module gives the control to the main system user to ability to control the other user, the sub ag...
•The report modules allows access to verify: 
1.Rates and Inventory 
2.Reservation made 
3.Confirm bookings 
4.Payment Mad...
Presenting Brand Tunisia to the world 
•By mean of the following e-services: 
•1. Social Medias 
•2. SEO& SMO 
•3. Travel ...
THANK YOU
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Think etourism

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Première présentation de Maneesh Vengala, expert e-tourisme à l’invitation de la FTAV

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Think etourism

  1. 1. Developments in Digital Business Guest Lecture on E-Tourism
  2. 2. Lecture outline Role of ICT E-Tourism Definitions Outcomes Characteristics of Tourism History of ICT in tourism Benefits of E-Tourism to Tunisia Issues with E-Tourism
  3. 3. Role of ICT ICTs are now critical for strategic management of organizations as they allow: Expansion into new markets Empowering of employees Lowering of costs Enhancing distribution Business is now conducted at speed of thought ICTs great for time poor but cash rich consumers
  4. 4. Increasing Speed of Uptake of Technology 35 years for radio to reach 50 million 13 years for television to reach 50 million 5 years for internet to reach 50 million 1 year for ipods to reach 50 million 6 months for facebook to reach 100 million
  5. 5. E-tourismisthedigitizationofalltheprocessesandvaluechainsinthetourism,travel,hospitalityandcateringindustriesthatenableorganizationstomaximizetheirefficiencyandeffectiveness. Definition
  6. 6. E-tourism Includes All Business Functions E-commerce and E-marketing E-finance and E-accounting E-HRM E-Procurement E-Strategy E-Planning E-Management
  7. 7. Outcomes of E-tourism Itrevolutionizesallbusinessprocesses,theentirevaluechainaswellasthestrategicrelationshipsoftourismorganizationswithalltheirstakeholders Onestop-shopoftravelgivingallwideroptionstoselectthetourismproductandtopayonline
  8. 8. Outcomes of E-tourism (Cont.) E-tourismincreasinglydeterminesthecompetitivenessoftheorganizationandthereforeitiscriticalforthecompetitivenessoftheindustryinthe longerterm.
  9. 9. Characteristics of E-Tourism Easy access on the tourism products to world wide audience Systematic approach to selling products Automatic inventory control Controlled payment system Less risk of errors Increased benefits to all stakeholders Better liaison with all service providers, ie: Airlines, Hotels, Travel Agents and Tour Operators, Car rentals, Insurance agents, and all tourism activity representatives.
  10. 10. Problems with Traditional Approach Smalloperatorstotallydependentonconditionssetbylargecompaniesinthesupplychain Oftentoosmalltoparticipateinopportunities Pricingandotherconditionslockeddownforupto2years Verylimitedabilitytoaccessthemarketdirectly
  11. 11. Outcomes of E-tourism “e-Businessrequiresacustomer-centricviewandashiftawayfrommassproductiontomasscustomizationandfromsellingtorelationship-building.” )
  12. 12. Drivers for e-Business in Tourism Economic necessity Rapid advancements in technology Reduced cost Ease of access Rising consumer expectations Time poor Overcame fears regarding security
  13. 13. History of ICTs in Tourism CentralReservationSystems(CRSs) Introducedbyairlinesin1960s Hotelsthencameonboard Dominatedtheindustry Airlinecomputerreservationssystemsemergedtobecomeglobaldistributionsystems(GDSs) Incorporatedawiderangeofservicesandproductsfortheentireindustry ExamplesincludedAmadeus,Sabre&Galileo Ownerschargedcommissionsandparticipationfees Transactioncoststoohighforsmalloperators
  14. 14. History (Count.) Untilmid1990s,overhalftheworld’selectronictransactionswereintourism Largelyairlines Destinationmanagementsystems(DMS)thenemerged Informationonlocallyavailableattractionsandproducts Usefulforhelpingtoovercomeseasonalityproblemsbyspreadingandbalancingtourismdemand
  15. 15. History (Count.) For many years, industry based on: Traditional supply chain Brochures Free-sale allocation Telex confirmations Telex to fax to email Access to funds internationally –replace travelers cheques Changed travel behavior As SME dominated, ICT had slower uptake Uptake pushed by consumers
  16. 16. Suppliers Manufacturers Distributors Retailers Customers (Supply Chain Management Systems) (Inventory Management Systems) (Efficient Customer Response Systems) Transporters Alternative Direct Channel (e.g. The Web) E-Business and Industry Value Chains
  17. 17. 26,2 63,6 10,3 43,6 2000 2012 Africa’s International Tourist Inflow and Revenue Tourist Inflow Revenue from Inflow (in USD Million) Number of International Tourists (million) Revenue from Tourism (US$ billion)
  18. 18. $26.48 $40.00 $52.91 $65.11 $75.78 $84.96 $93.65 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Online Travel Sales in BRIC, by Country 2010-2016 (billions) Russia Brazil India China
  19. 19. Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia Allow small businesses to compete internationally Dispose of unwanted inventory Eg: wotif.com and lastminute.com These systems pose problems as well Consumersarenowabletodesigntheirownpackagesalongwithonlineassistanceofonlineagentstocaterformoredestination
  20. 20. Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) Changedthestructureoftheindustry Many intermediaries will be reduced therefore reducing the price of travel Internetgreatforbrandenforcement,enlargementandexpansion.E-marketingcanbeextensivelyusedtopromoteTunisiaasapreferredtourismdestination. Cansetpriceinrealtimetohelpmanagedemand
  21. 21. Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) Sophisticated yield management to maximise profits Initially only airlines Then hotels Now open to smaller tour operators & travel agencies Underpin strategic alliances for airlines Sophisticated ICTs allow organisations to predict and target consumer needs Differentiate product for different consumer groups Foster relationship management & marketing Loyalty programs
  22. 22. Benefits of ICTs for Tourism in Tunisia (Cont.) E-marketing can be used as a low-cost tool. ICT can help Tunisia sell directly to the world market, which will boost the Tourism based economy of the country. ICT can also be used as a better solution for Destination Management programmes. Travellers forum can be used as a means to increase the Tourism Inflow.
  23. 23. Overcoming the Market Reach issue The world is now a Global Village reachable at a click Internet has made it possible for people all around the world to be reachable, both: 1. As provider 2. As customer Previously thought impossible targets are now reachable just by opening a website.
  24. 24. An overview of the supply chain of e-tourism •General attributes of a tourism product: 1.Flight online 2.Hotels online 3.Transfers online 4.Excursions online 5.Travel Insurance online 6.Car Rental online 7.Other activities online
  25. 25. How it can be used on a B2B platform •Requirement for B2B platform 1. Detailed and clear information 2. Secure database capture 3. A proper agreement, which will encourage prospective Business partner 4. Appropriate payment structure 5. Constant follow-up
  26. 26. Business to Business •Extranets between Hoteliers and tour operators, travel agents to travel agents, tour operators to tour operators. •Commissionable and non-commissionable rates •Consolidated rates, profit mark-ups •Credit facilities
  27. 27. Customer to Business •One stop shop to buy flights, hotels, car rentals, insurances, activities, etc. in a single website. •A wide range of choice in selection of product and the pricing
  28. 28. Corporate Business •Creating company database. •Giving access to a specific user, along with login credential and system accessibility •The user can login the system and make the reservation as per the requirement. •A limit baremis set by the system administrator so that the user can make reservation uptoan agreed upon limit of products.
  29. 29. Business to Consumer •E-commerce applications is, where the consumers purchase air tickets •E-Platform is, where the customers can as well act as agents. (B2B2C)
  30. 30. Consumer to Consumer •Consumers informing other consumers over good or bad practice on the tourism products purchased online. Eg: Forums Social Media
  31. 31. The Tunisia Advantage •The geographical location/Accessibility
  32. 32. The Tunisia Advantage •The culture/language Tunisia is a melting pot for various cultures. This unique mixture of cultures made Tunisia, with its strategic geographical location in the Mediterranean. •The safety Tunisia has been able to maintain a clean profile of a safe destination over the years, which is a priority requirement for most of the tourists.
  33. 33. The Tunisia Advantage The climate is an important factor for tourism in any country. Having the benefits of an all-year round suitable weather, Tunisia can use this as an advantage to promote the tourism permanently on various e-platforms.
  34. 34. Focussing on Tunisian Hotels online •Direct contract can be obtained from all hotels •The hotel inventory and rates are input in the system •The specific seasonal rates can be updated as per contracts. •Mark up can be added as per the tour operators target
  35. 35. •Once the mark up is set up, the hotel is activated as a live mode on the system. •Therefore any client making a search can book the hotel inputted if the search criteria matched the data activated. •The inventory is automatically updated as and when rooms are book
  36. 36. •The hotel is sent a reservation notification upon receipt of payment by the client. •A voucher is generated by the system once payment is guaranteed.
  37. 37. Focussing on Tourism Activities •The activities provided by the various tour operators can also be inputted in the system. •Eg: Tunis city tour •The particular activity is input as well as details such as activity provider, contact details, rate plan, contract limit, number of guests allowed, child policy, etc.
  38. 38. •The rate of the particular activity is inputted •Any mark up is added •The activity is made ‘live’ on the system. •Any client looking for ‘City tour in Tunis’ can book the activity and proceed for payment. •Even in this case, a voucher is generated once payment is guaranteed.
  39. 39. Focussing on Fixed Packages •A fixed package is one which consist of: 1.Flights 2.Hotel accommodation 3.Airport transfers 4.All meals included/excluded 5.Tourism Activities like excursions and events
  40. 40. •The system has separate modules for Airlines, Hotels, Activities •Fixed Package module enables the service provider to attached the various component into one and sell it to online customers as a ‘fixed package’ or ‘All Inclusive’ Package. •The fixed package will have a defined duration and the cost of the package will be pre- determined.
  41. 41. •The mark up can also be added. •The fixed package can also be targeted to specific market depending upon the market requirement. •The fixed package concept can be used for the ‘club’ concept.
  42. 42. The ‘CLUB’ destination •Creating your own club •Eg: Look Voyages, selling Tunisia to Europe. But using e-platform, a hotel based in Tunisia can design its own ‘club’ holidays and sell directly to the customers anywhere in the world, by-passing any external consolidators.
  43. 43. •The hotels which are eligible for being a club destination can adopt the E-tourism approach. •The tour operators can be pulled up for activities and transfers •The fixed package is created, on all-inclusive basis. •These fixed package can be sold directly to customers online without the help of distributing companies
  44. 44. •This will promote higher rate of return to the hotels •The customer will feel more connected towards the destination •Any customisation can be directly requested to the service provider •There will be a serious increase in revenue for tour operating companies in Tunisia.
  45. 45. Sell Online •The products to be sold have been defined as Airlines, Hotels, Activities and Fixed Package. •The inventory and rates are to be monitored by the system administrator •The system has an Admin module as well as a Reports module which allows the provider to control the sales online.
  46. 46. ADMIN Module •The admin module gives the control to the main system user to ability to control the other user, the sub agents, any corporate login customers, any B2B2C corporates, as well as the affiliates to the provider
  47. 47. •The report modules allows access to verify: 1.Rates and Inventory 2.Reservation made 3.Confirm bookings 4.Payment Made 5.List of Quotation Sent 6.List of cancellation The reports also give a detailed view of the accounting pertaining to reservations made. Reports Module
  48. 48. Presenting Brand Tunisia to the world •By mean of the following e-services: •1. Social Medias •2. SEO& SMO •3. Travel & Investors forums •4. Visibility in websites related to target markets
  49. 49. THANK YOU

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