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What is Smart grid

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What is Smart grid

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What is a Smart Grid?
The Smart Grid Enables the ElectriNetSM
Local Energy Networks
Electric Transportation
Low-Carbon Central Generation
What Should Be the Attributes of the Smart Grid?
Why Do We Need a Smart Grid?
Is the Smart Grid a “Green Grid”?
Alternative Views of a Smart Grid

What is a Smart Grid?
The Smart Grid Enables the ElectriNetSM
Local Energy Networks
Electric Transportation
Low-Carbon Central Generation
What Should Be the Attributes of the Smart Grid?
Why Do We Need a Smart Grid?
Is the Smart Grid a “Green Grid”?
Alternative Views of a Smart Grid

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What is Smart grid

  1. 1. Introduction to Smart Grids By Pasala Naresh JCE College of Engineering
  2. 2. Birds Eye View • Introduction • Evolution of Smart Grids • Draw backs of Traditional Power System • ElectriNetSM • Smart grid attributes • Challenges in smart grid implementation • Why do we need a smart grid? • Smart Grid is Green Grid? • Alternate Views of Smart Grid
  3. 3. Traditional Power System
  4. 4. Draw backs of Traditional Power Systems • Over strained and interregional bulk power transfer is limited • Cannot fully support the integration of renewable energy • Low reliability of power and outages • Fluctuating Power quality • Lack of Consumer Discipline • Increasing levels of Green house gases • Almost Zero Customer Participation • Low billing and collection • Less Efficiency
  5. 5. Evolution of Smart Grids Motivating Factors • Global Warming • Low reserve margins • High AT&C losses • Poorly planned distribution network • Low metering efficiency and bill collection • Power Theft and pilferage • Green house gas emissions • Peak Demand management Key Contributors • Electricity Act 2003 • APDRP • R-APDRP • Power System Privatization • Renewable Generations • ICT revolution
  6. 6. What is Smart grid? • A network created through the combination of Information Technology, Communication technology and Electrical Power System IT + CT + PS ICT + PS • A grid, remarkable in its intelligence and impressive in its scope which offers valuable technologies that can be deployed in the near future • In simple Words -> Smarter Power Grid (or) Intelligent Grid
  7. 7. Definition • The term “Smart Grid” was coined by Andres E. Carvallo on April 24, 2007 at an IDC energy conference in Chicago. • Definition: Smart grid is integration of an electric power system, communication network, advanced Sensing, metering, measurement infrastructure, complete decision support and human interfaces software and hardware to monitor, control and manage the creation, distribution, storage and consumption of energy. The smart grid is not a thing but a vision to achieve !!
  8. 8. What smart grid does? • Decentralization of Generation resources • Integration of all sources of energy, mainly renewable • Continuous monitoring and feedback • Establishes a twoway communicationbetween utilities and the consumers • Reduces stress on power system infrastructure • Manages Peak loads • Continuous Self-healing
  9. 9. Smart Grid Vision CHP - Combined heat and power An efficient and clean approach to generating electric power and useful thermal energy from a single fuelsource.
  10. 10. Smart Grid-Attributes ,HTLS, DLR, WAMS, FACTS and HVDC
  11. 11. Stages in smart grid evolution
  12. 12. Smart City Attributes Smart building: With Roof top solar, micro grid model, e-gas Smart Home: Home automation, security and monitoring systems Water Management: Rain water harvesting, water treatment plants, etc., Waste Management: Bio-gas generation plants from waste, Sewage treatment plants Def: A city with high- tech communication capabilities using digital technology to enhance performance, reduce costs and resource consumption, and improve overall system efficiency.
  13. 13. Challenges in implementing Smart Grids • Policy and regulation • Ageing and outdated Infrastructure • Lack of integrated communication platform • High Capital and operating costs • Big Data Handling • Compatibility of older equipment • Lack of standards for interoperability • Smart Grid Cybersecurity • Lack of Smart consumers
  14. 14. Smart Grid Technologies Transmission Automation • Dynamic Line rating • High Temperature Low sag conductors • HVDC and FACTS • Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS) • Renewable Energy Management System • Energy Storage Technologies • UHV AC – 800kV and 1200kV • Sub Station Automation Distribution Automation • Smart metering and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) • Demand Response Programs/ Demand side management • Peak load management • Outage management • Power Quality Management
  15. 15. ElectriNetSM
  16. 16. The ElectriNet will balance supply and demand using storage, renewable, demand response, electric transportation, and enhanced power delivery technologies. ElectriNetSM
  17. 17. g Local Energy Networks Examples of local energy networks include: a factory, a neighborhood, or a group buildings.  They incorporate the sensing, monitoring, and data that enables the local area’s power to be self-healing, secure, self-correcting, etc.  Local energy networks increase the independence, flexibility, and intelligence for optimizing the performance of energy use and management at the local level. With the move to decentralized electric production, local energy networks will provide the ability to produce more power close to where it is consumed.
  18. 18. g Local Energy Networks
  19. 19. Local Energy Networks Electric Transportation Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV’s) can be recharged during low cost off-peak hours. PHEV’s represent both a controllable load and on-site storage of electricity. With 72% of U.S. oil consumption going to transportation, electric vehicles represent an opportunity to reduce dependency on foreign oil and for consumers to save money. Current technology can run a PHEV on the equivalent of 75¢ per gallon gasoline! They draw power at a rate of 1.4-2KW which is easily supplied by standard home wiring. Note that a standard 20A, 120V socket is 2.4KW
  20. 20. Local Energy Networks Electric Transportation
  21. 21. An essential component of the ElectriNetsm is low-carbon central generation. There will be a need for large scale central electricity production for the foreseeable future. The ElectriNetsm makes possible multiple central generation sources linked by high voltage connections. If it is a good production day at the wind farm or a sunny day at the photovoltaic power plant that energy can be used. The Smart Grid will help to provide long distance, low loss transmission as well as local storage. Low-Carbon Central Generation
  22. 22. Low-Carbon Central Generation
  23. 23. Attributes of the Smart Grid Absolute reliability of supply Optimal use of bulk power generation and storage in combination with distributed resources and controllable / dispatchable consumer loads to assure lowest cost Minimal environmental impact of electricity production and delivery Reduction in electricity used in the generation of electricity and an increase in the efficiency of the power delivery system and in the efficiency and effectiveness of end users. Resiliency of supply and delivery from physical and cyber attacks and major natural phenomena (hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, etc.) Assuring optimal power quality for all consumers who require it. Monitoring of all critical components of the power system to enable automated maintenance and outage prevention
  24. 24. Smart Grid-Attributes ,HTLS, DLR, WAMS, FACTS and HVDC
  25. 25. The grid has not grown as fast as power production and use. Congestion, outages, roving brown-outs have resulted. If the grid is not improved this trend will accelerate. The traditional grid is designed for centralized production and downstream distribution. Modern generation is increasingly distributed Traditional generation plants can be reliably scheduled, but renewable resources tend to work on their own schedules. Technology that can improve power distribution that was not available when the traditional grid was designed and built is now available Why Do We Need a Smart Grid?
  26. 26. Smart Grid Benefits
  27. 27. Is the Smart Grid a “Green Grid” ? There are environmental impacts to power production. Global warming due to increased levels of CO2 in the atmosphere might be one of them. The scientific community is not in agreement over CO2 and global warming / climate change. Google “climate gate”. Most people agree that pollution is bad and we should be good stewards of the Earth. Sulfur, ash, and other pollutants in the atmosphere and deforested land due to strip mining are issues.  The Smart Grid and the renewable energy sources that it enables are environmentally friendly. Lower transmission and distribution losses means less coal and oil needs to be burnt to meet our needs
  28. 28. Alternative Views of a Smart Grid Just as there is more than one definition of the Smart Grid, there is more than one vision of what the Smart Grid should be. There are many technology options that could be used. Capgemini’s Vision (www.capgemini.com/energy): Focus should be on 4 main activities: 1. Gather Data: from many sources on the grid. 2. Analysis / forecasting: the data for operational and business purposes. 3. Monitor / Manage / act: an operational system that triggers predefined procedures that log or take action. 4. Rebuild the grid to support bi-directional power flow.
  29. 29. Alternative Views of a Smart Grid IBM’s Vision (www.ibm.com/iibv) Taken from consumer perspective. Not all customers are the same. There will be a steady progression toward a “Participatory Network” of intelligent network connected devices, distributed generation, and consumer management tools IntelliGridSM (www.epri-intelligrid.com) A consortium created by EPRI to pave the way to the IntelliGridSM. Partners are utilities, manufacturers, and representatives of the public. Objective: Greater consumer choice and rapid advances in communications, computing, and electronics are promoting similar changes in the power industry. A growing knowledge-based economy requires a digital power delivery system that links information technology with energy delivery .
  30. 30. Alternative Views of a Smart Grid The Modern Grid Strategy (www.netl.doe.gov): The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) is the manager of the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS). There function is to foster a national vision for the grid among all stakeholders. GridWiseTM (www.ElectricDistribution.ctc.con): The Electric Grid Distribution program of the DOE supports distribution grid modernization, through development and use of advanced sensor, communication, control and information technologies to enable GridWiseTM operations of all distribution systems and components for interoperability and seamless integration
  31. 31. Alternative Views of a Smart Grid General Electric Vision (www.gepower.com): GE sees the smart grid as a family of network control systems and asset-management tools, empowered by sensors, communication pathways and information tools. UK SuperGen Initiative (www.supergen-networks.org.uk): A consortium that has recognized two broad challenges: First, there are engineering problems created by embedding renewable energy sources into a distribution network and second there is a need to develop a market and regulatory environment to encourage the use of renewables The Galvin Initiative (www.galvinpower.org): Inspired and sponsored by Robert Galvin (former CEO of Motorola). Wants to achieve a consumer focused power system that never fails.
  32. 32. Alternative Views of a Smart Grid Electricite de France (EDF) Power-Strada EDF proposes to “invent the smart grid”. It defines it as integrating distributed energy resources with dispersed intelligence and advanced automation. European Union Smart Grid (www.smartgrids.eu): The EU is undertaking various activities to overcome barriers to the development of smart grids in Europe

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