Economic Activities for the Junior Certicate

Teacher à Irish Education System
10 Mar 2017

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Economic Activities for the Junior Certicate

  1. Primary Secondary And Tertiary
  2.  Primary economic activity is: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________  Secondary economic activity is:  __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________  Tertiary economic activity is: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________
  3.  Conservation – using as little water as possible. ◦ Example: Showering instead of having a bath  Pollution – chemicals/poisons released into water ◦ Example: Dirty water flowing from a house into a stream  Irrigation – Watering fields to allow crops to grow ◦ Example: Crops watered in hot countries
  4. 2015 Ordinary Level Junior Cert Exam
  5.  Advantages ◦ Extra _____ can be grown ◦ Controls F__________ ◦ W_____ Sports in lake behind dam  Disadvantages ◦ Construction ___________ villages & historical sites ◦ Trapped S_________ in Lake N________ ◦ Water lost from e_____________ ◦ Diseases spread from W_____ S______
  6. 2006 Junior Cert
  7. Renewable Dam in Egypt Finite Purifies water Primary Extraction of raw materials Secondary Oil producing country Tertiary Problem with the Aswan dam Plastic Can be used again & again Saudi Arabia Providing a service Water cycle Heat + water = Aswan Will run out Snail Making a product Precipitation Clouds form this way Evaporation Made from oil Condensation Water from the sky
  8.  Raised bogs – Found in low lying areas – deep  Blanket bogs (below) – found on mountains – not deep
  9.  Ditcher – Drains the Bog  Grader – Levels the surface  Miller – Scrapes off peat  Harrow – dries the scraped peat  Ridger – Sorts peat into ridges
  10.  B_________ – used for home heating  H__________ P_________(compost) – used for gardens  Milled Peat/Rolled Peat – used in power stations
  11. 2011 Junior Cert Ordinary Level Paper
  12.  What is sustainable fishing?  What is resource depletion?  What is a continental shelf?
  13.  Before 1973: Small boats (___________) that did not go far from shore. Few fish caught. Only Irish fishermen could fish around Ireland  1973: Ireland joined the E_________ U____(EEC then)  After 1973: Big expansion in Irish Fishing. Other EU countries could fish in Irish waters.
  14.  Pre 1973: Small boats (_________) with small hand nets  After 1973: Big t_________ and factory boats with large H________ W________ and N_____
  15.  Pre 1973: No r___________ of caught fish  After 1973: R__________ on all trawlers – fish can be p__________ for weeks at sea
  16.  Pre 1973: No way to d_______ fish  After 1973: Use of _______ (listening to underwater sounds using echo sounders) to detect fish
  17.  So many big trawlers fishing the same seas meant that too many fish were being caught  Not enough fish remained to spawn new fish
  18.  __________ : Limiting the amount of fish that can be caught  Increase/reduction in the number of trawlers  Large _________ _____in nets: Allows smaller fish to escape  Shorter fishing s_______  Non EU fishing ships b______  The Irish Conservation Box is an area around Ireland where conservation takes place
  19. Sonar Size of holes in net Trawler Fish species Currach Sound waves to catch fish EEC Keeps caught fish fresh Quota Motorised fishing boat Mesh size Fish species Refrigeration Small fishing boat Herring Today it’s the EU Cod Limiting fish catch
  20.  Inputs are products/services that are used by the farmer to run his farm. Examples: Money (capital), Labour, Fertiliser, Machinery, Seed, Animal Feed, Vet visits etc.
  21.  Processes are actions that the farmer does in running his farm. Examples: Spreading fertiliser, milking cows, cutting silage etc.
  22.  Outputs are the finished products which a farm produces. Examples are Cattle for sale, harvested crops, milk, slurry etc.
  23.  A Mixed Farm is a farm that involves more than one type of activity, such as Cattle and Crops.
  24. Marking Scheme: 2 Statements – 2m each 2 Developments – 2m each
  25.  Secondary Activities are where raw materials (e.g. Plastic, Wiring) is used in a factory to make products (e.g. computers)
  26.  Factory inputs are things the factory needs to make products. Examples – raw materials, machinery, electricity, workers Workers and machinery are both inputs
  27.  Factory processes are what the factory does to make a finished product Sewing is a process at this factory
  28.  Factory outputs are the finished products the factory sells on for profit and any waste produced by the factory Cars are an output at this Audi factory
  29.  Many Factors influence where a factory will be built 1. Access to raw materials 2. Access to transport (near an airport, motorway etc) 3. Access to Labour – near towns/cities with many workers 4. Access to services – broadband, electricity etc 5. Availability of land for building 6. Access to markets 7. Government and EU Policy 8. Access to Capital (Money)
  30.  Where would it be easier to get raw materials for a wool factory?
  31.  Which site would have better transport links?
  32.  Where would it be easier to get workers for a factory?
  33.  Which location has more space for a factory?
  34.  Where would you find more customers to buy your factory’s products?
  35.  Located in a Greenfield site near Leixlip  Makes microchips for export  Employs 5,000 people in well paying jobs (average wage over €80,000)
  36.  Close to Dublin ◦ Good supply of Labour (workers) ◦ Easy transport links (motorway, railway nearby, Dublin city and Port)  Plenty space to build and expand (Greenfield site)  Easy access to services (water, electricity)  Tax incentives and Grants (Government money to build a factory)  Easy access to European markets  No danger of Earthquakes
  37.  Uses heavy machinery and huge plants to make bulk products, eg. Iron and Steel, Cement, Chemicals in bulk.  Can often be heavily polluting and are located away from built up areas
  38.  1. Access to Raw Materials  2. Ease of transport of materials & finished products  3. Adequate space for a large factory  4. Away from built up areas  5. Access to Labour and Services  6. Government policy – promote development.
  39.  “Footloose” – an industry which can locate almost anywhere.  Footloose industries are generally non-polluting  Examples can be found all over Ireland because: ◦ Many sites available ◦ Electricity widely available ◦ Many transport options available – road network good ◦ Workforce is mobile ◦ Many traffic bottlenecks are bypassed.
  40.  Industrial inertia – when factories stay in an area even when the original reasons for locating there no longer apply  Example: Steel Works in Sheffield
  41.  Raw materials – iron ore + coke for heating furnaces (coke comes from coal)  Iron ore is heated in a blast furnace => pig iron  Pig iron + scrap metal are heated in a steel furnace => molten steel  Molten steel is rolled in a mill =>steel plate
  42.  3 phases ◦ 18th century (pre industrial stage) ◦ 19th century (Industrial Revolution stage) ◦ 20th century (Modern stage)
  43.  Resource based location ◦ Iron ore mine ◦ Forests – wood for charcoal (for furnaces) ◦ Rivers/streams – water for power (water wheel) + transport  Example; Forest of Dean  When no trees left => relocate
  44.  Coalfield location ◦ Steam replaced water for power ◦ Coke replaced charcoal ◦ Coal mine provided coke and power ◦ Canals transported raw materials  Example South Wales  When no coal left => relocate
  45.  Coastal location ◦ Import more and cheaper iron ore, scrap metal and coal ◦ Oil/gas => electricity => power ◦ Flat land  Example Port Talbot (below left)  Iron and steel processes came together => Integrated Steel works
  46.  Tradition  Access to large markets  Skilled workers  Good transport links  Specialised production
  47.  The big changes that encouraged women to play a greater role in the workforce are: ◦ Free Secondary Education ◦ The Women’s Liberation movement ◦ Gender Equality Laws ◦ Increase in house prices (needs both parents to work) ◦ Smaller families ◦ Growth of childcare/creches
  48. Poverty in the West of China is a Push factor, encouraging women to leave for the cities in the East. Many jobs are low paying and working conditions can be quite poor.
  49.  The world is divided into three industrial zones: ◦ The Industrialised regions of Europe, Japan and North America. These areas are well developed with advanced industries. ◦ The Newly Industrialised regions of South East Asia (e.g. China) and parts of Latin America (e.g. Mexico). These areas have less advanced industries but are “catching up” with Europe and the USA ◦ The Industrially emergent regions of Africa, parts of Asia and parts of South America – these countries are only slowly developing.
  50.  Pollution from factories can affect the air and water in our environment  One major problem caused by industrialisation is Acid Rain  Acid Rain is caused by smoke from industry (especially burning fossil fuels like coal) combining with water vapour in clouds to make rain more acidic  This acid rain can damage farmland, forests, rivers and lakes and buildings.
  51. Solutions to acid rain
  52.  Factory owners (industrialists) are interested in making and selling more products.  What happens if this causes pollution?  What happens if a factory has to close because it is causing too much pollution?  Who pays to clean up the pollution?
  53.  Tertiary economic activities involve services.  Jobs in the Tertiary Economic Sector do not involve raw materials and do not involve manufacturing a finished product.  Examples of jobs in this sector: Teacher, Garda, Bus Driver, Tour Guide, Waiter, Barman, Actor, Bank Clerk, Florist, Accountant, Doctor, Mechanic, Cleaners…..
  54. Rich countries have more people working in tertiary economic activities because people can afford to pay for doctors, teachers, hairdressers, bar staff…. In a poor country, people often have only enough money for food and other essential items.
  55.  Tourism is an activity which tends to be located in certain regions: ◦ Areas of Natural beauty ◦ Regions offering recreational and sporting facilities ◦ Beaches & Coastlines ◦ Cities
  56. Why do people travel in large numbers today?
  57. SPAIN has: • A warm sunny climate • Lots of coastline • Year round good weather • Cultural attractions (such as Bull Fighting)
  58.  Provides employment – Tourists need accommodation and food/drink which means jobs for hotel workers, restaurant staff etc.  Construction Industry – building of Hotels, Apartments etc  Demand for food & drink – farmers benefit from many tourists wanting to buy their goods  Development of Communication links – roads and airports built for tourists, now can be used by locals  New facilities – water parks, hotels etc can be used by locals
  59.  Spanish Culture is being hidden by Northern European culture  Some Spanish towns have lost their identity  Some tourists behave poorly
  60.  Petty Crime is now a problem in Spanish tourist areas  It is now too expensive for locals to live in resort areas  Many resorts are now too built up and are unattractive “concrete jungles”  Pollution from sewage  Too much demand for water