2. A philosophy that emphasizes the uniqueness and isolation of the individual experience in a hostile or indifferent universe, regards human existence as unexplainable, and stresses freedom of choice and responsibility for the consequences of one’s acts.
5. To analyze means to break something down into its constituent parts. Analytic philosophy attempts to clarify, by analysis, the meaning of statements and concepts. Analytic philosophy has been important in the in the English speaking academic world since the beginning of the 20th century.
9. There can be, he argues, no simple, single interpretation of a text. Instead there are several (or many), all of which have validity and which are, ultimately, irreducibly different and irreconcilable. This method of thought has been applied to intellectual pursuits as diverse as literary and artistic criticism, philosophy and religion.
11. Skepticism is the Western philosophical tradition that maintains that human beings can never arrive at any kind of certain knowledge. Originating in Greece in the middle of the fourth century BC, skepticism and its derivatives are based on the following principles: (a) There is no such thing as certainty in human knowledge; (b) All human knowledge is only probably true, that is, true most of the time, or not true.
13. The core of pragmatism was the pragmatist maxim, a rule for clarifying the contents of hypotheses by tracing their ‘practical consequences’.
17. Reliance on reason as the only reliable source of human knowledge. In the most general application, rationalism offers a naturalistic alternative to appeals to religious accounts of human nature and conduct. More specifically, rationalism is the epistemological theory that significant knowledge of the world can best be achieved by a priori means; it therefore stands in contrast to empiricism.
19. Reliance on experience as the source of ideas and knowledge. More specifically, empiricism is the epistemological theory that genuine information about the world must be acquired by posteriori means, so that nothing can be thought without first being sensed.
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