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Motivation (2)

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One can purchase a man's time, his physical presence, but can't buy his willingness to work. This can be achieved only through "Motivation".
Remember, that the ability to work is quite different from "the will to work". That's why, many talented person fail to succeed in life.

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Motivation (2)

  1. 1. Motivational Skills By – N.G.Palit
  2. 2. What is Motivation?  Motivation is derived from the word’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or the drives within the individuals.  It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.
  3. 3. What is Motivation?  Motivation is a psychological drive that directs a person towards an objective.  Motives are the ”whys” of behaviour.
  4. 4. What is Motivation?  Motivation is the internal drive to accomplish a particular goal. In a work setting motivation is what makes people want to work.
  5. 5. Motivation  One can purchase a man’s time, his physical presence, but can’t buy his willingness to work.  This can be achieved only through ”motivation”.  We must remember that ability to work is quite different from ”the will to work”.
  6. 6. Then what is Motivation?  Motivation is ’encouraging people to want to do, what you want them to do’.  ” Motivation is the act or process of stimulating to action, providing an incentive or motive, especially for an act”.
  7. 7. Motivation as a Process DIRECTION PERSISTENCEENERGY It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards attaining the goal. *Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. *Direction- Towards organizational goal. *Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
  8. 8. Basic Model of Motivation Needs or Expectation s Drive force (Behavior or Action) Result in To Achieve Desired Goals Which Providesfulfillments Feedback
  9. 9. Positive Motivation  Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks you are involved in.
  10. 10. Negative Motivation  Negative motivation involves undertaking tasks because there will be undesirable outcomes, e.g. failing in a subject if tasks are not completed
  11. 11. Early Theories of Motivation  Maslow’s need Hierarchy  Macgregor’s Theories X & Y  Herzberg’s two factors Theory  Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  12. 12. Maslow’s Need Theory  Maslow’s Need TheoryMaslow’s Need Theory • Motivation is a function of five basic needs- physiological safety, love, esteem, and self- actualization.
  13. 13. Maslow’s Theory  Maslow’s theory assumes that a person tries to satisfy the more basic needs before directing behavior towards satisfying the upper level needs.  Lower level needs must be satisfied before a higher order need begins to
  14. 14. Maslow’s Theory  A satisfied need is no more a motivator
  15. 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Physiological Needs Food & shelter  Security & Safety Needs Danger, threats  Social Needs Belonging & accepting  Self-Esteem Needs Recognition & Status  Self Actualization Creativity & Self-realization
  16. 16. Physiological or Survival Needs
  17. 17. Physiological Needs  Physiological needs are those required to sustain life. Examples:  Air  Water  Food  Sleep
  18. 18. Physiological Needs  Food, when hungry.  Job for a jobless person  Working conditions  Physical comforts.  Lunch & Rest breaks  Bath room facilities
  19. 19. Safety Needs
  20. 20. Safety Needs  Job Security  Seniority  Money  Retirement Benefits
  21. 21. Social Needs
  22. 22. Social Needs  Relationship with co-workers & Boss  Teams  Social Events  Fun.
  23. 23. Esteem Needs
  24. 24. Esteem/ Ego Needs  Opportunities for Growth & Advancement  Promotions  Job Titles  Recognition  Perks  Positive feed-back on performance  Training & Develpoment
  25. 25. Needs for Self- Actualization
  26. 26. Need for Self-Actualzation
  27. 27. Self-Actualization  Meaningful work  Self Improvement  Accomplishment  Improving others & Society  To become “All that you can be”
  28. 28. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory  Five levels of lower- higher-order needs. Individual must satisfy lower level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.  Satisfied needs no longer motivate.  Motivating a person depends on at what level of hierarchy he is.
  29. 29. Needs Hierarchy  1. It is based on needs and not wants.  2. When one need is fulfilled, the next higher(ascending) need is uncovered.  3. One can revert back(people operating in level 4 & 5 will revert back to level 2, if a feeling of insecurity takes over.)
  30. 30. Needs Hierarchy  4. Needs, which are not met are demonstrated in behaviour.  Managers should be able to pick- up the signals & take suitable action at the right time.
  31. 31. McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X  Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility and require close supervision. Theory Y  Assumes that workers can exercise self- direction, desire, responsibility and like to work.
  32. 32. McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory X assumptions:  Most people dislike work.  They need to be directed, controlled and sometimes threatened with punishment
  33. 33. Theory Y Theory Y assumptions:  They will exercise self-direction and self-control in achievement of organizational goal.  People are innovative & creative of solving organizational problems.  Minimize the role of supervision.
  34. 34. Motivational Theories X & Y * Theory Y- a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs.  Theory X- a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs.
  35. 35. McClelland’s Theory  McClelland’s NeedMcClelland’s Need TheoryTheory • The needs for achievement, affiliation, and power affect behavior.
  36. 36. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement Need for Achievement  The desire to excel and succeed
  37. 37. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Power Need for Power  The need to influence the behaviour of others.
  38. 38. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation  The desire for interpersonal relationship.
  39. 39. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory
  40. 40. Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory  Dr. Herzberg developed his theory that there are two factors at work in determining job satisfaction: Hygiene Factors:  Pay, working condition  Inter-personal relation.  Job security, Supervision, Company policy  Status.
  41. 41. Satisfaction Vs Dissatisfaction  Motivators  Achievement,  Growth, Recognition  Responsibility  Hygiene  Compensation  Supervision  Work Conditions  Fringes
  42. 42. Recognition & Motivation Each member values the recognition and reward of their performance
  43. 43. Herzberg’s Theory Motivators  Responsibility  Sense of achievement  Challenging work  Self-improvement  Recognition  Advancement
  44. 44. Provide Reward & Recognition
  45. 45. Herzberg’s Motivator- Hygiene Model  No Satisfaction Satisfaction Jobs that do not Jobs offering offer achievement achievement recognition, recognition,  stimulating work, stimulating work, responsibility, responsibility, and advancement. and advancement.
  46. 46. Herzberg’s Motivators- Hygiene Model   Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction Jobs with poor Jobs with good company policies, company policies, and administration, & administration,  technical supervision technical supervision, salary, interpersonal salary, interpersonal relationships with relationships with supervisors, and supervisors, and working conditions. working conditions.
  47. 47. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Physiological Safety & Security Love (Social) Esteem SA Growth Relatedness Existence
  48. 48. ERG Theory  Existence Needs  Related Needs  Growth Needs
  49. 49. Alderfer’s ERG Theory ExistencExistenc ee ExistencExistenc ee GrowthGrowth RelatednessRelatednessRelatednessRelatedness
  50. 50. Contemporary Motivational Strategies  1. Motivation through job design Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment  2. Motivation through incentives  3. Training & education  4. Motivation through empowerment
  51. 51. Provide productive and challenging work
  52. 52. Positive Reinforcement & Recognition  Praise  Positive Written Communication  Orientation & Training  Active Listening  Courtesy
  53. 53. Self Motivation Strategies  Take control of your expectations  Fight the urge to under-achieve  Learn to love the job, which you hate  Build immunity to cynicism  Strive to excell
  54. 54. Self Motivation
  55. 55. Self Motivation Creates a momentum to help you and your team achieve success
  56. 56. A Case Study  The manager of A.B.C.Ltd. Realized that the level of moral and motivation of their employees was very low and there was dissatisfaction among the employees. Labor productivity was also found to be very low. After investigating the causes of dissatisfaction, the managers decided that if employees were to be motivated, there was a need to establish and maintain good interpersonal relation, over and above good salary, job security, proper working conditions and supervision.
  57. 57. A Case Study So, they put in sincere efforts to improve all these factors during one year. Yet, surprisingly, they came to know that in spite of reduction in the degree of dissatisfaction, the level of morale and motivation was low and there was no significant increase in their productivity. Therefore, the managers were worried. What managerial problem is involved in the above case? Suggest a solution.
  58. 58. Sail smoothly with Motivation
  59. 59. Questions
  60. 60. Thank you By – N.G.Palit Benefits of motivating your team
  61. 61. At the End  If you liked this presentation, please feel free to send your valuable feed-back to me at: nandapalit@yahoo.co.in or call me at: 09949118910 (India)