Management Information System (MIS)

Navneet Jingar
Navneet JingarSenior Research Analyst à Main Data Group
Management Information
System (MIS)

Presented By:

Navneet Jingar
Contents


Data, Information and System







Information System (IS)






Components of an IS
Types of IS
Interrelationship among systems

Management Information System (MIS)







Information – a critical resource
Data and Information
Types and Characteristics of useful Information
System

Broader Definitions and concepts
Output of MIS
Functional View
Impact of MIS

MIS Planning and Development






MIS Development outlook
Pointers for MIS Design
MIS Planning
Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
Information is critical
The information we have
is not what we want,
The information we want
is not the information we need,
The information we need
is not available.
Information is a Resource
It is scarce
 It has a cost
 It has alternative uses
 There is an opportunity cost factor
involved if one does not process
information

Why need Information?
To ensure effective and
efficient decision - leading
to prosperity of the
Organization.
Data and Information
Data vs. Information




Data
 A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or an image
 Represents something (quantities, actions and objects) in the real
world
 The raw materials in the production of information
Information
 Data that have meaning within a context
 Data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the
recipient and is of real or perceived value in the current or in the
prospective actions or decisions of the recipient.

Data Manipulation

Example: customer survey
 Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions
in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.
 When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.
Types and classification of Information

Information classification
Action

v/s no-action
v/s non recurring
Internal v/s external
Planning Information: standards, norms, specifications
Control information – reporting the status of an activity thru feedback mechanism
Knowledge information – library reports, research studies
Recurring
Characteristics of Useful Information
Information Presentation (An Art)
Data may be collected in the best possible way and processed
analytically, however, if not presented properly, it may
fail to communicate any value to recipient.
Communication of Information is affected by the methods
of transmission, the manner of information handling and
the limitations & constraints of recipients.
The methods used to improve communication are:
a)
Summarization: Too much information causes noise and
distortion i.e confusion, misunderstanding and missing of
purpose. Summarization suppresses the noise and
distortion.
b)
Message routing: The principal here is to distribute
information to all those who are accountable for the
subsequent actions in any manner. This is achieved by
sending the copies of the reports or documents to all the
concerned people or users.
System
System: A set of components that work together to
achieve a common goal. Computer-based Information
Systems take data as raw material, process it, and
produce information as output.
Contents


Data, Information and System







Information System (IS)






Components of an IS
Types of IS
Interrelationship among systems

Management Information System (MIS)







Information – a critical resource
Data and Information
Types and Characteristics of useful Information
System

Broader Definitions and concepts
Output of MIS
Functional View
Impact of MIS

MIS Planning and Development






MIS Development outlook
Pointers for MIS Design
MIS Planning
Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
Components of an Information System
A Networked Information System:
Three-Tier Architecture
Corporate
Databases

Corporate
Headquarters

Marketing
and Sales

Finance

Mainframe
Divisional
Minicomputers
with Divisional
Databases
Production

Divisional
Databases

Regional
Office
Workstations

Plant Minicomputers
Salesforce
Notebooks

Local Area Network:
PCs with Local Databases

Telecommunications
Link
Types of Information Systems
Types of Information Systems






Operational-level systems support operational managers
by keeping track of the elementary activities and
transactions of the organization, such as sales, receipts,
cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, and the flow of
materials in a factory.
Management-level systems serve the monitoring,
controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities
of middle managers. The principal question addressed by
such systems is this: Are things working well?
Strategic-level systems help senior management tackle
and address strategic issues and long-term trends, both in
the firm and in the external environment.
Types of Information Systems
Transaction Processing System
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS):
 Basic business systems that serve the operational level
 A computerized system that performs and records the daily
routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the
business
Management Information System


Serve middle management



Structured and semi-structured decisions



Provide reports on firm’s current performance, based
on data from TPS



Past and Present Data



Internal Orientation



Provide answers to routine questions with predefined
procedure for answering them



Typically have little analytic capability
Decision Support System



Serve middle management
Support non-routine decision making


E.g. What is impact on production schedule if
December sales doubled?



Often use external information as well as
information from TPS and MIS



Processing is interactive in nature



Output in form of Decision analysis



Example: Contract Cost Analysis
Executive Support Systems










Support senior management – Strategic Level
Address non-routine decisions requiring judgment,
evaluation, and insight
Incorporate data about external events (e.g. new tax laws
or competitors) as well as summarized information from
internal MIS and DSS
User "seductive" interfaces; Users' time is a premium
What if capabilities abound
Input in form of Aggregate data
Processing is interactive and output in form of projections
Examples




ESS that provides minute-to-minute view of firm’s financial
performance as measured by working capital, accounts receivable,
accounts payable, cash flow, and inventory.
5-year operating plan
Interrelationship Among Systems

The various types of systems in the organization have interdependencies. TPS are major producers of information
that is required by many other systems in the firm, which, in turn, produce information for other systems. These
different types of systems are loosely coupled in most business firms, but increasingly firms are using new
technologies to integrate information that resides in many different systems.
Contents


Data, Information and System







Information System (IS)






Components of an IS
Types of IS
Interrelationship among systems

Management Information System (MIS)







Information – a critical resource
Data and Information
Types and Characteristics of useful Information
System

Broader Definitions and concepts
Output of MIS
Functional View
Impact of MIS

MIS Planning and Development






MIS Development outlook
Pointers for MIS Design
MIS Planning
Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
MIS - Definition and Concept
Right Information
To the right person
At the right place
At the right time
In the right form
At the right cost
The three sub-components
Management, Information and System
- together bring out the focus clearly & effectively.
System emphasizing a fair degree of integration and a holistic view;
Information stressing on processed data in the context in which it is
used by end users;
Management focusing on the ultimate use of such information
systems for managerial decision making.
MIS – Definition and Concept
A management information system (MIS) is system of
collecting, processing, storing, disseminating and utilizing
data in the form of information needed to carry out the
functions of management.
Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and
includes (but is not limited to):







Decision support systems,
Resource and people management applications,
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP),
Supply Chain Management (SCM),
Customer Relationship Management (CRM),
project management and database retrieval applications.
Difference between management information
systems and information systems
The terms MIS and IS are often confused. IS may include systems
that are not intended for decision making. In effect, MIS must
not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not
going as well as planned where that is the case







Information system applied to management context is called MIS.
IS can be applied to any area of business while MIS is applicable
for managerial decision-making.
IS means use of hardware and software for any business. MIS can
be used in any form - even manual reports, which aid decisionmaking
MIS is used to analyze other information systems applied in
operational activities in the organization.
MIS summarize and report on the company’s basic operations.
The basic transaction data from TPS are compressed and reported
Outputs of MIS


Scheduled reports




Key Indicator Report




Summarizes the previous day’s critical
activities

Demand Report




Produced periodically, or on schedule (daily,
weekly, monthly)

Gives certain report at manager's request

Exception Report


Automatically produced when a situation is
unusual or requires management action
MIS – Functional View
How MIS Obtain Data from TPS:
How MIS Obtain their Data from the Organization’s TPS:

In the system illustrated by this diagram, three TPS supply
summarized transaction data to the MIS reporting system at the
end of the time period. Managers gain access to the organizational
data through the MIS, which provides them with the appropriate
reports.
Sample MIS Report

This report, showing summarized annual sales data, was produced by the MIS in previous slide
Impact of MIS












Management of marketing, finance, production and personnel becomes
more efficient, the tracking and monitoring becomes easy
Helps in understanding of business itself, MIS begins with definition of data
and its attributes – uses data dictionary and brings common understanding
of terms and terminology in organization
MIS calls for systemization of business operations – leads to streamlining
of operations, brings discipline in its operations everyone is required to
follow
Since the goals of MIS are driven from organization goals, it helps
indirectly pulling everyone in organization towards corporate goals by
providing relevant information to the people in organization
MIS helps to monitor results and performances
MIS provides alerts, in some cases daily, to managers at each level of the
organization, on all deviations between results and pre-established
objectives and budgets.
IT enabled MIS is partly responsible for the PARADIGM shift (A change, a
new model,) from support to contributing to an organizations profitability
Contents


Data, Information and System







Information System (IS)






Components of an IS
Types of IS
Interrelationship among systems

Management Information System (MIS)







Information – a critical resource
Data and Information
Types and Characteristics of useful Information
System

Broader Definitions and concepts
Output of MIS
Functional View
Impact of MIS

MIS Planning and Development






MIS Development outlook
Pointers for MIS design
MIS Planning
Software Development Life Cycle
Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
MIS Development Outlook
Security
Corporate
Corporate
Strategy
Strategy

Ethics/
Ethics/
Privacy
Privacy

MIS
Strategy
and Plan

Internal
Systems
Development

Internal
Systems
Operations
Implementation

Outsourced
Systems
Development

Outsourced
Systems
Operations
Infrastructure
Pointers for MIS Design



To take care for data problems (bias and error) by high level validations,
checking and controlling the procedures.
Due regard to the communication theory of transmitting the information
from the source to the destination.





To provide specific attention to quality parameters – Utility, Satisfaction,
Error and Bias









Handling of noise and distortion by summarization and message routing
Ensuring that no information is suppressed or over emphasized

By controlling inputs to the MIS on the factors of impartiality, validity, reliability,
consistency and age

Should make a distinction between the different kinds of information for
the purpose of communication. Say an action, a decision oriented
information should be distinguished from a non action/knowledge-oriented
information.
To recognize some aspects of human capabilities as a decision maker.
Capabilities differ from manager to manager and the designer should
skillfully deal with them.
It should meet the needs of the total organization.
Recognizing that the information may be misused if it falls into wrong
hands, the MIS design should have the features of filtering, blocking,
suppressions, and delayed delivery.
MIS Planning
A very important fundamental concept of MIS planning is that the
organization's strategic plan (Business Plan) should be the basis
for MIS strategic plan.
Alignment of MIS strategy with organizational strategy is one of the
central problems of MIS planning.
The Information Master Plan establishes a framework for all detailed
information system planning.
Information Master Plan typically has one long-range plan for three to five
years (or more) and one a short-range plan for one year.
The long-range portion provides general guidelines for direction and shortrange portion provides a basis for specific accountability as to operational
and financial performance.
In general, plan contains four major sections:





Information system goals, objectives and architecture (assessment of
organizational context);
Inventory of current capabilities;
Forecast of development affecting the plan;
The specific plan.
Systems Development Life Cycle
(SDLC)
Activities that go into production of an MIS to an organizational
problem or opportunity:

Project definition Determines whether or not the organization
has a problem and whether or not the problem can be solved by
launching a system project.

Systems study Analyzes the problems of existing systems,
defines the objectives to be attained by a solution and evaluates
various solution alternatives.

Design Logical and physical design specifications for the
systems solution are produced.

Programming Specifications from design stage translated into
program code.

Installation The final steps required to put a system into
operation or production: testing, training and conversion.

Post-implementation System is used and evaluated while in
production and is modified to make improvements or meet new
requirements.
SDLC
Project definition & Systems study
Systems Analysis (study)
The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an
information system; describes what a system should do.


Feasibility study A way to determine whether the solution is achievable,
given the organization's resources and constraints.



Technical feasibility Determines whether a proposed solution can be
implemented with available hardware, software, and technical resources.



Economic feasibility Determines whether the benefits of a proposed
solution outweigh the costs.



Operational feasibility Determines whether a proposed solution is
desirable within the existing managerial and organizational framework.



Information requirements A detailed statement of the information
needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what
information, and when, where and how the information is needed
Systems Design
Phase of detailing how a system will meet the information requirements
determined by the systems analysis. This phase is broken into two sub
phases:
1.
Logical design 1st phase, lays out the components of the information
system and their relationship to each other as they would appear to
users.
2.

Physical design 2nd phase, the process of translating the abstract
logical model into the specific technical design for the new system

Tools and Techniques used for designing:
Flow Chart
Dataflow Diagrams (DFDs)
Data Dictionary
Structured English
Decision Table
Decision Tree
Design specifications include: Output, Input, User interface, Database
design, Manual procedures , Documentation etc..
Construction (Programming &
Testing)
Programming
The process of translating the system specifications prepared during the
design stage into code
 Test plan
Prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it
includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on
the system.
 Testing
The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system
produces the desired results under known conditions.










Unit testing
The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called
program testing.
System testing
Tests the functioning of the information systems as a whole in order to
determine if discrete modules will function together as planned.
Acceptance testing
Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a
production setting.

Documentation
Descriptions of how an information system works from both the technical
and the end-user standpoint.
Installation










Conversion
The process of changing from the old system to the new system.
Conversion plan
Provides a schedule of all activities required to install a new system.
Parallel strategy
A safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system
and its potential replacement are run together for time until everyone is
assured that the new one functions correctly.
Direct cut-over
A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces
the old one on an appointed day.
Pilot study
A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the
organization until it is proven to be fully functional; only then can the
conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place.
Phased approach
Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by
organizational units.
Post-implementation




Production
The stage after the new system is installed and
the conversion is complete; during this time the
system is reviewed by users and technical
specialists to determine how well it has met its
original goals.
Maintenance
Changes in hardware, software, documentation,
or procedures to production system to correct
errors, meet new requirements, or improve
processing efficiency
Software Development
Methodology: Approaches
The software development methodology is
an approach used by organizations and
project teams to apply the software
development methodology framework.
Development Approach – Waterfall
Model
STAGES

END PRODUCTS

Planning/definition

Project proposal report

Study/analysis

System proposal report

Design

Design specifications
Program code

Programming
Installation
Maintenance
Milestone 2
Design
solution
decision

Milestone 1
Project initiation
Year 1

Testing and installation
Postimplementation audit

Milestone 4 Production
decision

OPERATIONS

Milestone 3 Design
specification sign-off
Year 2

3-8 year lifespan
Development Approach – Waterfall
Model
Sequential development approach, in which development is seen as flowing
steadily downwards (like a waterfall).
Advantages
 Simple and easy to use.
 Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific
deliverables and a review process.
 Phases are processed and completed one at a time.
 Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well
understood.
Disadvantages
 Adjusting scope during the life cycle can kill a project
 No working software is produced until late during the life cycle.
 High amounts of risk and uncertainty.
 Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects.
 Poor model for long and ongoing projects.
 Poor model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of
changing.
Development Approach – Incremental
Model
Development Approach – Incremental
Model
The incremental model is an intuitive approach to the waterfall model.
Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a
“multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily
managed iterations. Each iteration passes through the requirements,
design, implementation and testing phases.
Advantages
 Generates working software quickly and early during the software life
cycle.
 More flexible – less costly to change scope and requirements.
 Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration.
 Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled
during its iteration.
 Each iteration is an easily managed milestone.
Disadvantages
 Each phase of an iteration is rigid and do not overlap each other.
 Problems may arise pertaining to system architecture because not all
requirements are gathered up front for the entire software life cycle.
Development Approach - Spiral Model
Development Approach – Spiral Model
The spiral model is similar to the incremental model, with more
emphasis placed on risk analysis. The spiral model has four
phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. A
software project repeatedly passes through these phases in
iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral,
starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk
is assessed. Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral.
Advantages
 High amount of risk analysis
 Good for large and mission-critical projects.
 Software is produced early in the software life cycle.
Disadvantages
 Can be a costly model to use.
 Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.
 Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
 Doesn’t work well for smaller projects.
Development Approach :
Prototyping
Prototype: Preliminary working version of information system for demonstration,
evaluation purposes
Prototyping: Process of building experimental system quickly for demonstration and
evaluation. Small-scale mock-ups of the system are developed following an iterative
modification process until the prototype evolves to meet the users’ requirements


Advantages:

Useful in designing system’s end user interface
 Often faster
 Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller
segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process
 User is involved throughout the development process, which increases the
likelihood of user acceptance of the final implementation.



Problems:


Omission of basic requirements.



Lack of documentation, testing.



Prototyping tools may not be capable of developing complex systems.
Alternative Methodology: ObjectOriented Development:









Uses the object as the basic unit of systems
analysis and design
Objects combine data, and processes used on the
data
Use class and inheritance to group objects and
apply common embedded procedures
Development is iterative and incremental
Analysis identifies objects, classes of objects, and
behavior of objects.
Alternative Methodology:
End-User Development










Development by end users with little or no help
formal assistance from technical specialist
Allows users to specify their own business
needs
Doesn’t require IT staff so is more rapid
Appropriate mainly for smaller applications
Generally not well designed, easily maintained
or efficient software
Creates islands of software in firm, and
redundancies
Alternative Methodology:
Acquiring Software Packages
Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packages






Set of prewritten application software
programs that are commercially available
Modification of software package to meet
organization’s needs may be required

Customization:




“Tailor and off the rack suit”
Great if you are a close fit
Ends up more trouble than worth if you aren’t
close fit..
Alternative Methodology :
Outsourcing
The purchase of an externally produced good or
service that was previously produced internally
 Advantages






Economy
Predictability
Frees up human resources

Disadvantages




Loss of control
Vulnerability of strategic information
Dependency
Thank You
1 sur 54

Recommandé

Management information system par
Management information systemManagement information system
Management information systemSikander Saini
175.1K vues63 diapositives
Management Information System ( MIS ) par
Management Information System ( MIS )Management Information System ( MIS )
Management Information System ( MIS )Siddhesh Palkar
35.8K vues18 diapositives
Management information system (MIS) par
Management information system (MIS)Management information system (MIS)
Management information system (MIS)Bhupen Meena
2.6K vues23 diapositives
introduction to management information systems (MIS) par
introduction to management information systems (MIS)introduction to management information systems (MIS)
introduction to management information systems (MIS)Sujan Oli
7.5K vues31 diapositives
Information System & Business applications par
Information System & Business applicationsInformation System & Business applications
Information System & Business applicationsShubham Upadhyay
9K vues119 diapositives
Management information system par
Management information systemManagement information system
Management information systemAnamika Sonawane
63.5K vues28 diapositives

Contenu connexe

Tendances

Management Information System PPT par
Management Information System PPTManagement Information System PPT
Management Information System PPTrajeshrvth60
197.5K vues32 diapositives
Management information systems par
Management information systemsManagement information systems
Management information systemsnavin1
64.7K vues134 diapositives
MIS concepts par
MIS conceptsMIS concepts
MIS conceptsSajan N. Thomas
7.7K vues140 diapositives
Management Information Systems par
Management Information SystemsManagement Information Systems
Management Information SystemsRam Dutt Shukla
9.4K vues58 diapositives
Mis Mac par
Mis MacMis Mac
Mis Macagoshgopal
8.4K vues53 diapositives
MIS Presentation par
MIS PresentationMIS Presentation
MIS PresentationDhiren Gala
74.3K vues35 diapositives

Tendances(20)

Management Information System PPT par rajeshrvth60
Management Information System PPTManagement Information System PPT
Management Information System PPT
rajeshrvth60197.5K vues
Management information systems par navin1
Management information systemsManagement information systems
Management information systems
navin164.7K vues
MIS Presentation par Dhiren Gala
MIS PresentationMIS Presentation
MIS Presentation
Dhiren Gala74.3K vues
Mis & Decision Making par Arun Mishra
Mis & Decision MakingMis & Decision Making
Mis & Decision Making
Arun Mishra38.6K vues
Business information system with explaination par Alana Abraham
Business information system with explainationBusiness information system with explaination
Business information system with explaination
Alana Abraham10.9K vues
Management information system ( MIS ) par QualitativeIn
Management information system ( MIS )Management information system ( MIS )
Management information system ( MIS )
QualitativeIn20.6K vues
Characteristic of management information system par Manoj Kumar
Characteristic of management information systemCharacteristic of management information system
Characteristic of management information system
Manoj Kumar3.2K vues
Six major types of information systems par Mohanraj V
Six major types of information systemsSix major types of information systems
Six major types of information systems
Mohanraj V15K vues
Concepts and components of information system par Rohit Kumar
Concepts  and components of information systemConcepts  and components of information system
Concepts and components of information system
Rohit Kumar28.4K vues
strategic information system par Prateek Singh
strategic information systemstrategic information system
strategic information system
Prateek Singh32.7K vues
Management information system par Ramya Sree
Management  information systemManagement  information system
Management information system
Ramya Sree54K vues
Executive information system ( eis ) par Puja Dhakal
Executive information system ( eis )Executive information system ( eis )
Executive information system ( eis )
Puja Dhakal3.2K vues

En vedette

Mis ppt par
Mis pptMis ppt
Mis pptakhil_agarwal35
28.9K vues42 diapositives
Information System Concepts & Types of Information Systems par
Information System Concepts & Types of Information SystemsInformation System Concepts & Types of Information Systems
Information System Concepts & Types of Information SystemsVR Talsaniya
73K vues112 diapositives
Types Of Information Systems par
Types Of Information SystemsTypes Of Information Systems
Types Of Information SystemsManuel Ardales
417.3K vues46 diapositives
Types o f information systems par
Types o f information systemsTypes o f information systems
Types o f information systemsBimbashree K.G
48K vues61 diapositives
information system lecture notes par
information system lecture notesinformation system lecture notes
information system lecture notesnaeem_mnm
32.6K vues18 diapositives
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePoint par
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePointBuilding a Project Management Information System with SharePoint
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePointASPE, Inc.
36.2K vues22 diapositives

En vedette(20)

Information System Concepts & Types of Information Systems par VR Talsaniya
Information System Concepts & Types of Information SystemsInformation System Concepts & Types of Information Systems
Information System Concepts & Types of Information Systems
VR Talsaniya73K vues
Types Of Information Systems par Manuel Ardales
Types Of Information SystemsTypes Of Information Systems
Types Of Information Systems
Manuel Ardales417.3K vues
information system lecture notes par naeem_mnm
information system lecture notesinformation system lecture notes
information system lecture notes
naeem_mnm32.6K vues
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePoint par ASPE, Inc.
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePointBuilding a Project Management Information System with SharePoint
Building a Project Management Information System with SharePoint
ASPE, Inc.36.2K vues
IS740 Chapter 04 par iDocs
IS740 Chapter 04IS740 Chapter 04
IS740 Chapter 04
iDocs3.5K vues
ERP for garments(Application of software in Textile) par Sadia Textile
ERP for garments(Application of software in Textile)ERP for garments(Application of software in Textile)
ERP for garments(Application of software in Textile)
Sadia Textile3.4K vues
Application of mis in textile industry par Majharul Islam
Application of mis in textile industryApplication of mis in textile industry
Application of mis in textile industry
Majharul Islam15.8K vues
Mis system analysis and system design par Rahul Hedau
Mis   system analysis and system designMis   system analysis and system design
Mis system analysis and system design
Rahul Hedau35.3K vues
MIS (Management Information System) in Fashion & Textile Industry par Anuradha Sajwan
MIS (Management Information System) in Fashion & Textile IndustryMIS (Management Information System) in Fashion & Textile Industry
MIS (Management Information System) in Fashion & Textile Industry
Anuradha Sajwan21.7K vues
Multiple approaches to structure of mis par Mohammed Irshad P
Multiple approaches to structure of misMultiple approaches to structure of mis
Multiple approaches to structure of mis
Mohammed Irshad P16.7K vues
Operation Support System (Erp, Scm, Crm ) par noviantokuswandi
Operation Support System (Erp, Scm, Crm )Operation Support System (Erp, Scm, Crm )
Operation Support System (Erp, Scm, Crm )
noviantokuswandi3.2K vues
System Analysis And Design Management Information System par nayanav
System Analysis And Design Management Information SystemSystem Analysis And Design Management Information System
System Analysis And Design Management Information System
nayanav33.7K vues

Similaire à Management Information System (MIS)

Mis i unit par
Mis i unitMis i unit
Mis i unitDr. Vardhan choubey
610 vues32 diapositives
Management Information System par
Management Information System Management Information System
Management Information System Ajilal
10.9K vues97 diapositives
Mis 03 management information systems par
Mis 03  management information systemsMis 03  management information systems
Mis 03 management information systemsTushar B Kute
10.9K vues23 diapositives
Management information system Unit 1 par
Management information system Unit 1Management information system Unit 1
Management information system Unit 1Sharda University Greater Noida
6.4K vues31 diapositives
Managment information system par
Managment information systemManagment information system
Managment information systemAoonRaza1
68 vues21 diapositives

Similaire à Management Information System (MIS)(20)

Management Information System par Ajilal
Management Information System Management Information System
Management Information System
Ajilal10.9K vues
Mis 03 management information systems par Tushar B Kute
Mis 03  management information systemsMis 03  management information systems
Mis 03 management information systems
Tushar B Kute10.9K vues
Managment information system par AoonRaza1
Managment information systemManagment information system
Managment information system
AoonRaza168 vues
information system introduction par ARSHIYA KHAN
information system introductioninformation system introduction
information system introduction
ARSHIYA KHAN7.2K vues
B.com 2 nd sem e commerce (tps, mis, dss) par Neetu Bhatia
B.com 2 nd sem e commerce (tps, mis, dss)B.com 2 nd sem e commerce (tps, mis, dss)
B.com 2 nd sem e commerce (tps, mis, dss)
Neetu Bhatia106 vues
Mis pgdrdm nird par Venu Goud
Mis pgdrdm nirdMis pgdrdm nird
Mis pgdrdm nird
Venu Goud433 vues
Management information system par Parth Desani
Management information systemManagement information system
Management information system
Parth Desani87 vues
Information system management mba4 sem unit 1 par Naveen Sharma
Information system management mba4 sem unit 1Information system management mba4 sem unit 1
Information system management mba4 sem unit 1
Naveen Sharma73 vues
Ems and mis par m mohsin
Ems and misEms and mis
Ems and mis
m mohsin3.7K vues
Management information system par Rohit Mishra
Management information systemManagement information system
Management information system
Rohit Mishra23.2K vues
Management information system par Rohit Mishra
Management information systemManagement information system
Management information system
Rohit Mishra643 vues

Dernier

The Talent Management Navigator Performance Management par
The Talent Management Navigator Performance ManagementThe Talent Management Navigator Performance Management
The Talent Management Navigator Performance ManagementSeta Wicaksana
29 vues36 diapositives
Mistakes Young Entrepreneurs Make When Approaching Problem Solving par
Mistakes Young Entrepreneurs Make When Approaching Problem SolvingMistakes Young Entrepreneurs Make When Approaching Problem Solving
Mistakes Young Entrepreneurs Make When Approaching Problem SolvingYasser Takie Eddine Abdesselam
64 vues31 diapositives
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon... par
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...KeppelCorporation
240 vues11 diapositives
Why are KPIs(key performance indicators) important? par
Why are KPIs(key performance indicators) important? Why are KPIs(key performance indicators) important?
Why are KPIs(key performance indicators) important? Epixel MLM Software
16 vues17 diapositives
terms_2.pdf par
terms_2.pdfterms_2.pdf
terms_2.pdfJAWADIQBAL40
53 vues8 diapositives
NYKAA PPT .pptx par
NYKAA PPT .pptxNYKAA PPT .pptx
NYKAA PPT .pptx125071081
19 vues9 diapositives

Dernier(20)

The Talent Management Navigator Performance Management par Seta Wicaksana
The Talent Management Navigator Performance ManagementThe Talent Management Navigator Performance Management
The Talent Management Navigator Performance Management
Seta Wicaksana29 vues
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon... par KeppelCorporation
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...
Presentation on proposed acquisition of leading European asset manager Aermon...
Amazing Opportunities: PCD Pharma Franchise in Kerala.pptx par SaphnixMedicure1
Amazing Opportunities: PCD Pharma Franchise in Kerala.pptxAmazing Opportunities: PCD Pharma Franchise in Kerala.pptx
Amazing Opportunities: PCD Pharma Franchise in Kerala.pptx
How UiPath’s European Founder Kept Control and Built an Expert Board of Direc... par Christian Dahlen
How UiPath’s European Founder Kept Control and Built an Expert Board of Direc...How UiPath’s European Founder Kept Control and Built an Expert Board of Direc...
How UiPath’s European Founder Kept Control and Built an Expert Board of Direc...
PMU Launch - Guaranteed Slides par pmulaunch
PMU Launch - Guaranteed SlidesPMU Launch - Guaranteed Slides
PMU Launch - Guaranteed Slides
pmulaunch16 vues
December 2023 - Meat on the Bones par NZSG
December 2023 - Meat on the BonesDecember 2023 - Meat on the Bones
December 2023 - Meat on the Bones
NZSG24 vues
SUGAR cosmetics ppt par shafrinn5
SUGAR cosmetics pptSUGAR cosmetics ppt
SUGAR cosmetics ppt
shafrinn597 vues
Navigating EUDR Compliance within the Coffee Industry par Peter Horsten
Navigating EUDR Compliance within the Coffee IndustryNavigating EUDR Compliance within the Coffee Industry
Navigating EUDR Compliance within the Coffee Industry
Peter Horsten44 vues

Management Information System (MIS)

  • 2. Contents  Data, Information and System      Information System (IS)     Components of an IS Types of IS Interrelationship among systems Management Information System (MIS)      Information – a critical resource Data and Information Types and Characteristics of useful Information System Broader Definitions and concepts Output of MIS Functional View Impact of MIS MIS Planning and Development      MIS Development outlook Pointers for MIS Design MIS Planning Software Development Life Cycle Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
  • 3. Information is critical The information we have is not what we want, The information we want is not the information we need, The information we need is not available.
  • 4. Information is a Resource It is scarce  It has a cost  It has alternative uses  There is an opportunity cost factor involved if one does not process information 
  • 5. Why need Information? To ensure effective and efficient decision - leading to prosperity of the Organization.
  • 6. Data and Information Data vs. Information   Data  A “given,” or fact; a number, a statement, or an image  Represents something (quantities, actions and objects) in the real world  The raw materials in the production of information Information  Data that have meaning within a context  Data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real or perceived value in the current or in the prospective actions or decisions of the recipient. Data Manipulation Example: customer survey  Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.  When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful information.
  • 7. Types and classification of Information Information classification Action v/s no-action v/s non recurring Internal v/s external Planning Information: standards, norms, specifications Control information – reporting the status of an activity thru feedback mechanism Knowledge information – library reports, research studies Recurring
  • 9. Information Presentation (An Art) Data may be collected in the best possible way and processed analytically, however, if not presented properly, it may fail to communicate any value to recipient. Communication of Information is affected by the methods of transmission, the manner of information handling and the limitations & constraints of recipients. The methods used to improve communication are: a) Summarization: Too much information causes noise and distortion i.e confusion, misunderstanding and missing of purpose. Summarization suppresses the noise and distortion. b) Message routing: The principal here is to distribute information to all those who are accountable for the subsequent actions in any manner. This is achieved by sending the copies of the reports or documents to all the concerned people or users.
  • 10. System System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal. Computer-based Information Systems take data as raw material, process it, and produce information as output.
  • 11. Contents  Data, Information and System      Information System (IS)     Components of an IS Types of IS Interrelationship among systems Management Information System (MIS)      Information – a critical resource Data and Information Types and Characteristics of useful Information System Broader Definitions and concepts Output of MIS Functional View Impact of MIS MIS Planning and Development      MIS Development outlook Pointers for MIS Design MIS Planning Software Development Life Cycle Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
  • 12. Components of an Information System
  • 13. A Networked Information System: Three-Tier Architecture Corporate Databases Corporate Headquarters Marketing and Sales Finance Mainframe Divisional Minicomputers with Divisional Databases Production Divisional Databases Regional Office Workstations Plant Minicomputers Salesforce Notebooks Local Area Network: PCs with Local Databases Telecommunications Link
  • 15. Types of Information Systems    Operational-level systems support operational managers by keeping track of the elementary activities and transactions of the organization, such as sales, receipts, cash deposits, payroll, credit decisions, and the flow of materials in a factory. Management-level systems serve the monitoring, controlling, decision-making, and administrative activities of middle managers. The principal question addressed by such systems is this: Are things working well? Strategic-level systems help senior management tackle and address strategic issues and long-term trends, both in the firm and in the external environment.
  • 17. Transaction Processing System Transaction Processing Systems (TPS):  Basic business systems that serve the operational level  A computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business
  • 18. Management Information System  Serve middle management  Structured and semi-structured decisions  Provide reports on firm’s current performance, based on data from TPS  Past and Present Data  Internal Orientation  Provide answers to routine questions with predefined procedure for answering them  Typically have little analytic capability
  • 19. Decision Support System   Serve middle management Support non-routine decision making  E.g. What is impact on production schedule if December sales doubled?  Often use external information as well as information from TPS and MIS  Processing is interactive in nature  Output in form of Decision analysis  Example: Contract Cost Analysis
  • 20. Executive Support Systems         Support senior management – Strategic Level Address non-routine decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight Incorporate data about external events (e.g. new tax laws or competitors) as well as summarized information from internal MIS and DSS User "seductive" interfaces; Users' time is a premium What if capabilities abound Input in form of Aggregate data Processing is interactive and output in form of projections Examples   ESS that provides minute-to-minute view of firm’s financial performance as measured by working capital, accounts receivable, accounts payable, cash flow, and inventory. 5-year operating plan
  • 21. Interrelationship Among Systems The various types of systems in the organization have interdependencies. TPS are major producers of information that is required by many other systems in the firm, which, in turn, produce information for other systems. These different types of systems are loosely coupled in most business firms, but increasingly firms are using new technologies to integrate information that resides in many different systems.
  • 22. Contents  Data, Information and System      Information System (IS)     Components of an IS Types of IS Interrelationship among systems Management Information System (MIS)      Information – a critical resource Data and Information Types and Characteristics of useful Information System Broader Definitions and concepts Output of MIS Functional View Impact of MIS MIS Planning and Development      MIS Development outlook Pointers for MIS Design MIS Planning Software Development Life Cycle Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
  • 23. MIS - Definition and Concept Right Information To the right person At the right place At the right time In the right form At the right cost The three sub-components Management, Information and System - together bring out the focus clearly & effectively. System emphasizing a fair degree of integration and a holistic view; Information stressing on processed data in the context in which it is used by end users; Management focusing on the ultimate use of such information systems for managerial decision making.
  • 24. MIS – Definition and Concept A management information system (MIS) is system of collecting, processing, storing, disseminating and utilizing data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to):       Decision support systems, Resource and people management applications, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications.
  • 25. Difference between management information systems and information systems The terms MIS and IS are often confused. IS may include systems that are not intended for decision making. In effect, MIS must not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case     Information system applied to management context is called MIS. IS can be applied to any area of business while MIS is applicable for managerial decision-making. IS means use of hardware and software for any business. MIS can be used in any form - even manual reports, which aid decisionmaking MIS is used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. MIS summarize and report on the company’s basic operations. The basic transaction data from TPS are compressed and reported
  • 26. Outputs of MIS  Scheduled reports   Key Indicator Report   Summarizes the previous day’s critical activities Demand Report   Produced periodically, or on schedule (daily, weekly, monthly) Gives certain report at manager's request Exception Report  Automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action
  • 28. How MIS Obtain Data from TPS: How MIS Obtain their Data from the Organization’s TPS: In the system illustrated by this diagram, three TPS supply summarized transaction data to the MIS reporting system at the end of the time period. Managers gain access to the organizational data through the MIS, which provides them with the appropriate reports.
  • 29. Sample MIS Report This report, showing summarized annual sales data, was produced by the MIS in previous slide
  • 30. Impact of MIS        Management of marketing, finance, production and personnel becomes more efficient, the tracking and monitoring becomes easy Helps in understanding of business itself, MIS begins with definition of data and its attributes – uses data dictionary and brings common understanding of terms and terminology in organization MIS calls for systemization of business operations – leads to streamlining of operations, brings discipline in its operations everyone is required to follow Since the goals of MIS are driven from organization goals, it helps indirectly pulling everyone in organization towards corporate goals by providing relevant information to the people in organization MIS helps to monitor results and performances MIS provides alerts, in some cases daily, to managers at each level of the organization, on all deviations between results and pre-established objectives and budgets. IT enabled MIS is partly responsible for the PARADIGM shift (A change, a new model,) from support to contributing to an organizations profitability
  • 31. Contents  Data, Information and System      Information System (IS)     Components of an IS Types of IS Interrelationship among systems Management Information System (MIS)      Information – a critical resource Data and Information Types and Characteristics of useful Information System Broader Definitions and concepts Output of MIS Functional View Impact of MIS MIS Planning and Development      MIS Development outlook Pointers for MIS design MIS Planning Software Development Life Cycle Software Development Methodologies: Approaches
  • 32. MIS Development Outlook Security Corporate Corporate Strategy Strategy Ethics/ Ethics/ Privacy Privacy MIS Strategy and Plan Internal Systems Development Internal Systems Operations Implementation Outsourced Systems Development Outsourced Systems Operations Infrastructure
  • 33. Pointers for MIS Design   To take care for data problems (bias and error) by high level validations, checking and controlling the procedures. Due regard to the communication theory of transmitting the information from the source to the destination.    To provide specific attention to quality parameters – Utility, Satisfaction, Error and Bias      Handling of noise and distortion by summarization and message routing Ensuring that no information is suppressed or over emphasized By controlling inputs to the MIS on the factors of impartiality, validity, reliability, consistency and age Should make a distinction between the different kinds of information for the purpose of communication. Say an action, a decision oriented information should be distinguished from a non action/knowledge-oriented information. To recognize some aspects of human capabilities as a decision maker. Capabilities differ from manager to manager and the designer should skillfully deal with them. It should meet the needs of the total organization. Recognizing that the information may be misused if it falls into wrong hands, the MIS design should have the features of filtering, blocking, suppressions, and delayed delivery.
  • 34. MIS Planning A very important fundamental concept of MIS planning is that the organization's strategic plan (Business Plan) should be the basis for MIS strategic plan. Alignment of MIS strategy with organizational strategy is one of the central problems of MIS planning. The Information Master Plan establishes a framework for all detailed information system planning. Information Master Plan typically has one long-range plan for three to five years (or more) and one a short-range plan for one year. The long-range portion provides general guidelines for direction and shortrange portion provides a basis for specific accountability as to operational and financial performance. In general, plan contains four major sections:     Information system goals, objectives and architecture (assessment of organizational context); Inventory of current capabilities; Forecast of development affecting the plan; The specific plan.
  • 35. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Activities that go into production of an MIS to an organizational problem or opportunity:  Project definition Determines whether or not the organization has a problem and whether or not the problem can be solved by launching a system project.  Systems study Analyzes the problems of existing systems, defines the objectives to be attained by a solution and evaluates various solution alternatives.  Design Logical and physical design specifications for the systems solution are produced.  Programming Specifications from design stage translated into program code.  Installation The final steps required to put a system into operation or production: testing, training and conversion.  Post-implementation System is used and evaluated while in production and is modified to make improvements or meet new requirements.
  • 36. SDLC
  • 37. Project definition & Systems study Systems Analysis (study) The analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system; describes what a system should do.  Feasibility study A way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization's resources and constraints.  Technical feasibility Determines whether a proposed solution can be implemented with available hardware, software, and technical resources.  Economic feasibility Determines whether the benefits of a proposed solution outweigh the costs.  Operational feasibility Determines whether a proposed solution is desirable within the existing managerial and organizational framework.  Information requirements A detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy; identifies who needs what information, and when, where and how the information is needed
  • 38. Systems Design Phase of detailing how a system will meet the information requirements determined by the systems analysis. This phase is broken into two sub phases: 1. Logical design 1st phase, lays out the components of the information system and their relationship to each other as they would appear to users. 2. Physical design 2nd phase, the process of translating the abstract logical model into the specific technical design for the new system Tools and Techniques used for designing: Flow Chart Dataflow Diagrams (DFDs) Data Dictionary Structured English Decision Table Decision Tree Design specifications include: Output, Input, User interface, Database design, Manual procedures , Documentation etc..
  • 39. Construction (Programming & Testing) Programming The process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into code  Test plan Prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users; it includes all of the preparations for the series of tests to be performed on the system.  Testing The exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions.      Unit testing The process of testing each program separately in the system. Sometimes called program testing. System testing Tests the functioning of the information systems as a whole in order to determine if discrete modules will function together as planned. Acceptance testing Provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting. Documentation Descriptions of how an information system works from both the technical and the end-user standpoint.
  • 40. Installation       Conversion The process of changing from the old system to the new system. Conversion plan Provides a schedule of all activities required to install a new system. Parallel strategy A safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly. Direct cut-over A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day. Pilot study A strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proven to be fully functional; only then can the conversion to the new system across the entire organization take place. Phased approach Introduces the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units.
  • 41. Post-implementation   Production The stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete; during this time the system is reviewed by users and technical specialists to determine how well it has met its original goals. Maintenance Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
  • 42. Software Development Methodology: Approaches The software development methodology is an approach used by organizations and project teams to apply the software development methodology framework.
  • 43. Development Approach – Waterfall Model STAGES END PRODUCTS Planning/definition Project proposal report Study/analysis System proposal report Design Design specifications Program code Programming Installation Maintenance Milestone 2 Design solution decision Milestone 1 Project initiation Year 1 Testing and installation Postimplementation audit Milestone 4 Production decision OPERATIONS Milestone 3 Design specification sign-off Year 2 3-8 year lifespan
  • 44. Development Approach – Waterfall Model Sequential development approach, in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall). Advantages  Simple and easy to use.  Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process.  Phases are processed and completed one at a time.  Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood. Disadvantages  Adjusting scope during the life cycle can kill a project  No working software is produced until late during the life cycle.  High amounts of risk and uncertainty.  Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects.  Poor model for long and ongoing projects.  Poor model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.
  • 45. Development Approach – Incremental Model
  • 46. Development Approach – Incremental Model The incremental model is an intuitive approach to the waterfall model. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed iterations. Each iteration passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases. Advantages  Generates working software quickly and early during the software life cycle.  More flexible – less costly to change scope and requirements.  Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration.  Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled during its iteration.  Each iteration is an easily managed milestone. Disadvantages  Each phase of an iteration is rigid and do not overlap each other.  Problems may arise pertaining to system architecture because not all requirements are gathered up front for the entire software life cycle.
  • 47. Development Approach - Spiral Model
  • 48. Development Approach – Spiral Model The spiral model is similar to the incremental model, with more emphasis placed on risk analysis. The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations (called Spirals in this model). The baseline spiral, starting in the planning phase, requirements are gathered and risk is assessed. Each subsequent spirals builds on the baseline spiral. Advantages  High amount of risk analysis  Good for large and mission-critical projects.  Software is produced early in the software life cycle. Disadvantages  Can be a costly model to use.  Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.  Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.  Doesn’t work well for smaller projects.
  • 49. Development Approach : Prototyping Prototype: Preliminary working version of information system for demonstration, evaluation purposes Prototyping: Process of building experimental system quickly for demonstration and evaluation. Small-scale mock-ups of the system are developed following an iterative modification process until the prototype evolves to meet the users’ requirements  Advantages:  Useful in designing system’s end user interface  Often faster  Attempts to reduce inherent project risk by breaking a project into smaller segments and providing more ease-of-change during the development process  User is involved throughout the development process, which increases the likelihood of user acceptance of the final implementation.  Problems:  Omission of basic requirements.  Lack of documentation, testing.  Prototyping tools may not be capable of developing complex systems.
  • 50. Alternative Methodology: ObjectOriented Development:      Uses the object as the basic unit of systems analysis and design Objects combine data, and processes used on the data Use class and inheritance to group objects and apply common embedded procedures Development is iterative and incremental Analysis identifies objects, classes of objects, and behavior of objects.
  • 51. Alternative Methodology: End-User Development       Development by end users with little or no help formal assistance from technical specialist Allows users to specify their own business needs Doesn’t require IT staff so is more rapid Appropriate mainly for smaller applications Generally not well designed, easily maintained or efficient software Creates islands of software in firm, and redundancies
  • 52. Alternative Methodology: Acquiring Software Packages Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packages    Set of prewritten application software programs that are commercially available Modification of software package to meet organization’s needs may be required Customization:    “Tailor and off the rack suit” Great if you are a close fit Ends up more trouble than worth if you aren’t close fit..
  • 53. Alternative Methodology : Outsourcing The purchase of an externally produced good or service that was previously produced internally  Advantages     Economy Predictability Frees up human resources Disadvantages    Loss of control Vulnerability of strategic information Dependency

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Other important attributes: Appropriateness of Form: The level of details, tabular v/s graphical, and quantitative v/s qualitative form, are selected in accordance with the situation.
  2.  Operational Level: The principal purpose of systems at this level is to answer routine questions and to track the flow of transactions through the organization. How many parts are in inventory? Examples of operational-level systems include a system to record bank deposits from automatic teller machines or one that tracks the number of hours worked each day by employees on a factory floor. Management Level systems provide periodic reports rather than instant information on operations. These systems often answer “what-if” questions: What would be the impact on production schedules if we were to double sales in the month of December . Strategic Level Systems: Their principal concern is matching changes in the external environment with existing organizational capability. What will employment levels be in five years? What are the long-term industry cost trends, and where does our firm fit in? What products should we be making in five years?
  3. Typically, MIS are oriented almost exclusively to internal, not environmental or external, events.  Generally, they depend on underlying transaction processing systems for their data.
  4. When to prototype: a) small scale systems, systems having unstructured problems, when it is diffiuclt to speicfy user requirements When not to prototype: a) large scale systems b) complex systems c) systems having interface to other systems
  5. Problems: Insufficient review/analysis, Lack of standards and controls