Development and democracy debate can be seen from different perspective. So there is no unique solution of this debate. But this debate has supplied the insights to policy makers and academicians undoubtedly.
Naim Ebna RahmanStudent à Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka
2. Outline of Presentation:
Introduction of Democracy & Development
History of Development & democracy in Bangladesh
Is development possible without democracy?
Either democracy contradictory with development?
Do the poor need democracy?
Present scenario of Democracy & Development in
Recommendations for overcoming this situation
Democracy or Development debate:
3. Democracy or Development debate:
Democracy: what is democracy?
Four elements of democracy: (1) The citizens choose and
replace the government through free and fair elections;
(2) active participation of the citizens in politics and civic
life; (3) protection of the human rights of all citizens; and
(4) rule of law
Characteristics of Democracy:
Legal equality, Freedom & rule of law. Every person has
equal value when they cast value. Freedom of speech,
freedom of media & freedom of joining in any political
parties. Receiving free & fair trial if accused of breaking
any laws of the country .
4. Democracy or Development debate:
Development: It has different dimensions. Such as
social , political, Economic and economic development
V. Rule of law
5. Democracy or Development debate:
2) Neutral and Independent EC
3) Good governance
4) Political freedom
B. Healthy environment for humans
C.Conservation of nonrenewable energy etc.
6. Democracy or Development debate:
History of democracy in Bangladesh:
The general election of Bangladesh: 1970,
1973,1979,1986, 1991, 1996( 15th
February), 1996, 2001,
2008 and 2014.
Unfinished Regime: 1973, 1979, 1986, 1996
Coups: Military coup of Khaled Mosharraf and counter
coup by colonel Taher, Coup by Major monjur and coup
by HM Ershad
Military regime: Major Jiyaur Rahman & HM Ershad
Caretaker Govt: From 2007-2009.
7. Democracy or Development debate:
Economic Development in Bangladesh: Between
2004 and 2014 , Bangladesh had average growth rate
6%. The economy is increasingly led by export-oriented
industrialization. The Bangladesh textile industry is the
second-largest in the world. Other key sectors
include pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding,
ceramics, leather goods and electronics. So Bangladesh
economy is now in very stable and decent position.
GDP growth: 6.2
GDP per capita: $1190
GDP by sector: Agriculture:19%; Industry: 30% and
Population below poverty line: 26.0%
Labor force by occupation: Agriculture:40%; Industry:
30%; and services: 30%
8. Democracy or Development debate:
Development & Democracy:
Democracy is a process and development is the outcome.
Democracy has a positive impact on economic and social
development through mostly indirect channels. The
channels include policy certainty, political stability, the
establishment and enforcement of rules that protect
property rights, the promotion of education, the ability to
promote private capital and the reduction of inequality.
From different studies it is found that democracies
experience more stable and steady growth patterns than
autocracies over time.
Modernization theorists argue that economic development is
a necessary precondition for the survivable of democracy
and democracy is the most important vehicle for the
9. Democracy or Development debate:
Development & Democracy:
Modernists assume that an increased per capita as a result
of a prosperous economy will create a middle class and
increase the level of education. This will create an
educated civil society and that will be more aware of the
political process and individual’s rights.
The modernist argument is augmented by the correlation
between democracy and strong economies. Evidence
has proved that democracies fail to thrive in poor
countries. Since 1946, forty-seven democracies
collapsed in poorer countries. Since 1946, forty-seven
democracies collapsed in poorer countries.
10. Democracy or Development debate:
Development without democracy:
The one region that is the absolute example of success is
east and south-east Asia where infamous Asian tiger
economies have thrived over the past 40 years. Japan ,
Hong Kong, Singapore , Taiwan and south korea all had
and some still have questionable political regimes in
power during their economic rise.
Singapore is still run by a one party system while Japan
and Taiwan were ruled for the longest time similarly by
one party. Hong kong was run by an oligarchy while
south korea had a dictatorship untill the late 1980’s.
11. Democracy or Development debate:
Development with democracy:
India is the world’s largest democracy largely based on the
British parliamentary system of government. India hasn’t
had a change in political regime since it was turned into
democracy since british collonial rule. Since its inception,
the india government has worked steadily to reduce
class, caste, religious and ethnic division within yhe
country. The move toward social equality, secular
principles and citizen participation along with extensive
educational reforms has allowed india to conduct with
Today India has one of the highest rates of foreign direct
investment and fastest growing economies in the world.
12. Democracy or Development debate:
Development without Democracy:
The view in the developmental state camp is that the key to
rapid growth and economic transformation is centralized
decision-making, a commitment to development, massive
investment, and an autonomous and capable bureaucracy.
This view builds on the tremendous developmental successes
of Asian countries, such as South Korea, Taiwan and Hong
Kong. From this perspective, countries centralized power and
kicked off development. Similar patterns can be found today
in China, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Vietnam. In fact, the
development successes of China provide a strong new
argument in favour of this approach.
13. Democracy or Development debate:
• David Booth, Director of the Africa Power and Politics
Programme and a research fellow at the Overseas
Development Institute in London. He underlines the need
for collective action and state efficiency rather than
democracy. The barriers to growth in Africa, Booth argues,
are clientilistic political systems with problems of collective
action. Research on service delivery in several countries
shows Rwanda to be effective with its topdown, disciplined
approach. There is a reluctance towards democracy,which
is seen to stand in opposition to the powerful, politically
neutral state devoted to growth.
14. Democracy or Development debate:
However, the arguments that democracy leads to economic
development fails when see the failing of Bangladesh.
Causes of failure:
Constant threat of political overthrows
Ineffective two parties system
Poverty and malnutrition etc.
15. Democracy or Development debate:
Present condition of Bangladesh:
Does democracy exist in Bangladesh?
Are we enjoying rapid development without
16. Democracy or Development debate:
o Free, fair & participatory election.
o Reform of political & social institutions (multi parties, EC)
o Ensure the the freedom of expressions & media
o Free trial or rule of law
o Ensure equal distribution of wealth
o Accelerate human development
o Continue development with sustainability
o Development & democracy is not contradictory rather