• The United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland (the UK) is situated off the
north-west coast of Europe.
• It consists of four countries which are England,
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their
capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and
• The UK is an island state. The two main islands
are Great Britain (where England, Scotland and
Wales are situated) and Ireland. Northern
Ireland and the independent Irish Republic are
there. The two islands are separated by the
• The UK is separated from the continent by the
English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The UK is
also washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and
the North Sea in the east.
• The area of the UK is 244.100 square kilometres.
• The most important rivers are the Thames, the
Severn and the Clyde.
• The UK is a constitutional monarchy with the
Queen being the head of State. However, her
powers are limited by the Parliament which
consists of the House of Lords and the House of
• The United Kingdom's capital is London.
• Great Britain was originally an agricultural and
sheep-farming country. Now it’s a highly-
developed industrial country. It exports
machinery, vessels, motors and other goods. The
chief industries are shipbuilding and textile.
• Great Britain is also a country of long-lasting
traditions, customs and rich culture. The
education received in such universities as Oxford
or Cambridge is recognized as one of the best in
• The flag of the United Kingdom is known as
the Union Jack. It is made up of three crosses:
the cross of St. George (the patron saint of
England), the cross of St. Andrew (the patron
saint of Scotland) and the cross of St. Patrick
(the patron saint of Ireland).
National Symbols of the UK
• The symbol of England is the red rose.
• The symbol of Scotland is the thistle.
• The symbols of Wales are the leek and the
• The symbol of Ireland is the shamrock.