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What is a tire History Types of tires Manufacturing of tire Factors affecting lifespan of tires Conclusion References
Tire: A hoop that covers a wheel; Protective covering that increases the lifetime of a wheel. “Automobile tires are usually made of rubber and filled with compressed air“.
The first tires were made in 1800’s but it was just rubber over wheel. In 1845 RW Thomson invented the air filled tires. In 1888 John Dunlop reinvented the pneumatic tires. It was first used in 1895 in automobiles.
Basically there are 3 types of tires :-- Bias Ply tires Radial tires and Bias Belted tires.
The manufacturing of a tire can be broadly divided into 8 different steps which include1. Mixing the materials2. Extruding the tread3. Weaving the plies4. Preparing the bead core5. Building process6. Vulcanisation7. Trimming8. Final inspection
1. Mixing the materials Mixing the materials * Natural and synthetic rubber are combined with carbon black, sulphur and chemical products *The resulting blend is called the "master batch", which is formed into rubber sheets, and cooled.. Extruding the tread2 Extruding the tread *Heat is applied to the rubber *It is put through extruders machines. *It is then cooled and cut to specific tyre lengths.
3. Weaving the plies Weaving the plies *Spinning cords such as rayon, nylon, steel andpolyester undergo a process called “calendering”. *The sheets are then cut at the proper angle intospecific widths and lengths4. Preparing the bead core Preparing the bead core * The bead core is formed by aligning. * Plated steel wires are coated with rubber. * It is wound on a coil to form bead rings.
5. Building process Building processThe building process involves two stages.Stage 1:* The inner liner, body plies and sidewalls are placed on the building drum.* The correctly-positioned beads rings are then attached, results in automatic wrapping of the ply edges around the bead core, and the simultaneously movement of the sidewalls into position.Stage 2:* Tyre is shaped by inflating the rubber and applying . Vulcanisation side tread rubber, two steel belts and a cap ply to achieve a "green" tyre.6. Vulcanisation* “Green” tyre is placed in a curing press for a certainperiod (10-15 minutes) .* Once heat and pressure is applied to tyre, it is thenremoved from mould having achieved its final size, shapeand tread pattern.
7. Trimming TrimmingExcess rubber from the curing process isremoved, and the tyre is trimmed to order.8. Final inspection Final inspectionEach tyre is visually and electronically inspected forbalance, quality and uniformity. This final checkensures consistent and reliable performance.
Tire Rotation and Alignment Tire Pressures Driving Conditions Tire compound Calendar Age vs. Mileage
A tire should not be used for more than 5-6 years. The life span of tire ranges from 10,000 to 80,000 miles. Even a minor error in manufacturing tires can take some one’s life.