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Introduction      Related work        Proposed Mechanisms      Performance Evaluation   Conclusion                On the O...
Introduction         Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionOutline       1       Introdu...
Introduction       Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionWireless Sensor Network        ...
Introduction       Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionMotivation               Develo...
Introduction       Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionCaching-based Transport Protoco...
Introduction    Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionDTSN                              ...
Introduction   Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionCross-Layer Approach
Introduction          Related work           Proposed Mechanisms    Performance Evaluation   ConclusionEnhanced NACK Repai...
Introduction                Related work                Proposed Mechanisms      Performance Evaluation     ConclusionAdap...
Introduction      Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation       ConclusionTransmission Window Optimiza...
Introduction           Related work          Proposed Mechanisms         Performance Evaluation   ConclusionSetup         ...
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Introduction   Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionPerformance Analysis       Protocol...
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Introduction       Related work   Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionConclusion               Transm...
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Introduction   Related work    Proposed Mechanisms   Performance Evaluation   ConclusionEnd                        Thank y...
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On the Optimization and Comparative Evaluation of a Reliable and Efficient Caching-based WSN Transport Protocol

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On the Optimization and Comparative Evaluation of a Reliable and Efficient Caching-based WSN Transport Protocol

  1. 1. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation Conclusion On the Optimization and Comparative Evaluation of a Reliable and Efficient Caching-Based WSN Transport Protocol Nestor M. C. Tiglao, António M. Grilo INESC-ID/Instituto Superior Técnico Lisbon, Portugal 6 March 2013 DRCN 2013, Budapest, Hungary
  2. 2. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionOutline 1 Introduction 2 Related work Caching-based WSN Transport DTSN 3 Proposed Mechanisms NACK Repair Adaptive MAC Retry Transmission Window Optimization 4 Performance Evaluation 5 Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionWireless Sensor Network Composed of small, resource-constrained wireless devices Multi-hop operation Transport protocol: reliability, congestion control, energy-efficiency
  4. 4. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionMotivation Develop simple mechanisms that can be implemented in constrained devices (i.e., O(1) complexity) Explore novel approaches in the transport layer Leverage on intermediate caching to improve performance
  5. 5. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionCaching-based Transport Protocols Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly (PSFQ, 2002) sink-to-sensor, hop-by-hop reliability, designed for code update, uses broadcast Reliable Multi-Segment Transport (RSMT, 2003) end-to-end reliability, uses NACKs, timer-driver loss detection Distributed TCP Caching (DTC, 2004) caching TCP segments and retransmitting segments local in case of packet loss TCP Support for Sensor Networks (TSS, 2007) not forward a cached TCP segment until the next-hop has received all previous segments (backpressure) Distributed Transport for Sensor Networks (DTSN, 2007)
  6. 6. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionDTSN Enhanced DTSN Basic DTSN
  7. 7. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionCross-Layer Approach
  8. 8. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionEnhanced NACK Repair Mechanism RNACK Procedure procedure pkt_recv(pkt) ... if (!rpending_ && seqno! =next_) then repseqno_ ← seqno rpending_ ← 1 ⊲ raise Repair Pending Send RNACK (seqno) else do nothing end if if (rpending_ && seqno==repseqno_) then rpending_ ← 0 ⊲ clear Repair Pending next_ ← maxseen_ + 1 ⊲ update next_ end if if (seqno > maxseen_) then maxseen_ ← seqno end if ⊲ update maxseen_ Example of the Enhanced NACK ... Repair Mechanism end procedure
  9. 9. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionAdaptive MAC Retry Limit log Π − log p r ← max 3, ⌊ ⌋ log p R = 1−Π Π is the Frame Error Rate(FER) p is the physical layer frame error rate r is the MAC retry limit MAC retry limit value, r, for R is the desired MAC layer reliability various MAC reliability levels 60 R FER≤0.3 FER=0.5 FER=0.7 Π=0.8 50 Π=0.9 80% 3 3 4 Π=0.95 90% 3 3 6 40 95% 3 4 8 30 r 20 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 FER
  10. 10. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionTransmission Window Optimization Dynamic Window Additive Increase Multiplicative, Decrease (AIMD) algorithm (cwnd in TCP) inefficient in wireless networks Fixed Window n based on the bandwidth-delay product, i.e., W = 4 where n = number of hops How about caching-based protocols?
  11. 11. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionSetup Simulation Parameters Parameter Value Network topology Linear chain Packet size 500 bytes Number of packets(pktno) 500 DTSN EAR interval 200 msec Routing protocol MAC protocol Static 802.11b Scenario 1: Global Hotspot MAC retry limit (default) 3 (default) PHY error model Binary Symmetric Channel Max. simulation time 2,000 seconds Simulator ns-2.31 Assumptions: Routing topology is stable Cross-layer information is Scenario 2: Localized Hotspot available
  12. 12. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionDTSN Transmission Window OptimizationGoodput AWopt = [CS , CS + ∆], ∆ = 10 FER=0 FER=0.1 FER=0.3 FER=0.5 FER=0.7 FER=0 FER=0.1 FER=0.3 FER=0.5 FER=0.7 140 140 120 120 Goodput (in packets/sec) Goodput (in packets/sec) 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 2 8 10 20 30 40 50 2 8 10 20 30 40 50 Acknowledgment Window (AW) (in packets) Acknowledgment Window (AW) (in packets) (a) CS=10 (b) CS=20 Scenario 1 – Goodput, as a function of AW
  13. 13. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionDTSN Transmission Window OptimizationTransmission Cost Ndata + Nack + Nnack + Nmack tx_cost = pktno FER=0 FER=0.1 FER=0.3 FER=0.5 FER=0.7 FER=0 FER=0.1 FER=0.3 FER=0.5 FER=0.7 250 250 200 200 Transmission Cost Transmission Cost 150 150 100 100 50 50 0 0 2 8 10 20 30 40 50 2 8 10 20 30 40 50 Acknowledgment Window (AW) (in packets) Acknowledgment Window (AW) (in packets) (a) CS=10 (b) CS=20 Scenario 1 – Transmission Cost, as a function of AW
  14. 14. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionPerformance Analysis Protocols considered: DTPA – The DTPA protocol, W = BDP(n) + 3 DTPA-CWL – The DTPA protocol, W = BDP(n) DTSN+ – The DTSN protocol with the proposed enhanced NACK repair and adaptive MAC retry limit mechanisms TCP− – The TCP protocol without the RTO exponential backoff
  15. 15. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionPerformance AnalysisGoodput Scenario 1 Scenario 2 140 140 DTPA−BDP DTPA−BDP DTPA DTPA 120 − 120 − TCP TCP + + DTSN DTSN Goodput (in packets/sec) Goodput (in packets/sec) 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 0 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.70 0 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.70 Frame Error Rate Frame Error Rate Performance Gain of DTSN+ Performance Gain of DTSN+ FER DTPA-CWL DTPA TCP− FER DTPA-CWL DTPA TCP− 0 96% 129% 88% 0 96% 129% 88% 0.10 51% 138% 59% 0.10 87% 135% 81% 0.30 71% 75% 137% 0.30 67% 123% 69% 0.50 720% 723% 1221% 0.50 100% 92% 239% 0.70 ∞ ∞ ∞ 0.70 346% 266% 883%
  16. 16. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionPerformance AnalysisTransmission Cost Scenario 1 Scenario 2 160 160 DTPA−BDP DTPA−BDP 140 DTPA 140 DTPA − − TCP TCP + + 120 DTSN 120 DTSN Transmission Cost Transmission Cost 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 0 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.70 0 0.10 0.30 0.50 0.70 Frame Error Rate Frame Error Rate Performance Gain of DTSN+ Performance Gain of DTSN+ FER DTPA-CWL DTPA TCP− FER DTPA-CWL DTPA TCP− 0 29% 58% 29% 0 29% 58% 29% 0.10 20% 65% 21% 0.10 28% 60% 28% 0.30 19% 54% 19% 0.30 23% 63% 22% 0.50 39% 54% 49% 0.50 25% 57% 25% 0.70 ∞ ∞ ∞ 0.70 31% 48% 49%
  17. 17. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionPerformance AnalysisTCP cwnd Evolution FER=0 FER=0.1 10 10 8 8 cwnd (in pkt) cwnd (in pkt) 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 100 110 120 130 100 110 120 130 Time (in sec) Time (in sec) FER=0.3 FER=0.5 10 10 8 8 cwnd (in pkt) cwnd (in pkt) 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 100 110 120 130 100 110 120 130 Time (in sec) Time (in sec) FER=0.7 10 8 cwnd (in pkt) 6 4 2 0 100 110 120 130 Time (in sec) Scenario 1 – Evolution of TCP cwnd
  18. 18. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionPerformance AnalysisPacket Reception 500 500 450 450 400 400 350 350 Sequence Number Sequence Number 300 300 250 250 200 200 150 150 DTPA−CWL DTPA−CWL 100 DTPA 100 DTPA 50 TCP− 50 TCP− DTSN+ DTSN+ 0 0 100 102 104 106 108 110 100 105 110 115 Time (in seconds) Time (in seconds) (a) FER=0 (b) FER=0.1 500 500 450 450 400 400 350 350 Sequence Number Sequence Number 300 300 250 250 200 200 150 150 DTPA−CWL DTPA−CWL 100 DTPA 100 DTPA − − 50 TCP 50 TCP DTSN+ DTSN+ 0 0 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 100 150 200 250 300 350 Time (in seconds) Time (in seconds) (c) FER=0.3 (d) FER=0.5 Scenario 1 – Packet Reception
  19. 19. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionConclusion Transmission window and loss recovery semantics for caching-based transport mechanisms need to be optimized We have proposed the following mechanisms enhanced NACK recovery adaptive MAC retry limit optimal DTSN transmission window DTSN+ significantly outperforms TCP and DTPA in terms of goodput and energy-efficiency Future work consider more complex and dynamic network scenarios study performance in presence of network congestion
  20. 20. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionReferences 1 IEEE Standard for Information Technology Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), IEEE Std. 802.15.4-2006. 2 C. Wang, K. Sohraby, B. Li, M. Daneshmand, and Y. Hu, "A survey of transport protocols for wireless sensor networks," IEEE Network, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 34-40, May-June 2006 3 F. Stann and J. Heidemann, ”Rmst: reliable data transport in sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocols and Applications, May 2003, pp. 102-112. 4 C.-Y. Wan, A. T. Campbell, and L. Krishnamurthy, "Psfq: a reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications, ser. WSNA ’02. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2002, pp. 1-11. 5 B. Marchi, A. Grilo, and M. Nunes, "Dtsn: Distributed transport for sensor networks," in 12th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Commu- nications. ISCC 2007, July 2007, pp. 165-172. 6 O. Akan and I. Akyildiz, "Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1003-1016, Oct. 2005. 7 X. Li, P.-Y. Kong, and K.-C. Chua, "Dtpa: A reliable datagram transport protocol over ad hoc networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1285-1294, Oct. 2008. 8 F. Shaikh, A. Khelil, A. Ali, and N. Suri, "Trccit: Tunable reliability with congestion control for information transport in wireless sensor networks," in The 5th Annual ICST Wireless Internet Conference (WICON),March 2010, pp. 1-9. 9 A. Dunkels, J. Alonso, T. Voigt, and H. Ritter, "Distributed tcp caching for wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Mediterranean Ad-Hoc Networks Workshop, 2004. 10 K. Chen, Y. Xue, S. H. Shah, and K. Nahrstedt, "Understanding bandwidth-delay product in mobile ad hoc networks," Comput. Commun., vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 923-934, Jun. 2004. 11 N. M. C. Tiglao and A. M. Grilo, "An analytical model for transport layer caching in wireless sensor networks," Performance Evaluation, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 227-245, 2012. 12 –, "Cross-layer caching based optimization for wireless multimedia sensor networks," in 8th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications. WiMob 2012. Oct. 2012, pp. 697-704. 13 "The network simulator - ns-2," http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
  21. 21. Introduction Related work Proposed Mechanisms Performance Evaluation ConclusionEnd Thank you for your attention!

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