Nowadays, the electric power system is facing a radical
transformation in worldwide with the decarbonise electricity
supply to replace aging assets and control the natural
resources with new information and communication
technologies (ICT). A smart grid technology is an essential to
provide easy integration and reliable service to the
consumers. A smart grid system is a self-sufficient electricity
network system based on digital automation technology for
monitoring, control, and analysis within the supply chain.
This system can find the solution to the problems very
quickly in an existed system that can reduce the workforce
and it will target sustainable, reliable, safe and quality
electricity to all consumers.
The smart grid can be defined as a smart electrical network
that combines electrical network and smart digital
communication technology. A smart grid has capable of
providing electrical power from multiple and widely
distributed sources, like from wind turbines, solar power
systems, and perhaps even plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
To achieve a modernized smart grid, a wide range of
technologies should be developed and must be
implemented. These technologies generally grouped into
following key technology areas as discussed below.
Intelligent Appliances: Intelligent appliances have capable
of deciding when to consume energy based on customer pre-
set preferences. This can lead to going away along toward
reducing peak loads which have an impact on electricity
generation costs. For example, smart sensors, like
temperature sensor which is used in thermal stations to
control the boiler temperature based on predefined
Smart Power Meters: The smart meters provide two-way
communication between power providers and the end user
consumers to automate billing data collections, detect
device failures and dispatch repair crews to the exact
location much faster.
Super Conducting Cables: These are used to provide long
distance power transmission, and automated monitoring
and analysis tools capable of detecting faults itself or even
predicting cable and failures based on real-time data
weather, and the outage history.
Integrated communications: The key to a smart grid
technology is integrated communications. It must be as fast as
enough to real-time needs of the system. Depending upon the
need, Many different technologies are used in smart grid
communication like Programmable Logic Controller (PLC),
wireless, cellular, SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition), and BPL. Key Considerations for Integrated
Phasor Measurement Units (PMU): This is used to measure the
electrical waves on an electricity grid using a common time
source for synchronization. The time synchronizer allows
synchronized real-time measurements of multiple remote
measurement points on the grid.
Smart Substations: substations are included monitoring and
control non-critical and critical operational data such as
power status, power factor performance, breaker, security,
transformer status, etc. substations are used to transform
voltage at several times in many locations, that providing safe
and reliable delivery of energy. Smart substations are also
necessary for splitting the path of electricity flow into many
directions. Substations require large and very expensive
equipment to operate, including transformers, switches,
capacitor banks, circuit breakers, a network protected relays
and several others.
• The smart grid has been able to provide better power
management technologies through its integrated systems,
providing with a better user interface.
• It has also provided with a protective management system in
case of emergency crisis or setbacks.
• It has been in understanding that smart grids provide with a
better supply and demand management.
• The smart grid has not only provided with longer battery
timing but also with better power quality to its consumers.
• Previous grid stations used to emit a large amount of carbon
dioxide which in this case has been terminated at all.
• It has also provided with the convenience of reading meters
remotely. Meter readers will not have to physically appear at
the property and check for meter readings. It will all be done
through IT resources.
• Privacy Problems
The biggest concern is Security in a smart grid system. Grid
system uses some smart meters, which are automated and
provides communication between power provider and
customer. Here some type of the smart meters can be easily
hacked and they may control the power supply of a single
building or an entire neighborhood.
• Grid Volatility
Smart Grid network has much intelligence at its edges; that is,
at the entry point and at the end user’s meter. But the grid
has insufficient intelligence in the middle, governing the
switching functions. This lack of integrated development
makes the grid a volatile network. Engineering resources have
been poured into power generation and consumer energy
consumption, which are the edges of the network. However, if
too many nodes are added to the network before developing
the software intelligence to control it, the conditions will lead
to a volatile smart grid.
The addition of digital technology into the grid system has
revolutionized its working in an un-imaginary way. It has
not only transformed the way power stations used to work
but it has also provided an upper hand to the consumer
market in reliability, efficiency, and accessibility regarding
Some of its applications are as follows:
• Improving the working of transmission lines.
• Quick repairing system after any sort of breakage or misfire.
• It will also reduce the cost of electricity.
• Reducing the peak demand.
Smart grids have revolutionized the energy system with a big
leap. It has not only made it faster but way more reliable
and efficient by means of generating electricity. People have
been able to get easy access to electricity and a smarter way
to lodge complaints in case of an issue. It has brought about
many necessary changes in the world of producing energy
and has improved the living standards of the people by all
MADE BY NAVEENCHANDRA HALEMANI
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