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PRESUPPOSITIONIT IS SOMETHING THAT THE SPEAKER ASSUMES TO BETHE CASE PRIOR TO MAKING AN UTTERANCE.EntailmentIt is something that logically follows fromwhat is asserted in the utterance.Sentences, not speakers, hve entailments.Speakers, not sentences, havepresuppositions
TYPES OF PRESUPPOSITIONS Potential presuppositions Existential presuppositions Factive presupposition Lexical presupposition -Structural presupposition A counterfactual presupposition Non factive presupposition
TYPES1. Potential presuppositions.:They can only become actual presuppositions in contexts with speakers.2. Existential presuppositions: They are assumed to be present in possessive constructions and in any definite noun phrase.3. Factive presupposition.:The presupposed information following a verb like know can be treated as a fact.
4. LEXICAL PRESUPPOSITION:The use of one form with its asserted meaning is conventionally interpreted with the presupposition that another (non-asserted) meaning is understood. For example: someone managed to do something; in this case the presupposition is related to the fact that the person was successful in doing so. In the following sentence: someone didnt manage to do something, the asserted meaning is related to the fact that the person didnt succeed, the non-asserted meaning is related to the fact that the person tried.
5. STRUCTURAL PRESUPPOSITION: Certain sentence structures have been analyzed as conventionally and regularly presupposing that part of the structure is already assumed to be true. For example: in the question Where did he leave? the presupposition is that he left.
6. NON FACTIVE PRESUPPOSITIONIt is one that is assumed not to be true. The verbs imagine and dream are used in those cases. For example: I imagined that I was in Hawai; I dreamed that I was rich.
7. A COUNTERFACTUAL PRESUPPOSITION In this case NOT ONLY what is presupposed is not true but it is the opposite of what is true. The use of second conditionals are examples of a counterfactual presupposition
NASEEM ULLAHROLL NO 31242ND SEMESTERLAHORE LEADS UNIVERSITY