Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Externalization Trend


Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 39 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Similaire à Externalization Trend (20)


Plus récents (20)


Externalization Trend

  1. 1. Externalisation – The Next Principle for Information Sharing? Can We Apply Web Principles to Corporate IT? The Open Group Enterprise Architecture Practitioners Conference Paris, France ~ 23-25 April, 2007 Nigel Green, Capgemini UK
  2. 2. The IT Butterfly Effect… . 2
  3. 3. Blah, blah, What I'll be talking about today… Define what I mean by externalisation How we might think about business information when we put 'externalisation' front of mind Provide an example of an externalised approach to Information Sharing with UK government Provide a high level point-of-view on what I see as the critical externalising IT enablers and trends Illustrate why I think this topic is business relevant and immediate Leave you with some ideas, emerging patterns and a number of unanswered questions! What I won't be talking about... Zzzz. ...RDF/OWL, WS and Ontology (well not much anyway!) ...Or Open Group Standards (you're the experts) 3
  4. 4. What’s different Today? There is the fundamental difference between the way the Web works and traditional enterprise IT systems: •The Web starts with the premise that any resource can be used by anyone for any purpose •Traditional Enterprise IT systems starts with a constrained, internal, perspective - usually in support of specific processes. Externalisation is about bringing these two worlds together to meet business needs for ubiquitous information sharing. Externalisation is about the deliberate application Web patterns and approaches to Enterprise IT to address business information sharing needs more effectively. Externalisation is not focused on replacing traditional IT systems per se, rather it is focused on implementing coarse-grained, loosely-coupled and broadly sharable information within and between business domains. The Opportunity: many of the standards and tools are available to make Externalisation a viable and business relevant approach. The Risk: Businesses are seeing their employees are already ‘Externalising’ using ‘Shadow IT’. 4
  5. 5. What do I mean by ‘Externalisation’ in the context of corporate IT? Externalisation: Breaking apart the concepts of applications and databases to expose the business-meaningful parts of an Information System and, at the same time, making tacit, human, knowledge and behaviour explicit. Integrating externally owned information sources and services of value to the Business Information System Consuming and publishing meaningful events within and outside the enterprise 5
  6. 6. A picture of Externalisation The access to information and 4 1 Information 2 communities on the Web by Services organisations and the people within them Collaboration with people and 2 1 visibility of events (process state changes) outside the enterprise Ubiquitous Event visibility 3 within the enterprise 5 The use of external information 4 and data processing services 3 by people and corporate IT Web Enterprise Enterprise IT Applications The opening-up of data from 5 within corporate applications – for sharing within the enterprise and, selectively, beyond 4 Processing Services 6
  7. 7. Brains, Buckets, Boxes and Buildings Information relevant to the business is held in various 'containers' within the business The heads of employees data buckets filing systems Business information systems are inherently 'internalised’ within these and offices containers.. 7
  8. 8. Information Containers Highly Internalised Highly Externalised Container: Container: Container: Applications Container: The Organisation Web Communities & Databases Human Brains The Web 8
  9. 9. The Nature of Each Container Affects Its Content Highly Internalised Highly Externalised Container: Container: Container: Applications Container: The Organisation Web Communities & Databases Human Brains The Web Technology Creativity Web Standards & Corporate Translation Perception Ubiquitous Access Values, Privacy, Structure & & Selective Self-regulating Policy & Binding recall Communities Regulation Each type of container has an affect on the information held within it.. 9
  10. 10. Information is only understood within the context of its container Highly Internalised Highly Externalised Container: Container: Container: Applications Container: The Organisation Web Communities & Databases Human Brains The Web Useful Information Only 10% of and services might business process Shadow IT is Applications & be out there…. Information is used to Databases are automated by IT – Is my business support gaps built to meet limited Corporate visible to these in corporate IT vertical needs visibility communities? Outcome: Information Exhaust & Corporate Blindness 10
  11. 11. Externalisation: An Approach Re-shapes the Business Systems Container Highly Internalised Highly Externalised Container: Container: Container: Applications Container: The Organisation Web Communities & Databases Human Brains The Web Container: Externalised Business Systems Dissolves the barriers between internal containers by adopting external information standards and technologies focused on the information rather than function 11
  12. 12. A new Architectural Style for expressing desired Business Outcomes? An Architectural Style that focuses on: • The analysis of the behaviour of people and organisations and their interaction with information systems • Real world events, content and policies • Values of people and organisations and their trust relationships • Freeing-up analysis activities from engineering rigour (which should come as a second step) – thereby helping decision makers • User adoption approaches from the outset thereby materially increasing implementation success • Business outcomes and communication to business stakeholders to aid decision making processes – contrast with engineering tools (business process and IT) A style that is complementary to necessary and proven methods for process and IT design, for example: − Enterprise Architecture frameworks and methods (e.g. TOGAF, IAF, Zachman) − Process Design frameworks (e.g. IDEF, SCOR etc) − IT Solution Design frameworks and methods (e.g. RUP, Package specific design methods) We believe this style is based on 5 simple, abstracted, analysis dimensions: Values, Policies, Events, Content and Trust 12
  13. 13. Focusing on VPEC-T: Externalisation Within the 4 Walls Externalising the key aspects of the Information System e.g.: Business Events Content & Dialogues Policies & Contracts Values, Outcomes & Goals Values Values Values Policies Policies Policies Trust Models & Profiles Content Content Content Events Events Events Trust Trust Trust Focusing on these aspects as discrete, re-usable, information components xxxx creates the foundation for externalised information sharing across the business 13
  14. 14. Focusing on VPEC-T: Externalisation With the World The Web Values Values Values Values Policies Policies Policies Policies Content Content Content Content Events Events Events Events Trust Trust Trust Trust And increases the ease of interaction with the outside world 14
  15. 15. VPEC-T: The 5 key focus areas for Externalised Information Sharing Dimension Applying emphasis and techniques to: Focus on understanding the values and desired outcomes of both the individual and the business, and the values of Values individuals and businesses you interact with. Values can be thought of as constraining beliefs (e.g. ethics) and goals (e.g. desired outcomes) Focus on the broad range of mandates and agreements such as internal policies, law, external contracts across the Policies business; the rules that govern and constrain how things get done. Focus on the real-world proceedings that stimulate business activity – sometimes in a pre-defined sequence but Events often not. These are the triggers for action. Focus on the documents, conversations or messages that are produced and consumed by business activities. These Content are the dialogues we use to share a plan, a concept, a history and/or the details of a person, place or thing. Focus on fostering trust between all parties engaged in a system of value. Trust changes over time, and Trust understanding and fostering trust relationships are critical to useful IT. Values will be more authentically disclosed and more values will be declare the deeper the trust relationship. Trust can be defined as Trust = Intimacy + Credibility / Risk. Using business language to discuss these 5 dimensions enables the business to express an Externalisation agenda – and the output is also meaningful to IT specialists. 15
  16. 16. Implementing Externalised Information Sharing within the UK Criminal Justice Department
  17. 17. The UK Criminal Justice Exchange The Exchange provides national operational services for information sharing to a federation of Criminal Justice Organisations, other government departments and external practitioners. Today, the Exchange processes around 2 million messages a month and provides secure application access to hundreds CJS users The Exchange is secure information sharing environment run by CJIT The Exchange is being built to a Managed Service vision which emphasises capability re-use and rapid deployment and business process flexibility through user configuration This is the story of how we applied innovative approach to the business and technology challenges faced by CJIT 17
  18. 18. An Example Future Process Supported by The Exchange Investigate Arrest & Review & Prepare for Court Hearing Justice & 1 2 3 Charge Suspect 4 5 6 7 Incident Pre-Charge Prepare Case Hearing & Outcome Rehabilitation The Criminal Justice ‘Supply Chain’ is a combination of many such processes 18
  19. 19. And the bigger picture – a ‘Web’ of connected Information Sources • Report • View • Alerts C r i m e P r e v5 e n t i o7 n 1 2 3 4 6 Beyo2 d n the C r i m4i n a l J u s t i c6e Sys7em t 1 3 5 19
  20. 20. A 10 Year Journey – From Messaging Hub to CJS Web Platform The Vision The Exchange r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 o • Alerts • View • Report Ch arg e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g Su spe ct The Exchange 20
  21. 21. The Exchange Services Architecture – Channels and Configurable Services Today, The Exchange offers Browser messaging, file transfer and portal channel services are being added .. New channel services E.g. Data Access (demonstrated in the Proof of Concept ) MSG In the future, The Exchange will offer new channel services such as RFID and Voice and others… Browser RFID The Exchange MSG Overtime, a range of common platform services will become customer configurable. Many of BPEL Route these services are in Interpret External WS development today. Discover Transform Publish Work Flow 21
  22. 22. The Exchange Services Architecture - the journey to a ‘CJS Web’ Browser The Exchange can be configured to store XML documents (e.g. Events & Content) on MSG any authorised government server. This will provide the foundation for an incrementally developed Criminal Justice “Semantic Web”- The CJS Web. Collectively, these configurable services will be Browser RFID The the basis of future Composite Exchange Application Services MSG Business Events Business BPEL Route Interpret Content External WS Documents Discover Transform Publish Work Flow 22
  23. 23. Events – The focal point of Externalised Information Systems?
  24. 24. Three ‘Event-Driven’ patterns – Business, Academia and Technology Global Parcel Tracking Systems • Federal Express, DHL, UPS • Standardised Checkpoint messages – Business Events • Advanced use of Barcode Technologies The X-Internet and CEP • Original concept from MIT • Adopted by the AutoID/RFID tagging community - EPC Global • Complex Event Processing – Professor David Luckham at Stanford • Real-time Business Activity Monitoring Web 2.0, SOA, and Agents • Events-trigger News Feeds - Real Simple Syndication (RSS Feeds) • Events trigger services in a SOA and/or SaaS model • Real-world events provide triggers to Software Agents to profile, analyse and make inferences 24
  25. 25. Events versus Content 25
  26. 26. Events can be imprecise - Freedom from Data Model Dictatorship – Part I Fuzzy and Precise Events: Events can be regarded as both highly structured and precise and highly unstructured and imprecise messages within a common Event ‘envelope’ (general structure). For example, a movement tracking system may receive highly structured signals from RFID or GPS devices which are then converted into equally structured human-readable business events, But the same system might also receive much more unstructured Event information, possibly capture a ‘text’ message on a mobile phone that might alert of a delay caused by heavy traffic. Business-meaningful Events are simply Planned and Unplanned Events events that would be useful to know about – however imprecise! It’s better to know that someone called Missed Call: me even if I don’t have their details in my From Joe at 10 AM mobile phone (the phone’s ‘data model’ Events may be expected or unexpected Missed Call: From 01777 23456 at 11 AM Should the emphasis is placed on the value to the human consumer as opposed to information engineering rigour? 26
  27. 27. Football Results and Weather Events Matter to the Oil Industry 27
  28. 28. Externalised Communities and Services Here and Now!
  29. 29. Useful ‘Shadow IT’ is more accessible and is more often outside the ‘four walls’ of corporate IT User creativity has been constrained by the technology available to them… “Mequot; Mainframe Departmental And the information resources I can personally access… Networked PC Web This creativity has probably been a blessing in the past, however… Might personally useful information networks and services take Shadow IT further outside the enterprise? As users access more of these information sources and services are there increasing security, content pedigree and legal implications? Is this a present issue for corporate governance? 29
  30. 30. Web 2.0 – Emerging Patterns in the Consumer Internet Mass Peer Publishing & Others’ Review Resources as Dynamic Self- Platform Organising Communities Web 2.0 – The Monetising Web as the The Long Tail Platform Bottom-up Emergence not Up-front Design Citation, Tagging not Authority & Taxonomy Referencing “The User Controls Their Own Data”… 30
  31. 31. Direction of Travel - Web Epochs and Enterprise IT Web 1.0 Web 2.0 Web 3.0+ “the widely read-only Web” “the widely read-write Web” The coming together of Web and Enterprise IT? externalised enterprise IT The Web is now evolving to be the Platform of Reuse and Participation From Islands of Information to a Communities of Information Will we see similar patterns in Enterprise Information? Original Source: Dion Hinchcliffe http://web2.wsj2.com/ 31
  32. 32. Is the Semantic Web (Web 3.0) the complete answer?
  33. 33. Relevant Web 2.0 Pattern: User-Provided Tagging or – Freedom from Data Model Dictatorship – Part II The step beyond Google’s word-matching • without resorting to taxonomies • and without waiting for the semantic web Is User-provided Unconstrained Tagging (referred to as ‘Folksonomies’) • Not enforcing the originator to capture everything that might be needed You can then exploit patterns in Tags / ‘Tagclouds’ But it can only work if the participant is incentivised to take part • E.g. Del.ici.ous bookmarks, Flickr Photo Organisation What might this mean for Enterprise Information Sharing? Where would user-organised information be useful, and how would users be incentivised to participate? 33
  34. 34. SOA, REST and Information-as-a-Service Grown-up SOA? Information-as-a-Service: Can the maturing SOA “… approaches information integration in loosely-coupled, frameworks combined with REST coarse-grained, asynchronous in manner that seeks to avoid the requirements of comprehensive data modelling prior to styles and Information-as-a- integrating them” Service approaches provide the - Ronald Schmelzer ‘fabric’ for the externalisation agenda? REST • To mediate this ‘publishing, citation and emergence’ ? Representational State Transfer is intended to evoke an image of how a well-designed Web application behaves: a network of web • Dynamically managing the pages (a virtual state-machine), where the user progresses metadata and the routing through an application by selecting links (state transitions), resulting in the next page (representing the next state of the • Using Policies, Events and application) being transferred to the user and rendered for their Content rather than Top-Down use.” Decomposition - Dr. Roy Fielding Could an Externalisation Agenda be the, business relevant, ‘Killer app’ for SOA and provide the business rationale for REST and the Semantic Web? 34
  35. 35. Externalised Identity driven by the ‘On-Demand’ vendors OpenID OpenID is a lightweight, decentralized identity system that provides web single sign-on. We have merged the technology and use cases of the Simple Extensible Identity Protocol (SXIP) and Digital Identity Exchange (DIX) into the OpenID 2.0 specifications. OpenID 2.0 features include improved extensibility, increased security, substantive identity data attribute exchange abilities, and third-party signed assertion capabilities. Identity 2.0 Identity 2.0 is an open, standards-based, yet fundamentally decentralized identity model. First coined by us in January 2005, Identity 2.0 describes the concept of an ID that can be trusted and used anywhere and requires no centralized consultation with the ID authority that issues the credential. Will adoption drive an externalised approach to user authentication and single sign-on? 35
  36. 36. Ubiquitous Identity -Recent thinking from MIT U T R I - Unified Theory of Relativistic Identification of Information Convergence of Unique Identification with Syntax and Semantics through Internet Protocol version 6 By Dr. Shoumen Palit Austin Datta, MIT “The suggestion here is to use the 128-bit IPv6, a scheme that already at hand and being deployed, gradually but globally. This may be the “one-size-fits-all” hyper-id that is unique.” “Think IPv6 as the solution that is preagreed for global adoption. Think about contextual relevance of data and how to “number the numbers” but especially how to route numbers (data) which may be identical but with different identities.” What are the possibilities for externalised information sharing if we can uniquely identify objects and people, within the context of processes, globally? 36
  37. 37. Will Externalised Information Sharing become BAU? Event Identity Processing Management Standards Standards SOA REST Folksonomy Ontology What might be the effect of the combining such ‘externalising’ technologies and patterns? Could they, in combination, be the foundation of a truly business-enabling Semantic Web ? 37
  38. 38. Externalisation Agenda Guidelines for Enterprise Architects • Discover the need - Consider a new architectural style (such as VPEC-T) for defining and agreeing an Externalisation Agenda with the business • Explain why - Help the business see the value of an externalised approach – develop the story that explains how SOA/REST/Web 2.0/3.0 etc. support the businesses Externalisation Agenda • Prove it early - Start small and think coarse-grained. Be pragmatic & incrementally build to a long-range vision When people converse we externalise information naturally – we can bring this concept to the IS we use and in doing so, make it easier for businesses to consume. Should businesses be working on an Externalisation Agenda now? 38
  39. 39. Questions or Comments? 39