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ContentsMeaningComponents of attitudesFormation of attitudesWork related attitudesAttitude changeBarriers to changing attitudes
MeaningAn attitude is a psychological tendency,expressed by evaluating an entity withsome degree of favor or disfavor.It reflects How one feels about something?Attitude is a hypothetical construct thatrepresents an individual’s like or dislike foran item.I say “I like my job”, I am expressing myattitude about work.
ABC Model Attitudes develop on the basis of evaluation responding. An individual does not have an attitude until he or she responds to an entity (person, object, situation, issue) on an affective, cognitive or behavioral basis. Three components: affect behavioral intention cognition
Affect:- is the emotional component of an attitude. It refers to an individuals feeling about something or someone. “I like this…..” “I prefer that…”These reflect effective component of an attitude.Behavioral intention:- The intention to behave in a certain way towards an object or person.
Cognition:- reflects person’s perception or beliefs. Cognitive elements are evaluativebeliefs and are measured by attitude scales or by asking about thoughts.“I believe Japanese workers are industrious” reflects cognitive component of an attitude.
Components Measured by ExamplesA Affect Physiological indicators Verbal statements I don’t like my about feelings. boss.B Behavioral Observed behavior Intentions Verbal statements I want to transfer to about intentions another department.C Cognition Attitude scales Verbal statements I believe my boss about beliefs plays favorites atwork.
Attitude FormationTwo major influences on attitudes are: Direct experience Social learningDirect experience with an object or person is a powerful influence on attitudes.They are stronger, held more confidently, and are more resistant to change tan attitudes formed through indirect experience. This means that the attitudes are easily accessed and are active in our cognitive processes.
Social learning:-The process of derivingattitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations and culture.Children learn to adopt certain attitudes by the reinforcement they are given by their parents. After overhearing other individuals expressing an opinion or watching them engaging in a behavior that reflects an attitude, the observer adopts the attitude.
Work Attitudes Attitudes at work are important because directly or indirectly, they affect work behavior. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Job satisfaction Organizational commitment
Job satisfaction A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. It has been treated both as a general attitude and a satisfaction with five specific dimensions of the job: Pay Work itself Promotion opportunities Supervision coworkers
Job satisfaction is related to organizationalcitizenship behavior- behavior that is aboveand beyond the call of duty. Satisfied employees are more likelyto help their coworkers, make positivecomments about company and refrain fromcomplaining when things at work do not gowell. Going beyond the call of duty isespecially important to organizations usingteams to get work done. Employeesdepend on extra help from each other toget things accomplished
Satisfied workers want to give something back to the organization because they want to reciprocate their positive experiences.Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)influence performance evaluation. Employee who exhibit behaviors such as helping others, making suggestions for innovations and developing their skills receive higher performance ratings. “Companies with satisfied workers have better performance than Companies with dissatisfied workers.”
Organizational Commitment The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Three kinds of Organizational Commitment: Affective commitment Continuance commitment Normative commitment
Affective commitment is an employee’sintention to remain in an organizationbecause of strong desire to do so. Itconsists of 3 factors: . A belief in the goals and values of theorganization . A willingness to put forth effort on behalfof the organization . A desire to remain a member of theorganization.Affective commitment encompasses loyalty.
Continuance commitment is anemployee’s tendency to remain in anorganization because the person cannotafford to leave. Employees believe that ifthey leave, they will lose a great deal oftheir investments in time, effort andbenefits ant that they cannot replace theseinvestments. Normative commitment is a perceivedobligation to remain with the organization.Individuals who experience normativecommitment stay with the organizationbecause they fell that they should.
Attitude change Attitudes can be changed through persuasion. Through persuasion, one individual (the source) tries to change the attitude of another person (the target). Factors that affect the persuasiveness of a message are: Target characteristics Source characteristics Message characteristics Cognitive routes
Target characteristics:These are the characteristics that refer tothe person who receives and processes amessage. Individuals with low self-esteemare more likely to change their attitude inresponse to persuasion than areindividuals with high self-esteem. Themind frame and mood of the target alsoplays a role in this process.
Source characteristics:Three major characteristics of the source affect persuasion are: Expertise Trustworthiness Attractiveness.A source who is perceived as an expert is particularly persuasive. The credibility of a perceived message is a key variable, example: If one reads a report about health and believes it came from a professional medical journal, one may
be more easily persuaded than if onebelieves it is from a popular newspaper.Some psychologists have debated that thisis a long-lasting effect and others are ofview that effect of telling people that amessage came from credible sourcedisappeared after several weeks (“sleepereffect”).If people are informed of the source of amessage before hearing it, there is lesslikelihood of a sleeper effect than if they aretold of message and then source.
Message characteristics:The nature of the message plays a role inpersuasion. Sometimes presenting bothsides story is useful to change attitude.Example: If you want to implement anunpopular policy at work. You have topersuade your employees that the policyis a positive change
Cognitive routes: Persuasion occurs over two routes: Central route Peripheral routeIn the central route to persuasion the individual is presented with the data and motivated to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion. The content of message is more important and it involves direct cognitive processing of the message’s content.
In peripheral route to attitude change, the individual is encouraged to not look at thecontent but at the source i.e. individual is not motivated to pay much attention to the message’s content. This is commonly seen in modern advertisements that feature celebrities. In some cases, physicians, doctors, or experts are used. In other cases film stars are used for their attractiveness.
Barriers to changing attitudes: Prior commitments Strong commitments Publicly expressed attitudes Low credibility Insufficient information Degree of fear