Modern medicine was altered by the commercialization and routine use of antimicrobial
agents to treat infection. Unfortunately, this therapeutic success is now under jeopardy
due to the dramatic rise in antibiotic resistance. In fact, one of the top three public
health dangers of the 21st century, according to the World Health Organization, is
antibiotic resistance (Munita and Arias, 2016).
According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report from 2019, AMR caused
700,000 fatalities, and it's predicted that by 2050, that number will have increased to 20
million, costing more than $ 2.9 trillion. As a result, it has grown to be a significant issue
that threatens both our economy and way of life (Uddin et al., 2021).
in the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates
that more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur there annually,
leading to more than 35,000 fatalities (Prevention and Control, 2020) (CDC, 2020).
in India being resistant to standard antibiotics, a kid dies from an antibiotic-resistant
bacterial illness every nine minutes, and more than 50,000 infants are at risk of
dying from sepsis (Subramaniam and Girish, 2020).
Look for P. aeruginosa that produces ESBLs in the P. aeruginosa isolates from Menofia
University Hospitals (MUH), Egypt. 287 inpatients suffering from different nosocomial
diseases. ESBLs and MDR P. aeruginosa were discovered (Mahmoud et al., 2013).
In Upper Egypt's intensive care units, they investigated the epidemiology of
virulence factors in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates from ventilator-associated
pneumonia patients who were hospitalized. samples from patients admitted to the
various ICUs at Minia University Hospital over a 15-month period between 2017
and 2019 were taken for respiratory tract infections and phenotypically identify a
total of 173 P. aeruginosa isolates (Hassuna et al., 2020).
chloramphenicol (CAM), a bacteriostatic broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits
protein synthesis of bacteria (Tevyashova, 2021).
The chemical modification of chloramphenicol is mainly driven by the expression of
Group of genes such as; CATs (chloramphenicol acetyltransferases), these genes
catalyze the acetyl-S-CoA-dependent acetylation of chloramphenicol at the 3-
hydroxyl group. The product 3 acetoxy chloramphenicol does not bind to bacterial
ribosomes (Elder et al., 2021).
The fexA gene encodes a protein with 14-transmembrane domains, functioning as an
efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily (Müller et al., 2021). In addition to
The cmlA and floR are CAP efflux pump genes that pump out Chloramphenicol from
the Chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria (Li et al., 2013).
So, Antimicrobial resistance is associated with high mortality rates and high medical
costs and has a significant impact on the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents (Tanwar
et al., 2014)
Available information regarding multidrug resistance bacterial spread
in Egypt is very rare So, Therefore this study through investigation the
presence of chloramphenicol resistant genes among pathogenic
bacterial sample, Rapid screening and Surveillance. This proposal
aimed at detection of chloramphenicol resistant genes.