• Cloud computing is the delivery of different services through the
Internet. These resources include tools and applications like data
storage, servers, databases, networking, and software.
• Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage
device, cloud-based storage makes it possible to save them to a remote
database. As long as an electronic device has access to the web, it has
access to the data and the software programs to run it.
• Cloud computing is a popular option for people and businesses for a
number of reasons including cost savings, increased productivity,
speed and efficiency, performance, and security.
• Cloud computing is the delivery of different services through the Internet, including data storage, servers, databases,
networking, and software.
• Cloud storage has grown increasingly popular among individuals who need larger storage space and for businesses seeking
an efficient off-site data back-up solution.
• Cloud-based storage makes it possible to save files to a remote database and retrieve them on demand.
• Services can be both public and private—public services are provided online for a fee while private services are hosted on
a network to specific clients.
• Cloud security has become an increasingly important field in IT.
1. Which of the following is the application of cloud computing?
c) Google G Suite
d) All of the above.
2. Which of the following is an example of an IaaS Cloud service?
d) All of the above.
3. Which of the following is the correct statement about cloud
a) Cloud computing abstracts systems by pooling and sharing resources.
b) Cloud computing is nothing more than the Internet
c) The use of the word “cloud” makes reference to the two essential
d) All of the mentioned
4. By whom is the backend commonly used?
d) service provider.
1. High Speed – Quick Deployment
The ability to spin up new cloud computing instances in a matter of seconds reshaped
the agility and speed of software development. Developers can easily test new ideas
and design application architecture without the dependency on on-site hardware
limitations or slow procurement processes.
2. Automatic Software Updates and Integration
Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery rely on the fact that new software
versions can be easily tested and deployed in the cloud environment, which allows for
higher velocity of product innovation, releasing more and more features to the end-
users on a monthly, weekly and in some cases even daily basis.
3. Efficiency and Cost Reduction
By using cloud infrastructure, you don’t have to spend huge amounts of money on
purchasing and maintaining equipment. This drastically reduces CAPEX costs and
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). You don’t have to invest in hardware, facilities,
utilities, or building out a large data center to grow your business. You do not even
need large IT teams to handle your cloud data center operations, as you can enjoy the
expertise of your cloud provider’s staff.
4. Data Security
Cloud offers many advanced security features that guarantee that data is securely
stored and handled. Features like granular permissions and access management via
federated roles can restrict access to sensitive data only to the employees that need
access to it, and by that reducing the attack surface for malicious actors.
Cloud-based solutions are ideal for businesses with growing or fluctuating bandwidth
demands. If your business demands increase, you can easily increase your cloud
capacity without having to invest in physical infrastructure. This level of agility can
give businesses using cloud computing a real advantage over competitors.
6. Unlimited Storage Capacity
Related to the scalability benefit above, the cloud has essentially unlimited capacity to
store any type of data in various cloud data storage types, depending on the
availability, performance and frequency the data has to be accessed.
7. Back-up and Restore Data
The fact that data can be stored in the cloud without capacity constrains also helps
with backup and restore purposes. As end-users data changes over time and needs to
be tracked for regulations or compliance reasons, older software versions can be
stored for later stages, in cases they would be needed for recovery or rollback.
8. Disaster Recovery
Having previous versions of software stored in the cloud, and having production
instances running on multiple cloud availability zones or regions allow for faster
recovery from disasters: if your application is deployed on multiple locations and for
some reason one region goes down – the traffic can automatically failover to the
working regions without any interruptions to the end-users. In other cases where there
is a major bug in the software release, a quick rollback can be initiated to restore a
previously released, more stable version to minimize damage.
1. Risk of data confidentiality
There is always a risk that user data can be accessed by other people. So data and
cloud protection must be good because if it won’t be dangerous for data
2. Depends on internet connection
The internet is the only way to cloud computing. When there is no internet
connection in your place, or the internet path to the cloud provider is in trouble,
automatically access to your cloud computing machine will be disconnected.
3. The level of security
Secrecy and security are among the most doubtful things in cloud computing. By
using a cloud computing system means we are fully entrusted with the security and
confidentiality of data to companies that provide cloud computing servers. When you
experience a problem, you cannot sue the server for errors in the data. When you
experience a problem, you cannot sue the server for errors in the data.
Which refers to the risk of a level compliance deviation from the provider against the
regulations applied by the user.
5. Vulnerable in the event of an attack
There are lots of arguments against cloud computing one of which is computing
because the Cloud Computing work system is online, each component that is on
Cloud Computing can be exposed to a wide range, this is a wide open opportunity for
attacks on data or activities stored on the server. When an attack is carried out by
hackers, the problems that occur are data security, and data privacy.
6. Data Mobility
which refers to the possibility of sharing data between cloud services and how to
retrieve data if one day the user makes a process of terminating cloud computing
services.And there is local storage where the data can be used at any time as needed.
7. Technical problem
Besides that the use of Cloud Computing makes you unable to manage it yourself
when there is a problem or a problem, you must contact customer support who is not
necessarily ready 24/7. This is a problem because for some support you also have to
pay more money.
8. Low Connection
Does not work well if the connection is slow. The quality of cloud computing servers
is one of the most important considerations before we decide to provide cloud
computing server service providers. When the server is down or the permorma is not
good, we will be harmed because of poor server quality.
• Virtualization is the "creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version
of something, such as a server, a desktop, a storage device, an
operating system or network resources".
• In other words, Virtualization is a technique, which allows to share a
single physical instance of a resource or an application among
multiple customers and organizations. It does by assigning a logical
name to a physical storage and providing a pointer to that physical
resource when demanded.
• Virtualization plays a very important role in the cloud computing technology, normally in the cloud computing, users share
the data present in the clouds like application etc, but actually with the help of virtualization users shares the Infrastructure.
• The main usage of Virtualization Technology is to provide the applications with the standard versions to their cloud users,
suppose if the next version of that application is released, then cloud provider has to provide the latest version to their
cloud users and practically it is possible because it is more expensive.
• To overcome this problem we use basically virtualization technology, By using virtualization, all severs and the software
application which are required by other cloud providers are maintained by the third party people, and the cloud providers
has to pay the money on monthly or annual basis.
BENEFITS OF VIRTUALIZATION
1. More flexible and efficient allocation of resources.
2. Enhance development productivity.
3. It lowers the cost of IT infrastructure.
4. Remote access and rapid scalability.
5. High availability and disaster recovery.
6. Pay peruse of the IT infrastructure on demand.
7. Enables running multiple operating systems.
Types of Virtualization:
11. Application Virtualization
Application virtualization helps a user to have remote access of an application from a
server. The server stores all personal information and other characteristics of the
application but can still run on a local workstation through the internet. Example of
this would be a user who needs to run two different versions of the same software.
Technologies that use application virtualization are hosted applications and packaged
Network Virtualization is a process of logically grouping physical networks and
making them operate as single or multiple independent networks called Virtual
NV can combine multiple physical networks to one virtual, software-based
network, or it can divide one physical network into separate, independent virtual
12. Desktop Virtualization
Desktop virtualization allows the users’ OS to be remotely stored on a server in the
data centre. It allows the user to access their desktop virtually, from any location by a
different machine. Users who want specific operating systems other than Windows
Server will need to have a virtual desktop. Main benefits of desktop virtualization are
user mobility, portability, easy management of software installation, updates, and
Storage virtualization is an array of servers that are managed by a virtual storage
system. The servers aren’t aware of exactly where their data is stored, and instead
function more like worker bees in a hive. It makes managing storage from
multiple sources to be managed and utilized as a single repository. storage
virtualization software maintains smooth operations, consistent performance and a
continuous suite of advanced functions despite changes, break down and
differences in the underlying equipment.
13. Server Virtualization
This is a kind of virtualization in which masking of server resources takes place.
Here, the central-server(physical server) is divided into multiple different virtual
servers by changing the identity number, processors. So, each system can operate its
own operating systems in isolate manner. Where each sub-server knows the identity
of the central server. It causes an increase in the performance and reduces the
operating cost by the deployment of main server resources into a sub-server resource.
It’s beneficial in virtual migration, reduce energy consumption, reduce infrastructural
Data virtualization is gathering data from multiple sources of information to
create a single, logical, and virtual view of information that can be accessed by
front-end solutions such as portals, applications, and dashboards without knowing
the exact storage location of the data.
In other words, we can say that, In this virtualization, data is collected from
multiple sources and managed in a single location without knowing more about
the technical information, such as how data is collected, stored, formatted, and
then arranged logically so that its virtual view can be accessed remotely by its
interested people, stakeholders, and users via the various cloud services. Many
large corporations, including IBM, At scale, Oracle, Cdata, and others, offer their
Types of Hypervisors
• It is a firmware or low-level programme that acts as virtual machine manager
• Virtual machine monitor(VMM)
• It create a virtualization layer that separates CPU/Process, RAM, Network cards,
and other physical resources from the virtual machine running on it
• Software that creates and run virtual machines
• Hypervisor is software that enables the sharing of cloud provider’s physical
compute and memory resources across multiple virtual machines (VMs).
• The hypervisor is a hardware virtualization technique that allows multiple guest
operating systems (OS) to run on a single host system at the same time.
• Examples: Oracle VM VirtualBox, Microsoft Virtual PC, KVM etc.
Two types of Hypervisors
1. Type 1
2. Type 2
15. Type 1
• Also called as native or bare Metal
• The hypervisor runs directly on the underlying host system
• It does not require any base server operating system. It has direct access to
• Examples of Type 1 hypervisors include VMware ESXi, Citrix XenServer, and
Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor.
• Type-1 hypervisors are actually a very basic OS on top of which we run virtual
machines. So the physical machine on which the hypervisor is running can only be
used for virtualization purposes and nothing else.
• These hypervisors require a separate management console to perform activities
like instance creation, migration, etc. The management console can be web-based
or a separate package that you can install on another machine. Using this console,
you can connect to the hypervisor to manage your virtual environment operations.
Pros: Such kinds of hypervisors are very efficient because they have direct access to the physical hardware
resources(like CPU, Memory, Network, and Physical storage). This causes the empowerment of the security because
there is nothing any kind of the third party resource so that attacker couldn’t compromise with anything.
Cons: One problem with Type-1 hypervisors is that they usually need a dedicated separate machine to perform their
operation and to instruct different VMs and control the host hardware resources.
16. Type 2
• Opposite to Type 2
• runs on top of an existing OS
• These hypervisors execute on an operating system similar to other computer
Pros: Such kind of hypervisors allows quick and easy access to a guest Operating System alongside the host machine
running. These hypervisors usually come with additional useful features for guest machines. Such tools enhance the
coordination between the host machine and the guest machine.
Cons: Here there is no direct access to the physical hardware resources so the efficiency of these hypervisors lags in
performance as compared to the type-1 hypervisors, and potential security risks are also there an attacker can
compromise the security weakness if there is access to the host operating system so he can also access the guest
• Cloud scalability in cloud computing refers to increasing or decreasing IT
resources as needed to meet changing demand. Scalability is one of the hallmarks
of the cloud and the primary driver of its explosive popularity with businesses.
• Data storage capacity, processing power, and networking can all be increased by
using existing cloud computing infrastructure. Scaling can be done quickly and
easily, usually without any disruption or downtime.
• Third-party cloud providers already have the entire infrastructure in place; In the
past, when scaling up with on-premises physical infrastructure, the process could
take weeks or months and require exorbitant expenses.
• This is one of the most popular and beneficial features of cloud computing, as businesses can grow up or down to meet
the demands depending on the season, projects, development, etc.
• By implementing cloud scalability, you enable your resources to grow as your traffic or organization grows and vice
versa. There are a few main ways to scale to the cloud:
• If your business needs more data storage capacity or processing power, you'll want a system that scales easily and
• Cloud computing solutions can do just that, which is why the market has grown so much. Using existing cloud
infrastructure, third-party cloud vendors can scale with minimal disruption.
22. Horizontal Scaling
• Horizontal scaling refers to adding more servers to your network, rather than
simply adding resources like with vertical scaling.
• This method tends to take more time and is more complex, but it allows you to
connect servers together, handle traffic efficiently and execute concurrent
• Horizontal scaling in cloud computing means adding additional instances instead
of moving to a larger instance size.
• E.g two-lane highway
• With computing, you can add or subtract resources, including memory or storage,
within the server, as long as the resources do not exceed the capacity of the
• Although it has its limitations, it is a way to improve your server and avoid latency
and extra management. Like in the hotel example, resources can come and go
easily and quickly, as long as there is room for them.
• refers to adding more or faster CPUs, memory, or I/O resources to an existing
server, or replacing one server with a more powerful server.