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The Reproductive Systems

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Biology 120: Medical Terminology... Chapter 10

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The Reproductive Systems

  1. 1. Chapter 10 The Reproductive System
  2. 2. Overview Sexual reproduction is the process by which organisms produce offspring by making germ cells called gametes. After the male gamete (sperm cell) unites with the female gamete (secondary oocyte) resulting in fertilization. Males and females have anatomically distinct reproductive organs that are adapted for producing gametes, facilitating fertilization, and in females sustaining the growth of the embryo and fetus.
  3. 3. Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system produces ova (the female reproductive cell), provides a place for fertilization and growth of a baby during pregnancy, and secretes female sex hormones. In addition, the breast produce milk to nourish the newborn. Consists of internal and external genitalia (reproductive organs)
  4. 4. Organs of the Female Reproductive System Internal genitalia (within pelvic cavity) Ovaries (2) Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes (2) Uterus Vagina External genitalia Vulva Breasts
  5. 5. Ovaries Ovaries 2 on either side of the uterus size and shape of unshelled almond produce ova produce sex hormones progesterone estrogen
  6. 6. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes also known as oviducts 2 tubes that extend laterally from the uterus provides a route for sperm to reach an ovum and transport secondary female germ cells and fertilized ova from ovaries to uterus
  7. 7. Uterus also known as the womb hollow, pear-shaped organ that contains a thick muscular wall, a mucous membrane lining, and a rich supply of blood serves as part of the pathway for sperm deposited in the vagina to reach the fallopian tubes site of implantation of fertilized ovum, development of fetus during pregnancy, and labor
  8. 8. Vagina muscular tube, lined with mucous membrane that extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse outlet for menstrual flow passageway for childbirth
  9. 9. Vulva also called the pudendum comprised of the labia majora labia minora clitoris perineum
  10. 10. Breasts 2 mammary glands that are modified sweat glands that produce milk; located over that pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles varies in size greatly from woman to woman
  11. 11. Male Reproductive System The male reproductive system is responsible for producing sperm-the male reproductive cell, secreting the male sex hormone, and delivering sperm to the female reproductive tract Consists of internal and external (major) organs
  12. 12. Organs of the Male Reproductive System External organs of reproduction Penis Testes (2) Epididymis Internal organs of reproduction Seminal Vesicles (2) Vas Deferens (2) Prostate Gland Bulbourethral Gland (2)
  13. 13. Penis passageway for ejaculation of semen and the excretion of urine prepuce = foreskin can be removed during a procedure known as circumcision
  14. 14. Testes paired oval glands responsible for the production of sperm spermatogenesis takes place within the seminiferous tubules that make up the insides of the testes must be maintained at a proper temperature for sperm to survive produces testosterone
  15. 15. Epididymis coiled tubule that lies on top of the testes within the scrotum serves as site for sperm maturation and storage until ready to be released into the vas deferens
  16. 16. Vas Deferens also known as ductus deferens stores sperm carries sperm from the epididymis up to the pelvic cavity form the spermatic cord, along with nerves, arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels
  17. 17. Seminal Vesicles 2 convoluted pouch-like glands located in the base of the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum connected to the vas deferens before it empties into the urethra secretes a glucose-rich fluid the nourishes the sperm constitutes about 60% of the volume of semen
  18. 18. Prostate Gland Single gland located just below the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra difficulty in urination when enlarged secretes a milky, slightly alkaline fluid that contains several important substances; assists in keeping the sperm alive by neutralizing the pH of the urethra and vagina secretions make up 25% of the volume of semen and contribute to sperm motility and viability
  19. 19. Bulbourethral Gland 2 small, pea-sized glands located inferior to the prostate on either side of the urethra also known as Cowper’s glands produce a mucuslike lubricating fluid that joins with semen to become part of the ejaculate
  20. 20. Related Branches of Medicine Gynecology is the specialized branch of medicine associated with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system. As noted in Chapter 9, urology is the study of the urinary system. Urologists also diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the male reproductive system.