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Faculty of Education
EDU702 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION AFFECT
STUDENTS IN THEIR LEARNING
Prepared by
...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement 4
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction 5
1.2 Background of Study 6
1.3 Statement of ...
Appendix 23
References 26
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“In the name of God, the Most Gracious and Most Merciful”
Alhamdullillah, first praise is to Allah the Alm...
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
A medium is a ‘channel of communication’ means people send and receive informati...
Mansor, Ramli and Shawaludin (1984) argued that the mass media are including newspapers,
magazines, radio, television, fil...
definition TV (HDTV) and other are examples of technologies that assist in the process of
development of information socie...
1.4 Research objectives
The research objectives of this research are
1.4.1 to identify the effect of mass media communicat...
1.7 Operational Definition
There are six operational definitions in this study. The terms are:
1.7.1 Learning with books
T...
Because of this transience, and because the two symbol systems are presented
simultaneously, learners may process the info...
information in students’ heads which is likely to be incomplete or inaccurate for students with
limited prior knowledge. T...
Through programs like this, student would be more exposed to information. Student is given
exposure about invention of sci...
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter will review relevant literature as well as previous studies re...
Mass media influence our daily life more than any other cultural institution. They are our
main sources of news and entert...
social learning theory, those behaviours that are shown performed by attractive people or
those behaviours that are shown ...
2.4 Way to benefit Mass Media Communication Uses
The impact of electronic media on children depends on the age of the chil...
2.5 Theoretical Framework
This theoretical framework has been design suit as a guideline to help solving my study.
+
Multi...
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the concepts of the Multi-store Model to describe
how memory is organised. Incoming...
Behaviorist is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively
observable behaviors and discounts m...
individual stage is when information from social interaction becomes interpreted by the
person to become that person’s con...
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLGY
3.1 ResearchDesign
The aim of this study is to identify the effect of mass media communi...
3.4 Data Processing
Research Questions Research Instruments Type of Data Analysis
1.What is the effect of mass
media commu...
APPENDIX A
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
MASTER OF EDUCATION IN VISUAL ART
(ED702)
Dear respondent,
I am ...
APPENDIX A
SECTION A - Demographic Information
Directions : Please read each statement carefully and tick your answer.
1. ...
APPENDIX A
8. How often do you usually spend on Mass Media Communication?
9. How much time (on average) do you spend on Ma...
REFERENCE
John D.H.Downing. 2004. The SAGE Handbook of Media Studies; Chapter9: Twentieth-
Century Media Effects Research....
Adulthood: 1977–1992. University of Michigan: the American Psychological Associtaion,
Inc.
Abdullah @ Kassim Mohamad. 1998...
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Mass media affect children in their performance

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Mass media affect children in their performance

  1. 1. Faculty of Education EDU702 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION AFFECT STUDENTS IN THEIR LEARNING Prepared by NADIA SYAFIKAH BINTI MARZUKI 2014611974 M.ED (VISUAL ART) Prepared for DR. JOHAN @ EDDY LUARAN December 2014
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement 4 Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Background of Study 6 1.3 Statement of the Problem 7 1.4 Research Objective 8 1.5 Research Question 8 1.6 Limitation of the Study 8 1.7 Operational Definition 9 1.8 Conclusion 9 Chapter 2: Literature Review 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 History Background of mass media communication 13 2.3 Effect toward Children in their Learning by using Mass Media Communication 14 2.4 Way to benefit Mass Media Communication Uses 16 2.5 Theoretical Framework 17 Chapter 3: Research Methodology 3.1 Research Design 21 3.2 Sampling 21 3.3 Method of Data Collection 21 3.4 Data Processing 22
  3. 3. Appendix 23 References 26
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “In the name of God, the Most Gracious and Most Merciful” Alhamdullillah, first praise is to Allah the Almighty, on whom ultimately we depend for sustenance and guidance. Without His blessings and strengths, I would not be able to complete this dissertation. This proposal would not have been possible without the support of many people. Special appreciation and thank you goes to my wonderful lecturer, Dr. Johan @ Eddy Luaran for his constant support. I really appreciate his time, effort, patience and advice in the whole process of completing this work. This work would not have been successful without his invaluable help of constructive comments and suggestions. I would also like to place on record my deepest gratitude to my beloved parents, Marzuki bin Abdul Latif and Nik Hanita binti Nik Ismail, and my siblings for their support, endless love, prayers and encouragement. I’m indebted to them for their unceasing support and belief in me in completing this work. Last but not least, I would like to extend huge, warm thanks to lecturers when I am in need. To dear best friend, housemates and colleagues, thanks you for being great support through my ups and downs. To those who indirectly contributed in this study, your kindness means a lot to me. Thank you very much.
  5. 5. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction A medium is a ‘channel of communication’ means people send and receive information. The printed word, for example, is a medium when we read a newspaper or magazine, something is communicated to us in some way. An electronic form of communication is television, telephones and film. Mass means ‘many’ and what we are interested in here is how and why different forms of media are used to transmit and to be received by large numbers of the audience (Chris, 2011). Chris also stated that mass media, therefore, refer to channels of communication that involve transmitting information in some way, shape or form to large numbers of people (although the question of exactly how many a “large number” has to be to qualify as a “mass” is something that’s generally left undefined - it’s one of those things that we know when we see it). A mass medium such as television is generally classified as ‘one-to-many’ communication means ‘one’ person such as the author of a book, the creators of a television programme or a film director, communicates to many people or the audience “at the same time” in a way that is largely impersonal. That is what we called the one-way communication, in the sense that those communicating a message to an audience don’t receive simultaneous feedback from that audience (Chris, 2011). Mass media, which includes print media, electronic media and the internet said to have a strong influence on the lives of adolescents. Media electronics such as televisions and video programs serve many elements of violence. Most teens love to watch television; indirectly they will be affected by the antagonist or evil character in the show (Zaleha Yaacob, 2010)
  6. 6. Mansor, Ramli and Shawaludin (1984) argued that the mass media are including newspapers, magazines, radio, television, film, tapes, vinyl records, books and etc. Mass media is spreading information widely to the people. They add that mass media, which is also called a general distribution was able to channel messages from a remote at a faster rate (Kassim, 1998). 1.2 Background of Study The intention of this research is to identify the effect of mass media communication toward students in their learning. Kassim Mohammad in 1998, the mass media can be either brings good or bad impression to the audience. This effect can also come immediate in short term or long term (slowly). Many studies have been done to determine the how far the mass media is able to change ideas, attitudes and behaviour of an individual. Bandura, 1985 as cited in Kassim Mohammad in 1998, reported that children aged up to three years in general follow by the actions and behaviours that exist in the films that they watch. This can be seen when a child is watching films show something aggressive, the children itself will act as the aggressive nature forms of aggression based on aggressive film scenes that they watched. This research also is to determine the factors of attractiveness of mass media communication toward students in their learning. As we already know, every people no matter children, teenager or adult is addicted with entertainment. Media such as television, radio, computer, telephone or other gadgets is important in everyday life. By all means, it has become part of people life. However, as stated by Mokhtar Muhammad, 1998, in this information age era, communication and spreading the information is important. Many people are involved in the creation, processing and communication of information. For example, bank employees, teachers, operator computers, employees in the communications industry, and individuals in certain groups. The process of communication and information spreading increasingly sophisticated and the world becomes smaller. Information of spreading process is so efficient, fast and accurate. Telefax, videotext, display phone, internet, telegraph, facsimile, direct broadcast satellite (DBS), radio and TV cable, local publications (Desktop Publishing), high-
  7. 7. definition TV (HDTV) and other are examples of technologies that assist in the process of development of information society. It also proves that mass media communication can benefit it uses among students in their learning. 1.3 Statement of the Problem Nowadays, every student no matter children, teenager or adult is addicted with what we called “Mass Media Communication”. It has become important media in people life for entertainment, knowledge, to do work and etc. It became part of people life. But with the misuse of media tools, it will cause some of effects towards people. Daniel G. McDonald stated in John D.H.Downing books in 2004, mass media can affect knowledge, attitudes, opinions and behavior of individuals. These effects can be immediate or delayed, of short duration or long-lasting. Effects upon individuals might slowly become transformed into institutional changes. They can come about in simple reactions or complicated chains as when institutional changes produced by the media in turn effect of individuals. The concern of thoughtful adults as to the possible effects of media is coming from television. It dominated the society in which viewers tend to be passive and non-assertive. There are fear that also content in media such as violence, lawlessness, breakdown in moral values, and tawdry and explicit sex (Sara, 1978). In Malaysia, the development of media industry is started in the mid of 1990s when the government has changed its policy towards the broadcasting service, with amendments broadcasting that allows the existence of satellite television broadcasts. In the mid of 1990s also found changes in government policy that gives license to operate broadcast services to several private television and radio stations to boost development of mass media in Malaysia. As a result, media become a major contributor to the youth lifestyle today (Samsudin A.Rahim, 1998). Hence this study tends to know how mass media communication will affect children in their performance. It is mass media communication is bad or good to student performance, life or even to their study.
  8. 8. 1.4 Research objectives The research objectives of this research are 1.4.1 to identify the effect of mass media communication toward students in their learning. 1.4.2 to determine the factors of attractiveness of mass media communication toward students in their learning. 1.4.3 to identify the way to benefit mass media communication uses among students in their learning. 1.5 Research questions 1.5.1 What is the effect of mass media communication toward students in their performance? 1.5.2 What are the factors of attractiveness of mass media communication toward students in their learning? 1.5.3 How to make mass media communication is benefit to students in their learning? 1.6 Limitations of the study This study is convenience in regarding collecting the data, student will able to respond or maybe not towards the questionnaire that will be hand out to them. To get student attraction quite difficult because they tend not involve answering my questionnaire in this study. Even though they answering the questionnaire, their answer will not be honest and just simply answer to fulfil every question need in the questionnaire.
  9. 9. 1.7 Operational Definition There are six operational definitions in this study. The terms are: 1.7.1 Learning with books The most common medium encountered in school learning is still the book. As a learning medium, the book can be characterized by the primary feature of its technology by its symbol systems and by the way it influences specific processes of reading. Other studies suggest that the use and effectiveness of pictures are related to prior knowledge: more knowledgeable readers tend to build mental models from existing knowledge and to elaborate on them using information from the text, while less knowledgeable readers tend to rely more heavily on pictures or diagrams to construct mental representations of new information (Robert, 1994). Robert also stated that younger children, who may not have sufficient prior knowledge from which to generate elaborate mental models, may benefit most from pictures to aid this process. The stability of the medium allows the kind of serial, sequential, back-and forth processing between specific information in the text and components of the pictures that facilitates the construction and elaboration of mental models from learning by books. 1.7.2 Learning with Television By the time most American are eighteen years old, they will have spent 15,000 hours in front of a television set, about 4,000 hours more than they have spent in school, and far more than they have spent talking with their teachers, their friends, or even their parents (Minnow & LaMay, 1995). Today’s youth are exposed to a “media-saturated environment” (Roberts, Foehr, Rideout & Brodie, 1999). Television or any video medium is differs from books in several ways that may affect cognitive structures and processes. First, the technology of these media makes both their verbal and visual symbol systems transient rather than stable. Linguistic information can be orthographic. But more often it is oral and, like the images on the screen, disappears quickly.
  10. 10. Because of this transience, and because the two symbol systems are presented simultaneously, learners may process the information in video media very differently from the way they process similar information in books and magazines. It is also possible that the symbol systems and their transient nature affect the mental representations that learners create (Robert, 1994). 1.7.3 Learning with Computer Computers can be distinguished from the two previous formats by what they can do with information—that is, by their ability to process symbols and symbol systems. Computers can transform information in one symbol system to that in another and they can “proceduralize” information. In its transforming function, a computer with a voice synthesizer can change typed text into speech; using an integrated software package. It can also transform numerical values into charts and graphs. In its proceduralizing function, a computer can operate on symbols according to specified rules for example; it can rotate a graphic object on the screen according to the laws of physics. A computer can help students construct links between symbolic domains like graphs, equations and the real-world phenomena they represent. So it is the processing capabilities of the computer, rather than its symbol systems per se, that enable this medium to make its primary contribution to students’ construction of their mental models (Robert, 1994). 1.7.4 Learning with Multimedia Computer technology plays a central role in multimedia environments: the computer coordinates the use of various symbol systems and processes information it receives, collaborating with the learner to make subsequent selections and decisions. This role is essentially the same whether the specific multimedia format in use is interactive video or hypermedia (Patrick, 1985). The capability of the video to use multiple symbol systems to present complex, dynamic social contexts and events might have helped students construct rich, dynamic mental models of the situations. The detailed, dynamic nature of multimedia has allowed students to draw more inferences than they could from mental models constructed from text or still pictures. Such structures are more memorable than those constructed with text and rely less on
  11. 11. information in students’ heads which is likely to be incomplete or inaccurate for students with limited prior knowledge. The video also pre-empts demands on reading ability, allowing students who have not yet automated their reading skills to focus their cognitive resources on the problem-solving task (Robert, 1994). 1.7.5 Effect Learning with Mass Media Mass media, which includes print media, electronic media and the internet said to have a strong influence towards lives of teenager. Media electronics such as televisions and video programs serve many elements of violence. Most teens love to watch television and indirectly they will be affected by the antagonist or evil character in the show. The particular design imported from the West often displays free and leisure lifestyle. Teenager began to imitate such a way of life and practice in their daily lives. Many film from the West show that the teenagers unrespect their parent’s advice. This phenomenon causes the respect fading between family members. Television shows such as if provide an understanding that people can have sex promiscuous as long as there is no violation of the rights and freedoms of both parties. This phenomenon exposes the teenagers to sex disease which is dangerous as AIDS (Zaleha Yaacob, 2010). She also reported that dumping material of the nature decadent sex also easily available for sale in many places besides the cheap price and can be purchased by teenagers. In addition to video compact disc (VCD), materials pornography is also easily found through internet filter is made difficult by authorities. Mass media also convey information about 25 fashions trendy that because adolescents are affected will begin to imitate those fashions. The most increasing cases are rape. “Yellow of Western” culture spreading through the mass media introduce a lame way of life as "hip-hop", "punk", "hippies", "Black metal", "pink metal", "one night stand" and independent of sex. All such thing is the effect coming from exposure of mass media communication. 1.7.6 Mass Media Benefit Children Learning Not all programs in the mass media, especially on television leads to direction of mere entertainment. Some of these programs are very benefit to the public. For examples program create on TV1 (MINDA). Cyber wave program at TV3, Beyond on 2000, and many more.
  12. 12. Through programs like this, student would be more exposed to information. Student is given exposure about invention of science, technology, and etc. We also do not miss to get other information about the world of science, although it is information coming from abroad (Mokhtar Muhammad, 1998). He stated that media is considered as the main source of information for the public today. More 80% of primary school students use media in their learning process. While 60% of adults use the media is to choose a leader. Therefore, the media is the most trusted source of information by society. There are several factors that encourage people to use the media in their daily lives. The main factor that is able to enrich our idea and knowledge. It also demonstrated a situation in more symbolic finally able to attract the sensitivity of society. Parents also encourage their children to watch programme in television as a way to train children towards a more dynamic and pragmatic person. For example through the program of "Along", they will be able to train children to be more interested in learning the method to calculate, writing, also read (3M) (Mokhtar Muhammad, 1998). 1.8 Conclusion As stated before, the mass media can be either brings good or bad impression to the audience. This effect can also come immediate in short term or long term (slowly). Many studies have been done to determine the how far the mass media is able to change ideas, attitudes and behaviour of an individual. But not all programs in the mass media, especially on television leads to direction of mere entertainment. Some of these programs are very benefit to the public. Parents should play main role in controlling their children action toward using mass media either for their study or entertainment. Any other TV programmer show, movie or film should have their guide while children is using or watching the show. Astro coming with a good initiative when people can block the TV show which is not suitable or appropriate to be watch by children. This effort should be continuity done to ensure that we can benefit the uses of mass media communication.
  13. 13. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction This chapter will review relevant literature as well as previous studies related to the Mass Media Communication Affect Children in their Performance. There are areas which will briefly discuss and explained. The areas are: 2.2 History Background of mass media communication The concept “mass’’ in mass communication is defined as a large, heterogeneous, assorted, anonymous audience. ‘Large’ means we can’t exactly count the number of the members of audience. It is relatively large but it doesn’t mean that the audience includes all people. ‘Heterogeneous’ means the audience of mass media includes all types of people – the rich, the poor, farmers, bureaucrats, politicians and so on. ‘Assorted’ means the audience of mass media is not necessarily limited to a particular geographical sector. They may be scattered everywhere. For example, a newspaper may have a reader in every nook and corner of the world. ‘Anonymous’ means we can’t specifically identify a reader of a newspaper of newspaper with his certain characteristics. Today he may be reader of a particular newspaper. Tomorrow, he may change his media habit. Anybody at any time may be a member of mass media audience (Muhammadali, 2011). He also stated that the channels of communication that produce and distribute news, entertainment content, visuals and other cultural products to a large number of people. Mass media can be classified in to three major groups on the basis of their physical nature. The word communication was originated from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Communion, community, communism, commonality, communalism etc. are some related words having the same linguistic roots. Similarly, newer and newer terms are being coined as the concept of communication assumes importance day by day. Communication technology, communication media, communication age, communication management are just a few.
  14. 14. Mass media influence our daily life more than any other cultural institution. They are our main sources of news and entertainment. They define our purchase decision, voting behavior, academic achievement and so on. Because of this all-encompassing impact of mass media, politicians, businessmen and government agencies depend on media to influence people. During election time, we witness politicians spending millions of rupess for political campign through mass media. Business firms across the world spend billions of dollars to market their products with the help of mass media advertisements. We are informed of the policies of our governments through newspapers and electronic media. Likewise, we people need mass media to express our needs, complaints and wishes to the authorities. In short, role of mass media in our society is omnipresent (Muhammadali, 2011). The history of electronic mass media starts with the invention of radio by Marconi. The first radio station was set up in Pittsburg, New York and Chicago in the 1920s. Following the USA, European countries also started radio stations for broadcasting news and entertainment content. The colonial powers like Briton and France set radio stations in Asian and African countries in the early years of 20th century. The next step in electronic communication media history was the invention of cinema. Following cinema, television broadcasting was initiated in the US on experimental basis during 1920s. But, the dramatic impact of television as a mass medium began in 1950s. Parallel to these, recording industry was also boomed in the western countries. In short, the term electronic media mainly include radio, movies, television, audio and video records (Muhammadali, 2011). Media technology is an integral part of children’s lives in the twenty-first century. The world of electronic media however is changing dramatically. Television, which dominated the media world through the mid-1990s, now competes in an arena crowded with cell phones, iPods, video games, instant messaging, interactive multiplayer video games, virtual reality sites, Web social networks, and e-mail (Jeanne, 2008). 2.3 Effect toward Children in their Learning by using Mass Media Communication Daniel G. McDonald stated in John D.H.Downing books in 2004, Bandura (1977) advanced the discussion of media effects by specifying conditions under which he would expect people (especially children) to imitate antisocial and pro-social behaviours presented in the media. In
  15. 15. social learning theory, those behaviours that are shown performed by attractive people or those behaviours that are shown to be rewarded are more likely to be imitated. Mass media have been found to be potentially harmful in influencing the health-related behaviors of children and adolescents, many of whom are not yet mature enough to distinguish fantasy from reality, particularly when it is presented as “real life.” This is particularly important for very young children who developmentally think concretely and are unable to distinguish fantasy from reality. Furthermore, time spent with media decreases the amount of time available for pursuing other more healthy activities such as sports, physical activity, community service, cultural pursuits, and family time (Ray, 2010). Ray stated that the exposure to media that has violence has been positively related to subsequent aggressive behavior, ideas, arousal, and anger. Additionally, there is a significant negative effect of exposure to violence on subsequent helping behavior. Parents need to be urged to protect their children against the kinds of repeated exposures that excessive play with violent video games or immersion in violent TV programs. Ray from India reported that children having exposure to violence through media had poorer school performance and its impact on their psychosocial adjustments was detrimental. Different with Muhammadali, 2011, he stated that media perform the functions that educational institutions do. Media are life-long educators for the society. Media give them comprehensive knowledge of selected topics. Non-news content or news-based content like editorials, articles, columns in newspapers provide us with complete idea of a subject. Health Magazines, IT magazines are also examples for education through media. Irrespective of their type, mass media are wonderful entertainers. All media have entertainment content. Newspapers publish cartoons, comics, puzzles, special weekend supplements for amusing people. Lion share of magazine content such as short stories, novels, satires and cartoons are for entertainment. Movies are another big stock for entertainment. Audio-Visual media such as television and radio are also primarily concentrating on entertainment function through their programmes based on sports, film, and fashion shows etc (Muhammadali, 2011).
  16. 16. 2.4 Way to benefit Mass Media Communication Uses The impact of electronic media on children depends on the age of the child and the content of the media. Heather Kirkorian and Daniel Anderson, both of the University of Massachusetts- Amhert review research on young children. Infants and toddlers do not seem to learn easily from electronic media because they need direct experience and interaction with real people to develop cognitively. By age three, children can benefit from electronic media with educational content that uses specific strategies such as repeating an idea over and over, presenting images and sounds that capture attention (Jeanne, 2008). Jeanne, 2008, also stated, the aim of the vast majority of electronic media targeted at pre- schoolers is not educational. The techniques these media use are intended to entertain rather than to teach. Marie Evans Schmidt, of the Center on Media and Child Health at Children’s Hospital Boston, examine links between media and learning, achievement, and attention in older children and adolescents. She conclude that content, if designed correctly, can enhance learning. Moreover, some evidence shows that certain media use, such as playing video games, can have positive effects, particularly in developing visual spatial skills. While analysts have found some links between heavy media exposure and poor school achievement, they have uncovered no clearly causal links. Nor have they found that media use causes attention deficit disorder, although there is a small link between heavy television viewing and non-clinical attention issues. Interestingly, although using media during leisure time may have benefits for children’s learning and achievement, electronic technologies used in schools are not necessarily more effective than traditional teaching techniques. The results depend on how teachers use the technology and their own comfort level with the medium.
  17. 17. 2.5 Theoretical Framework This theoretical framework has been design suit as a guideline to help solving my study. + Multi Store Model Atkinson / Shiffrin Short term and Long term Memory Behaviorism Vygotsky’s Scalfolding MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION AFFECT STUDENTS IN THEIR LEARNING
  18. 18. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) developed the concepts of the Multi-store Model to describe how memory is organised. Incoming information enters a sensory memory for a brief period of time. A tiny fraction of it is then transferred to short-term memory where it can be held and manipulated. A fraction of that information is then transferred to long-term memory for more permanent storage. transfer retrieval Like many other cognitive psychologist, Atkinson and Shiffrin drew a strong distinction between short-term and long-term memory stores. Because of this, the multi-store model is sometimes called the dual-process model or dual-memory model. Short-Term Effects Huesmann, 1988 (as cited in Eric, 2006) proposes that the most short-term effects is by exposure from television, film, video games, or Internet web pages are a consequence of three processes, which is priming of already existing cognitions or scripts for behaviour, immediate mimicking (imitation) of observed behaviour, and changes in emotional arousal and the misattribution of that arousal (excitation transfer). Long-Term Effects Although short-term effects have important influences on children’s day-to-day behaviours, emotion, and thinking, they do not result in lasting changes in children’s cognitions, behaviour, or the links between emotions and cognitions and behaviours. The more lasting changes that could be called “mass media socialization” occurs when new cognitions or behavioural scripts are firmly encoded and these cognitions and behaviours are required. Three long-term processes seem to be most important for socialization of the child, observational learning of behaviour scripts, world schemas, and normative beliefs, activation and desensitization of emotional processes and didactic learning process. Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
  19. 19. Behaviorist is a theory of animal and human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and discounts mental activities. Behaviorist theorist defines learning as nothing than the acquisition of new behavior. Behaviorism theory’s focuses on how environmental stimuli bring about change in people’s behaviors. As stated before, Daniel G. McDonald stated in John D.H.Downing books in 2004, mass media can affect knowledge, attitudes, opinions and behavior of individuals. These effects can be immediate or delayed, of short duration or long-lasting. Effects upon individuals might slowly become transformed into institutional changes. They can come about in simple reactions or complicated chains as when institutional changes produced by the media in turn effect of individuals. Bandura, 1985 as cited in Kassim Mohammad in 1998, reported that children aged up to three years in general follow by the actions and behaviours that exist in the films that they watch. This can be seen when a child is watching films show something aggressive, the children itself will act as the aggressive nature forms of aggression based on aggressive film scenes that they watched. Lev Vygotsky was born on 1896 at Orsha, Russia. He is graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in Law. In 1924, Vygotsky attended the instituted of Psychology in Moscow which began his research and career in psychology. His major theories were Zone of Proximal Development and Sociocultural Theory. Most of his work was about child development. Lev Vygotsky died at age 38 after his work began to be discovered and appreciated. According to (John W. Santrock, 2011) Vygotsky’s theory is addition to Piaget’s theory. It is another major developmental theory that focuses on children’s cognition. Researcher stated that Vygotsky’s theory children cognitive development is shaped by the cultural context in which they live. His most famous research is entitled “The Psychology of Art”. According to Vygotsky, in each age level, cognitive progression happens in two stages which is the social stage and the individual stage. The social stage is where information is gained by the individual through interaction with parents, teachers, family and friends. Through these groups of people, a person learns knowledge and the means to advance in society. The
  20. 20. individual stage is when information from social interaction becomes interpreted by the person to become that person’s conversation piece. Referring to (John W. Santrock, 2011) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for the range tasks that are too difficult for the children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults. In other meaning, the Zone of Proximal Development is the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given allowing the child to develop skills they will use on their own developing higher mental function. Parents should play main role in controlling their children action toward using mass media either for their study or entertainment. Regarding to (John W. Santrock, 2011) Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development has a lower limit and upper limit. The lower limit is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. In other meaning, lower limit of the zone of proximal development is the level of problem solving reached on these tasks by child working alone. The upper limit of the zone proximal development is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor. According to (Horowitz in John W.Santrocks, 2011) Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) reflects the concept of developmentally appropriate teaching. This effort should be continuity done to ensure that we can benefit the uses of mass media communication.
  21. 21. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLGY 3.1 ResearchDesign The aim of this study is to identify the effect of mass media communication toward students in their performance. In this chapter, five aspects will be discussed; which are research design, population and sample, instrumentation, data collection procedures and data analysis. The present study employed a quantitative approach with a descriptive research design. 3.2 Sampling The population for this study is all students that I meet around me. Therefore, for this study, the sampling technique used by me is convenience sampling. The reason for choosing this sampling technique is due to the objective of this study that is to identify the effect of mass media communication toward students in their performance. Every student can be analyse based on their background, family background, ages, gender, interest in using mass media in their life, and how and to who mass media affect them in their performance. 3.3 Method of Data Collection Questionnaire was used in order to identify the effect of mass media communication toward students in their performance, to determine the factors of attractiveness of mass media communication toward students in their learning and to identify the way to benefit mass media communication uses among students in their learning. Questionnaire is divided into few sections which have questions to be answer.
  22. 22. 3.4 Data Processing Research Questions Research Instruments Type of Data Analysis 1.What is the effect of mass media communication toward children in their performance? Questionnaire Percentage 2.What are the factors of attractiveness of mass media communication toward children? Questionnaire Percentage 3.How to make mass media communication is benefit to children in their learning? Questionnaire Percentage
  23. 23. APPENDIX A UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA FACULTY OF EDUCATION MASTER OF EDUCATION IN VISUAL ART (ED702) Dear respondent, I am Nadia Syafikah Binti Marzuki (UiTM Student ID No. 2014611974) from the Faculty of Education, INTEC, UiTM Shah Alam. Currently, I am pursuing a master program in Master of Education in Visual Art. As a requirement for my EDU 702 (Dissertation) paper, I am conducting a survey on “Mass Media Communication Affect Students In Their Performance”. Therefore, I need your sincere cooperation to complete this questionnaire. Thank you for participating in my research. I would appreciate if you could spend a few minutes of your time to complete my research. The data collected from this survey will be used for academic and research purposes only. Your participation is completely voluntary and information will kept strictly confidential. Your time and cooperation is much appreciated. Thank you very much. Researcher, ............................................. (Nadia Syafikah Binti Marzuki)
  24. 24. APPENDIX A SECTION A - Demographic Information Directions : Please read each statement carefully and tick your answer. 1. Gender : Female 2. Age : – 25 years – 30 years – 35 years 3. Education Level : 4. Programme : Others (please state down) ________________________ SECTION B – Mass Media Communication Background Directions : Please read each statement carefully and tick your answer. 5. Average hours of active Mass Media Communication service(s) use per day? less than 1 hour – 2 hours – 5 hours 6. What types of Mass Media Communication that you use? (May tick more than one answers) Television Computer Radio _____
  25. 25. APPENDIX A 8. How often do you usually spend on Mass Media Communication? 9. How much time (on average) do you spend on Mass Media Communication per session? – 9 minutes – 29 minutes – 59 minutes SECTION C - Perceptions towards Mass Media Communication For each statement, please indicate your answers, using the following scale: Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 Directions : Please read each statement carefully and tick your answer. End of questionnaire Thank you for your cooperation
  26. 26. REFERENCE John D.H.Downing. 2004. The SAGE Handbook of Media Studies; Chapter9: Twentieth- Century Media Effects Research. United States of America: Sage Publications, Inc. Minnow, N.M. & LaMay, C.L. 1995. Abandoned in the wasteland: Children, television and the first amendment. New York: Hill & Wang. Robert, D.F., Foehr, U.G., Rideout, V.J., & Brodie, M. (1999). Kids & media @ the new millennium: A comprehensive national analysis of children’s media use. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Samsudin A.Rahim (1998), “Pembangunan, Ketembusan Media dan Identiti Budaya Remaja”, Kumpulan Penyelidik IRPA Media dan Identiti Budaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Chris. Livesey. 2011. The Mass Media: Defining the Mass Media. Sociology Central: www.sociology.org.uk. Zaleha Yaacob. 2010. Pengaruh Keganasan dalam Media terhadap Tingkah Laku Agresif Remaja. Fakuli Pendidikan, UiTM. Sara Krentzman Srygley. 1978. Influence of Mass Media on Today’s Young People. Educational Leadership: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Robert B. Kozma. 1994. The Influence of Media on Learning: The Debate Continues. Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International. W.Patrick Dikson. 1985. Thought-provoking Software:juxtaposing Symbol Systems. Educational Researcher. L.Rowell Huesmann, Jessica Moise-Titus and etc. 2003. Longitudinal Relations Between Children’s Exposure to TV Violence and Their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young
  27. 27. Adulthood: 1977–1992. University of Michigan: the American Psychological Associtaion, Inc. Abdullah @ Kassim Mohamad. 1998. Impak Media keatas Remaja: Satu Analisis Program Maklumat Hiburan Di Media Massa. Biro Penyelidikan dan Perundingan, UiTM Shah Alam. Mokhtar Muhammad, Abdullah @ Kassim Mohamad, Darusalam Abu Bakar & etc. 1998. Teknologi Komunikasi dan proses pembentukan masyarakat bermaklumat: Satu analisis semula peranan media elektronik di Malaysia. UiTM Shah Alam. Eric F.Dubow, L.Rowell Huesmann and Dara Greenwood. 2006. Media and Youth Socialization: Underlying Processes and Moderators of Effects. Handbooks of Socialization. Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Peter Budetti, Judith Feder and etc. 2008. The Future of Children: Children and Electronic Media. Princeton University: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Munni Ray and Kana Ram Jat. 2010. Effect of Electronic Media on Children. Chandigarh, India: Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research. Dr. Muhammadali. 2011. Introduction to Mass Communication: Mass Communication Complementary Course for BA English. Malappuram, Kerala, India: Calicut University.

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