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DEFINING MOTIVATIONDEFINING MOTIVATIONMotivation is the extent to which youMotivation is the extent to which youmake choice aboutmake choice about(a)(a)Goals to pursueGoals to pursue(b)(b)The effort you will devote to thatThe effort you will devote to thatpursuit.pursuit.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation• Intrinsic = A person’s internal desire to dosomething, due to such things as interest,challenge, and personal satisfaction–e.g. “What is you passion in life?”–Self-regulatory–Highly individualized• Extrinsic = motivation based on somethingexternal to the activity(Typical extrinsic rewards are money, prizes,grades, and even certain types ofpositive feedback.)
Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological needs: Need to satisfyhunger and thirst.Safety needs: Need to feel that theworld is organized and predictable;need to feel safe, secure, and stable.Belongingness and love needs: Needto love and be loved, to belong and beaccepted; need to avoid loneliness andalienation.Esteem needs: Need for self-esteem,achievement, competence, andindependence; need for recognitionand respect from others.Self-actualization needs: Need to liveup to ones fullest and uniquepotential.
• Abraham MaslowIntrinsic motivation is clearly superior toextrinsic.• Jerome Bruner“Autonomy of self-reward”One of the most effective ways to helppeople to think and learn is to free themfrom the control of rewards andpunishments.
Bruner (1966)Intrinsic motivation is linked with curiosityand drive to achieve efficiency for newstudents in school. Deci (1975)Intrinsic motivation can be described as apsychological condition caused whenindividuals consider themselves capableand able to determine something on itsown.
Educational PsychologistMotivation in education can have severaleffects on how students learn.• Direct behavior toward particular goals• Lead to increased effort and energy• Increase initiation of, and persistence in,activities• Enhance cognitive processing• Determine what consequences are reinforcing• Lead to improved performance.
• As intrinsic motivation deals with activitiesthat act as their own rewards• Extrinsic motivation deals with motivationsthat are brought on by consequences orpunishments.
Intrinsic MotivationOccurs when people are internally motivatedto do something• because it either brings them pleasure• they think it is important, or• they feel that what they are learning issignificant.
DEFINITION OF LISTENING• The process of receiving, constructingmeaning from, and responding tospoken and/or nonverbal messages; tohear something with thoughtfulattention
Listening vs. HearingHearing- physical process; natural;passiveListening- physical & mental process;active; learned process; a skill
WHAT IS ACTIVELISTENING?• A way of listening and responding to anotherperson that improves mutual understanding.• A way of paying attention to other people thatcan make them feel that you are hearing them• This type of listening is called active because itrequires certain behaviors of the listener.
BENEFITS OF ACTIVE LISTENING• It forces people to listen attentively to others.• It tends to open people up, to get them to saymore.• Shows empathy• Builds relationshipsSo• Maximize your understanding of the other’sperspective• Minimize their defensiveness (and your own,too)
“A good listener tries tounderstand thoroughly what theother person is saying. In the endhe may disagree sharply, butbefore he disagrees, he wants toknow exactly what it is he isdisagreeing with.”Kenneth A. Wells
ACTIVE LISTENERS1. Be there2. Listen carefully to the person3. Accept the person and his/her feelings4. Stay with the other persons point of viewwithout becoming that person5. Trust the person enough to keep outof it
Be there• Be present in heart, mind and spirit with theperson.• Begin with a clear intention to understand• the other person before you seek to havehim/her understand you because you reallyneed to hear what s/he has to say first.• Displaying the proper attitude with open bodylanguage is important,
Listen carefully to the person• Dont plan what you are going to say. Dontthink of how you can interrupt. Dont think ofhow tosolve the problem.• Just listen.• Watch for what will never be said out loud.• Read the nonverbal signals of others.
Accept the person and his/her feelings• The meaning of what the person is trying tosay is in a combination of content and feeling.• Accept the person and their feelings withoutjudgment or reservation.• Dont stereotype the person even though s/hemay be very different from you.• Accept whatever the persons feelings• may be or how they may differ from what youthink a person "should" feel.
Stay with the other persons point of viewwithout becoming that person• Dont become that person, but understandwhat s/he is feeling, saying, or thinking.• For clarification try translating what the otherperson is saying into your own words withoutbeing repetitious.
Trust the person enough tokeep out of it• Trust the persons ability to handle his/herown feelings, work through them, and findsolutions to his/her own problems.• Dont intrude on what the person is trying tosay.