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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
ON
INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN
20 – 22 March
at
Bhubaneswar,
India
Saturday, March 21
Afternoon Panel II
Parallel Session II
Non-Traditional Security Issues
in
The Indian Ocean Region
Introduction
by
Chair : Maj Gen (Prof) Nilendra Kumar
Director
Amity Law School, Noida
What is security?
SECURITY
is
the degree of resistance to, or protection
from harm. It applies to any valuable and
vulnerable asset such as ...
: 2 :
If it is not a case of existential threat then the
force or adverse efforts may be targeted at
something crucial to ...
Traditional security is about a state’s ability
to defend itself against external threats.
Traditional security is also re...
: 2 :
Another way is to describe it as ‘hard’ security
while non traditional security is called ‘soft
security’.
Traditional security may be defined as absence
of threat to territorial integrity, political
independence or stability of ...
Car security be ignored?
As a matter of prudence, security threats call for
urgent remedial measures from the State.
Non traditional security issues include areas
such as transnational organised crimes,
global terror, disaster relief, info...
Non traditional security relates to aspects
other than traditional security where the
sources, nature, duration and intens...
Definition
Challenges to the survival and well being of
people and states that arise primarily out of
non military sources...
A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury,
damage or other hostile action on someone in
retribution for somethin...
An unfortunate incident, that happens
unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically
resulting in damage injury.
Difference between threat and accident
1946-54 - First Indo China War
1948 - Israel War of Independence
1954-58 - French Algerian War
1955-72 - First Sudanese Ci...
1967 - Six Day War
1971 - Indo Pak Conflict
1980-88 - Iran Iraq War
1990-91 - Persian Gulf War
PARTIES OR
ACTORS
MEANS
HARD Nation states
against one another
or with non-state
actors
1.Armed Conflict
(covert/overt)
2....
SIGNIFICANCE
 Critical waterway for global trade and
commerce.
 It is a medium for traffic for half of the
world’s containerized carg...
A key factor in East-West exchange
carry
heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum
products from the oilfields of the Persian
Gulf and Indonesia and contain a...
An international organisation consisting of
coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean.
It comprises 20 member states and s...
Australia Madagascar Sri Lanka
Bangladesh Malaysia Tanzania
Comoros Mauritius Thailand
India Oman UAE
Indonesia Seychelles...
 China
 France
 UK
 Egypt
 Japan
 USA
A few Relevant Terms
Effort is to strive for regional stability
REGIONAL STABILITY
means
maintaining stability in the region
It implies making the region more stable and
less prone to conflict, both internal and
external.
This refers to efforts to achieve compatibility
between the explosion of regional trading
arrangements around the world an...
The term refer to organised crime co-
ordinated across national borders, involving
groups or networks of individuals worki...
• International terror
• Piracy
• Counterfeit currency
• Illegal trade in small arms & light weapons.
• Drugs
• Illegal im...
It is undertaking of terrorist acts and
activities within the maritime environment,
using or against vessels or fixed plat...
facilities or settlements including tourist
resorts, port areas and port towns or seas.
Auth. The Council for Security Co-...
The term refers to entities that participate or
act in international relations. They are
organisations with sufficient pow...
Date Port
2005 Sharm-el-Sheikh
Nov 2008 Mumbai
18 Jul 2012 Burgas near Bulgarian
Black Sea
03 May 2014 Mombassa, Kenya
25 ...
Jan 2006 - Suicide attack on US
Navy destroyer near Aden
Sep 2013 - Failed terrorist attack on
Suez Canal ship
Sep 2014 - ...
It incorporates the practice, military tactics,
and strategy that government, military,
intelligence, police and business ...
Prevalent in weak or failed states along the
Indian Ocean.
1. Any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any
act of depredation, committed for private ends
by the crew or the pas...
ii) Against a ship, aircraft persons or property
in a place outside the jurisdiction of any
state.
2. Any act of voluntary...
Reported near narrow straits, islands and
conflict regions of South East Asia
(Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma and Thailand)
an...
 Smaller cargo ships.
 Unarmed private yatches.
 Commercial fishermen
 Cruiseliners
$ 500 million has been paid for more than
200 ships captured – and ransomed back
from Somali pirates over the last decades.
DRUG TRAFFICKING
One of Asia’s two principal areas of illicit
opium production, where the space overlaps
Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.
THREE LARGEST HEROIN AND OPIUM
PRODUCERS :
 Afghanistan
 Pakistan
 Myanmar
A major opium producing area of around
950,000 sq.kms that overlaps Myanmar,
Laos and Thailand.
Myanmar is the world’s second largest
producer of illicit opium after Afghanistan.
During four months of 2014, combined
Maritime Task Force ships seized more than
2000 kgs. of heroin being trafficked in dh...
Taliban is assessed to have derived around
US $ 133 million from narcotics trade in
2011 which is approx. one third of its...
ILLICIT TRADE IN SMALL ARMS
AND LIGHT WEAPONS
Insurgents, armed gang members, pirates
and terrorists, they can all multiply their
lethality and terror through the use o...
Conservative estimates mention 7.5 to 8
million small arms being produced per year.
1. Failure in Somalia
2. Growth in piracy in the Horn of Africa
3. Conflict in Afghanistan
Flow of SALW from Iran to Yemen and
onwards to the Eastern Mediterranean via
the Suez and between the Arabian
Peninsula an...
It is the migration of people across national
borders in a way that violates the
immigration laws of the destination count...
 Australia
 Bangladesh
 India
 Iran
 Libya
 Malaysia
…..2/-…
 Pakistan
 South Africa
 South Korea
There is a gradual but perceptible
movement of the fulcrum of the glob
economic and military exchanges away from
the Atlan...
Growth of international trade and commerce
is intrinsically linked to a secure
environment, in all its varied dimensions.
CONCLUSION
India and the Indian Ocean: Certain Issues relating to Non-Traditional Security
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India and the Indian Ocean: Certain Issues relating to Non-Traditional Security

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Indian Ocean plays a pivotal role in the global trade and economics and its strategic significance is also steadily increasing. Certain major aspects concerning non traditional security need in depth study and adoption of corrective measures by the Indian Ocean ring countries where India has to take a lead.

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India and the Indian Ocean: Certain Issues relating to Non-Traditional Security

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDIA AND THE INDIAN OCEAN
  2. 2. 20 – 22 March at Bhubaneswar, India
  3. 3. Saturday, March 21 Afternoon Panel II
  4. 4. Parallel Session II Non-Traditional Security Issues in The Indian Ocean Region
  5. 5. Introduction by Chair : Maj Gen (Prof) Nilendra Kumar Director Amity Law School, Noida
  6. 6. What is security?
  7. 7. SECURITY is the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any valuable and vulnerable asset such as a person dwelling, community, nation or organisation. …..2/-….
  8. 8. : 2 : If it is not a case of existential threat then the force or adverse efforts may be targeted at something crucial to the functioning of the threat in desired manner.
  9. 9. Traditional security is about a state’s ability to defend itself against external threats. Traditional security is also referred as national security or state security. …2/-….
  10. 10. : 2 : Another way is to describe it as ‘hard’ security while non traditional security is called ‘soft security’.
  11. 11. Traditional security may be defined as absence of threat to territorial integrity, political independence or stability of a State from external aggression or internal revolt.
  12. 12. Car security be ignored?
  13. 13. As a matter of prudence, security threats call for urgent remedial measures from the State.
  14. 14. Non traditional security issues include areas such as transnational organised crimes, global terror, disaster relief, information security, climate change and public health epidemics, energy security and water security.
  15. 15. Non traditional security relates to aspects other than traditional security where the sources, nature, duration and intensity of threat can be foreseen or identified and is based on human or mechanical reasons.
  16. 16. Definition Challenges to the survival and well being of people and states that arise primarily out of non military sources, such as climate change, cross-border environmental degradation and resource depletion, infections diseases, irregular migration, food shortages, people smuggling, drug trafficking and other forms of transnational crime. Mely Caballero-Anthony
  17. 17. A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done.
  18. 18. An unfortunate incident, that happens unexpectedly and unintentionally, typically resulting in damage injury.
  19. 19. Difference between threat and accident
  20. 20. 1946-54 - First Indo China War 1948 - Israel War of Independence 1954-58 - French Algerian War 1955-72 - First Sudanese Civil War 1956 - Suez Crisis 1959-73 - Vietnam War …..2/-….
  21. 21. 1967 - Six Day War 1971 - Indo Pak Conflict 1980-88 - Iran Iraq War 1990-91 - Persian Gulf War
  22. 22. PARTIES OR ACTORS MEANS HARD Nation states against one another or with non-state actors 1.Armed Conflict (covert/overt) 2.Terror 3.Cyber 4.NBC 5.Information SOFT 1.Nation states 2.Non state actors 3.Corporates 1.Drugs 2.Counterfeit currency 3.Piracy 4.Trafficking
  23. 23. SIGNIFICANCE
  24. 24.  Critical waterway for global trade and commerce.  It is a medium for traffic for half of the world’s containerized cargo, one third of its bulk cargo and two third of its oil shipment.
  25. 25. A key factor in East-West exchange
  26. 26. carry heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia and contain an estimated 40% of the world’s offshore oil production.
  27. 27. An international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean. It comprises 20 member states and six dialogue partners.
  28. 28. Australia Madagascar Sri Lanka Bangladesh Malaysia Tanzania Comoros Mauritius Thailand India Oman UAE Indonesia Seychelles Yemen Iran Singapore Kenya South Africa
  29. 29.  China  France  UK  Egypt  Japan  USA
  30. 30. A few Relevant Terms
  31. 31. Effort is to strive for regional stability
  32. 32. REGIONAL STABILITY means maintaining stability in the region
  33. 33. It implies making the region more stable and less prone to conflict, both internal and external.
  34. 34. This refers to efforts to achieve compatibility between the explosion of regional trading arrangements around the world and the global trading system as embodied in World Trade Organisation. It is an effort to resolve one of the central problems of contemporary trade policy - in a manner just and balanced.
  35. 35. The term refer to organised crime co- ordinated across national borders, involving groups or networks of individuals working in more than one country to plan and execute illegal business ventures.
  36. 36. • International terror • Piracy • Counterfeit currency • Illegal trade in small arms & light weapons. • Drugs • Illegal immigration • Trafficking in persons • Money laundering • Cyber crime
  37. 37. It is undertaking of terrorist acts and activities within the maritime environment, using or against vessels or fixed platforms at sea or in port or against any one of their passengers or personnel, against coastal
  38. 38. facilities or settlements including tourist resorts, port areas and port towns or seas. Auth. The Council for Security Co-operation in the Asia Pacific (CSCAP).
  39. 39. The term refers to entities that participate or act in international relations. They are organisations with sufficient power to influence and cause a change even though they do not belong to any established institution of a state.
  40. 40. Date Port 2005 Sharm-el-Sheikh Nov 2008 Mumbai 18 Jul 2012 Burgas near Bulgarian Black Sea 03 May 2014 Mombassa, Kenya 25 Jun 2014 Lagos, Nigeria
  41. 41. Jan 2006 - Suicide attack on US Navy destroyer near Aden Sep 2013 - Failed terrorist attack on Suez Canal ship Sep 2014 - Al-Qaeda attack on Parliament Nov 2014 - Gunman attack on Egyptian patrol ship
  42. 42. It incorporates the practice, military tactics, and strategy that government, military, intelligence, police and business organisations use to combat or prevent terrorism.
  43. 43. Prevalent in weak or failed states along the Indian Ocean.
  44. 44. 1. Any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of private ship or a private aircraft, and detected. i) On the high seas, against another ship or aircraft or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft. …2/-….
  45. 45. ii) Against a ship, aircraft persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any state. 2. Any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with the knowledge of facts making it a private ship or aircraft. 3. Any act inciting or of internationally facilitating an act described in sub paragraph above.
  46. 46. Reported near narrow straits, islands and conflict regions of South East Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma and Thailand) and Yemen, Sudan, Pakistan, Myanmar and Tanzania.
  47. 47.  Smaller cargo ships.  Unarmed private yatches.  Commercial fishermen  Cruiseliners
  48. 48. $ 500 million has been paid for more than 200 ships captured – and ransomed back from Somali pirates over the last decades.
  49. 49. DRUG TRAFFICKING
  50. 50. One of Asia’s two principal areas of illicit opium production, where the space overlaps Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.
  51. 51. THREE LARGEST HEROIN AND OPIUM PRODUCERS :  Afghanistan  Pakistan  Myanmar
  52. 52. A major opium producing area of around 950,000 sq.kms that overlaps Myanmar, Laos and Thailand.
  53. 53. Myanmar is the world’s second largest producer of illicit opium after Afghanistan.
  54. 54. During four months of 2014, combined Maritime Task Force ships seized more than 2000 kgs. of heroin being trafficked in dhows via the Indian Ocean.
  55. 55. Taliban is assessed to have derived around US $ 133 million from narcotics trade in 2011 which is approx. one third of its funding.
  56. 56. ILLICIT TRADE IN SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS
  57. 57. Insurgents, armed gang members, pirates and terrorists, they can all multiply their lethality and terror through the use of unlawfully acquired fire power.
  58. 58. Conservative estimates mention 7.5 to 8 million small arms being produced per year.
  59. 59. 1. Failure in Somalia 2. Growth in piracy in the Horn of Africa 3. Conflict in Afghanistan
  60. 60. Flow of SALW from Iran to Yemen and onwards to the Eastern Mediterranean via the Suez and between the Arabian Peninsula and the Horn of Africa.
  61. 61. It is the migration of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country.
  62. 62.  Australia  Bangladesh  India  Iran  Libya  Malaysia …..2/-…
  63. 63.  Pakistan  South Africa  South Korea
  64. 64. There is a gradual but perceptible movement of the fulcrum of the glob economic and military exchanges away from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, a shift which is being keenly watched by national & global institutions.
  65. 65. Growth of international trade and commerce is intrinsically linked to a secure environment, in all its varied dimensions.
  66. 66. CONCLUSION

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