3. What do we mean by a syllabus?
(further layers of interpretation)
Why should we have a syllabus?
(Reasons for having a syllabus)
On what criteria can a syllabus be organised?
What role should a syllabus play in the course design
Points to be Discussed
4. A plan of what is to be achieved through teaching and
learning, identifying what will be worked on in reaching the
overall course aims and providing a basis for evaluating
students’ progress (Hyland, 2006).
Five steps in designing a syllabus:
1. needs analysis,
4. teaching methods,
5. testing and evaluation.
What is a syllabus?
5. The evaluation syllabus
The organisational syllabus
The materials syllabus
The teacher syllabus
The classroom syllabus
The learner syllabus
Further layers of interpretation
(Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).
6. It focuses on what successful learner will know by the end of the
It is concerned with “the nature of language and linguistic
It puts record the basis on which success or failure will be
It is the most familiar type as the document handed down by
ministries or other regulating bodies.
The evaluation syllabus
7. It states the order in which it is to be studied.
It is an implicit statement about the nature of language and
It differs from the evaluation syllabus in that:
1. It carries assumptions about the nature of learning as well as
language in organizing items in a syllabus.
2. It is necessary to consider factors which depend upon a view of
how people learn. (e.g. What is more easily learnt? What is more
useful in the classroom? Are some items needed in order to learn
The organisational syllabus
8. The materials syllabus
• It does not describe how learning will be achieved.
• Interpreted by the materials writer.
• The author adds more assumption about the
nature of language, language learning, and
9. The great majority of students in the world learn through the
mediation of a teacher.
Teacher can influence the clarity, intensity, and frequency of any
item and affect the image that the learner receive.
Different capability of teachers will bring different result in
conducting the course/classroom.
The teacher syllabus
10. What is planned and what actually happens are different things.
A classroom is a dynamic and interactive environment
A lesson is a communicative event created by the interactions.
A classroom creates condition affecting the nature of a planned
lesson. (eg. Hot weather, tired students, noise, interruption, etc)
The classroom syllabus
11. The learner syllabus
It is an internal syllabus.
It is a retrospective record of what has been studied rather than a
prospective plan of what will be studied.
It crucially influences on whether and how future knowledge is
Learners must be taken into account on a continuing basis through
every stage of the course design process.
12. Why should we have a syllabus?
Language is a complex entity, it cannot be learnt is a very short
Better management of study time, assessments, and reading
In practical benefits, a syllabus gives moral support to the teacher
An ESP syllabus is a projected route (the teacher and learners will
know where they’re going and how they get there)
A syllabus provides a set of criteria for material selection and
A syllabus as a standardizing tool.
It is a visible basis for testing.
13. The dangers regarding a syllabus
A syllabus is a model-a statement of an ideal.
A syllabus is not a statement of what will be learnt but it constitute an
approximate statement of what will be taught.
A syllabus cannot express the intangible factors that are so crucial to
learning: emotions, personalities, subjective views, motivation.
A syllabus cannot take account of individual differences.
14. On what criteria can a syllabus be
1. Focus- To identify which and what materials to be focused on
2. Select- To select materials to be taught
3. Subdivide-To puts things into subtopics
4. Sequence- To decide which comes first and what comes next
15. On what criteria can a syllabus be
•Topics are selected from the students’
specialist studies. (e.g. health/pollution)Topic syllabus
•The focus is on aspects of grammar
• The focus is on communication. It entails
conceptual meanings and communicative
purpose. (e.g. notional: time/space;
• It is based on one or more English skills
and also the microskills. (Reading skill,
microskill: skimming, scanning, reading
16. On what criteria can a syllabus be
• the situations or contexts in which the
language will be used and analyses the
language needed for those situations.
(e.g. classroom/post office/night market)
•consisting of a set of real world tasks or
activities ordered according to cognitive
difficulty. (e.g. organizing an event/writing a
•It emphasizes in communcation. Making
an oral presentation is an example of a
macroskill , including microskills such as
control of gestures and body language.
17. What role should a syllabus play in
the course design process?
A language-centered approach
• Generates teaching materials
A skill-centered approach
• Presents opportunities for students to practise and evaluate skills and
A learning-centered approach
• Focus on learning process, it divides the design process into two levels
The post-hoc approach
20. Three ways of turning your course design into actual
a. Select from existing materials: materials evaluation
b. Write your own materials: materials development
c. Modify existing materials: materials adaptation
21. To avoid the reduplication of materials.
Evaluation is basically a matching process: matching needs to available
An ESP textbook has to suit a number of parties; teachers, students and
To examine whether the materials fulfill the prescribed course
To examine the extent to which materials permit students to achieve learning
To identify whether the designs of the materials are suitable for a syllabus.
To provide one with a good theoretical base for writing another material,
which is an improvement on the former.
WHY EVALUATE MATERIALS?
Evaluation is a matter of judging the fitness of
something for a particular purpose. It is concerned with
24. STEPS IN USING THE CHECKLIST
1. Answer the A question first to identify your requirements.
2. Analyze the materials you have selected by answering the B
question. If possible, test your ideas by teaching extracts from
3. Compare the A and B findings. This can be done
impressionistically or by awarding points:
0 : does not match the desired features
1 : partly matches the desired features
2 : closely matches the desired features
Total the points and analyze the result.
1. Make your choice and use your findings to prepare any
documentation needed for defending your decision.
26. Defining objectives
What are materials supposed to do?
1. Materials provide a stimulus to learning.
2. Materials help to organize the teaching-learning process.
3. Materials embody a view of the nature of language and
4. Materials reflect the nature of learning task
5. Materials introduce the teacher about new technique
6. Materials provide models of correct and appropriate
•A topic for
for learners to
for learners to
for analysis and
lead towards a
task in which
use the content
they have built
31. Materials and the syllabus
A model must be able to ensure adequate coverage
through the syllabus of all the features identified as
playing a role in the learning development. There needs
to be a coherence between the unit structure and the
syllabus structure to ensure that the course provides
adequate and appropriate coverage of syllabus items.
33. Two types of model
34. Using the models
Find your text
Think of The task
•Go to the end of the
Think the benefits
Choose the aspect
Create some alternatives
Don’t reinvent the wheel
Work in a team
Set up draft
Time is important
Pay attention to your materials
Principles of language learning :
A developmental process
An Active Process
A decicision-making process
More than linguistics konwledge
Not the first esxperience with langauge
An emotional experience
A large extent incidental
Gaps create deman. Types of gaps:
Information gaps. Purpose: to communicate and share
Media gaps. Purpose: to transfer one media to another
Reasoning gaps. Purpose: to work the discourse
Memory gaps. To reconstruct dialogue.
Spice of learning. How to achieve?
Variety of medium: text, tape, etc.
Variety of classroom organization: whole class, pair,
Variety of learners roles: presenter, evaluator
Variety of exercise
Variety of skills: listening, writing
Variety of topic
Variety of focus
A matter of using existing knowledge of a pattern or
system in order to anticipate what is likely in a novel
It builds learners confidence
It enables teacher to discover where the gaps in
It activates the learner’s mind
It gives the students ego investment.
An integrated method
Use range of skills
Should be clear
45. Learner Assessment
procedures for the
specification of learning
objectives but did not
give any explanation on
how those objectives
might be tested
Alderson and Waters (1983)
assessment as post hoc
operation resulting a
paradoxical situation in
which the need for better
tests and evaluation
alongside an almost
universal lack of
Davies and West (1984)
Listed 14 examinations in
Specific Purpose English
Development of ESP Testing Guidance
47. Placement test
to determine the learner’s state of knowledge before the course begins
to put learners into the course suitable to their needs
this test is diagnostic to indicate how far and in what ways the learners
falls short of the proficiency level.
good placement test should reveal positive factors, not just show the
learner lacks but also his potential that can be exploited in ESP course.
problems: do the test can accurately diagnose the learner’s needs?
what’s important is that any placement test can only be approximate
guide and should be treated with due caution.
to see how well the learners keep up with the syllabus
- test what the students have learnt
- test what to test
- no bias in the test
48. a. It involves production as
well as understanding
b. It is an integrated task
c. It indicates whether the
learner is able to describe
d. The subject matter is
already known to the
e. It does not require
knowledge of subject-
f. It tests written production
49. Proficiency test
to assess whether the students can cope with any
to assess whether the students can perform the
language tasks required for them (Davies and West, 1984)
this test is criterion-referencing so that there is no
pass/fail distinction but rather a scale of degrees of
proficiency in the task.
- what makes communicative performance possible?
- what features are crucial to the real-life performance?
- how specific of specific?
51. Course Evaluation
Aspects of ESP Course
(Alderson dan Waters,
What should be evaluated?
How can ESP courses be evaluated?
Who should be involved in the
When should evaluation delivered?
52. What should be evaluated?
Needs of ESP Learners
Needs as language learners Needs as language users
Is the course fulfilling the
learners’ language learning
Is the course fulfilling the
learners’ language using
syllabus, materials, teaching and learning technique, testing
procedures, logistical/administrative arrangements, course evaluation
53. How can ESP course be
1. Gathering the evaluation information
2. Collating the information
3. Summarizing the extensive information
4. Discussing with all interested parties
5. Drawn conclusion
6. Arranging a detailed course evaluation report
54. Who should be involved in the evaluation?
55. When should evaluation be delivered?
At the end of