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  1. 1. 1 Motivating Your Employees What is Motivation? The willingness to do something conditioned by the action’s ability to satisfy some need for the individual.
  2. 2. 2 A Need Is a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes seem attractive.
  3. 3. 3 Understanding Individual Differences To varying degrees and in particular ways: We are all different
  4. 4. 4 Understanding Individual Differences And while it is also true that we are all motivated by a wide array of needs at differing levels of intensity,
  5. 5. 5 Understanding Individual Differences It is also possible to identify and generalize about certain personality characteristics that help us better understand the behavior and motivation of employees at work.
  6. 6. 6 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Locus of Control Who has control over an individual’s behavior? Is it;  Internal (self-control) or,  External (outside forces)
  7. 7. 7 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Machiavellianism The degree to which an individual is manipulative and believes ends justify means.
  8. 8. 8 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Self-Esteem The Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves.
  9. 9. 9 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  10. 10. 10 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Self-Monitoring High self-monitors are capable of presenting striking contradictions between public personas and private selves. Low self-monitors tend to display their true feelings and beliefs in every situation.
  11. 11. 11 Personality Types & Work-Related Behaviors Risk Propensity The degree to which people are willing to take chances. Such individuals make more rapid decisions and use less information in the process.
  12. 12. 12 Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory A theory of Abraham Maslow that states that a satisfied need no longer creates tension and therefore doesn’t motivate.
  13. 13. 13 Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow believed that the key to motivation is to determine where an individual is along the needs hierarchy and focus motivation efforts at the point where needs become essentially unfulfilled.
  14. 14. 14 Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Physiological  Safety  Social  Esteem  Self-actualization
  15. 15. 15 Early Theories of Motivation McGregor’s Theory X & Y Two diametrically opposed views on human nature. Theory X assumes people are essentially lazy, irresponsible, and lacking ambition;
  16. 16. 16 Early Theories of Motivation McGregor’s Theory X & Y Theory Y assumes people are hard working, committed, and responsible.
  17. 17. 17 Early Theories of Motivation McGregor’s Theory X & Y McGregor stated that supervisors will tend to mold their behavior toward subordinates according to these assumptions.
  18. 18. 18 Early Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory The opposite of satisfaction is not “dissatisfaction” but “no satisfaction” and the opposite of dissatisfaction is not “satisfaction” but “no dissatisfaction.”
  19. 19. 19 Early Theories of Motivation Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory The factors leading to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction. Motivators - Hygiene Factors
  20. 20. 20 Early Theories of Motivation Hygiene Factors Those that lead to job dissatisfaction, such as company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary. The elimination of such factors, however, may not necessarily bring about worker satisfaction or motivation.
  21. 21. 21 Early Theories of Motivation If we want to motivate people on their jobs, Herzberg suggests emphasizing achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, and growth.
  22. 22. 22 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Need for Achievement (nAch) A compelling drive to succeed; an intrinsic motivation to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before.
  23. 23. 23 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Reinforcement Theory People will exert higher levels of effort in tasks that are reinforced. Reinforces are any consequences that, when immediately following a response, increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
  24. 24. 24 Contemporary Theories of Motivation Expectancy Theory A theory that argues that individuals analyze effort-performance, performance-reward, and rewards- personal goals relationships, and their level of effort depends on the strength of their expectations that these relationships can be achieved.
  25. 25. 25 Applying Motivational Concepts  Recognize individual differences  Match people to jobs  Set challenging goals  Encourage participation  Individualize rewards  Link rewards to performance  Check for equity  Don’t ignore money
  26. 26. 26 Challenges For Today’s Supervisor  A diverse workforce  Low-paid service workers  Professionals
  27. 27. 27 Pay-for-Performance (Does Money Motivate?) Compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure. ESOP (Employee Stock Ownership Plan) A compensation program that allows the employees to become part owners of an organization by receiving stock as a performance incentive.
  28. 28. 28 Job Design and Motivation Job Design: combining tasks to form complete jobs.  Skill Variety  Task Identity  Task Significance  Autonomy  Feedback
  29. 29. 29 Job Design and Motivation Job Enrichment: The degree to which a worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work.