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My presentation on topic BIO DIESEL BY : Naveen Sihag B.Tech
INTRODUCTIONBio diesel as the name suggests is a type of diesel that is being made from the bio products , and these products are a renewable sources of energyBio diesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended withpetroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern dieselengines. Bio diesel has different solvent properties than petroleumdiesel, and will degrade natural rubber gaskets and hoses invehicles
BIODIESELBio diesel refers to a non-petroleum-based diesel fuel consisting ofshort chain alkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters, made by trans esteri ficationof vegetable oil, which can be used (alone, or blended withconventional petroleum diesel) in unmodified diesel-engine vehicles.Bio diesel is distinguished from the straight vegetable oil (SVO) used(alone, or blended) as fuels in some converted diesel vehicles.Following are some of its features:1. Blends2. Origin3. Applications4.Railroad use5.Aircraft use
6.Historical background7.Availibility and prices8.Production9.Bio diesel manufacturing process10. Production levels11. Bio diesel feed stock12. Quantity of feed stocks required13. Main article: food v s fuel14. Bio diesel manufacturing process15. Camparisn of efficiency for different techniques
Blends:Blends of bio diesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based dieselare products most commonly distributed for use in the retail dieselfuel marketplace. Much of the world uses a system known as the"B" factor to state the amount of bio diesel in any fuel mix: fuelcontaining 20% bio diesel is labeled B20, while pure bio diesel isreferred to as B100. It is common to see B99, since 1% petroleumdiesel is sufficiently toxic to retard mold. Blends of 20 percent biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel (B20) can generally beused in unmodified diesel engines.
Origin:On August 31, 1937, G. Chavanne of the University of Brussels(Belgium) was granted a patent for a Procedure for thetransformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels BelgianPatent 422,877. This patent described the alcoholysis of vegetableoils using ethanol (and mentions methanol) in order to separatethe fatty acids from the glycerol by replacing the glycerol with shortlinear alcohols.
ApplicationsBio diesel can be used in pure form (B100) or may be blended withpetroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines.Bio diesel has been known to break down deposits of residue in thefuel lines where petroleum diesel has been used. As a result, fuelfilters may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition topure bio diesel is made. Therefore, it is recommended to change thefuel filters on engines and heaters shortly after first swi DistributionBio diesel use and production are increasing rapidly. Fueling stationsmake bio diesel readily available to consumers across Europe, andincreasingly in the USA and Canada. Bio diesel is often moreexpensive to purchase than petroleum diesel but this is expected todiminish due to economies of scale and agricultural subsidies versusthe rising cost of petroleum as reserves are depleted.
Railroad use:The British businessman Richard Bransons VirginVoyager train, number 220007 Thames Voyager, billedas the worlds first "bio diesel train" was converted to runon 80% petroleum diesel and only 20% bio diesel, and itis claimed it will save 14% on direct emissionsAircraft use:The worlds first bio fuel-powered commercial aircraft took offfrom Londons Heathrow Airport on February 24, 2008 andtouched down in Amsterdam on a demonstration flight hailed asa first step towards "cleaner" flying
Historical background:Trans esterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853 byscientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel enginebecame functional. Rudolf Diesels prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) ironcylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time inAugsburg, Germany, on August 10, 1893. In remembrance of this event,August 10 has been declared "International Bio diesel Day".
Availability and prices:In some countries bio diesel is less expensive than conventionaldiesel.For more details on this topic, see Bio diesel around the World.Global bio diesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005.Approximately 85% of bio diesel production came from theEuropean Union.In the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices,including Federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 are lower thanpetroleum diesel by about 12 cents, and B20 blends are thesame as petrodiesel. B99 and B100 generally cost morethan petroleum diesel except where local governments provide asubsidy.
Production:Bio diesel is commonly produced by the trans ester ification of thevegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. There are several methods forcarrying out this trans ester ification reaction including the commonbatch process, supercritical processes, ultrasonic methods, and evenmicrowave methods
Bio diesel Manufacturing Process :An oil mill is designed to efficiently, mechanically extract by fullpressing the oil from canola. The efficiency and performance of oilextraction with screw presses is highly dependent on the condition ofthe raw materialThe whole canola seed is first cleaned and then pre-heated in aconditioner to allow the seeds to be flaked in preparation for furthercooking. The flaking helps in the rupturing of the oil cells. It improvesthe efficiencies in the next steps of the crushing process, and ifavailable, the solvent extraction.
Production levels:Bio diesel production capacity is growing rapidly, with an averageannual growth rate from 2002-2006 of over 40% . For the year2006, the latest for which actual production figures could beobtained, total world bio diesel production was about 5-6 milliontonnes, with 4.9 million tonnes processed in Europe (of which 2.7million tonnes was from Germany) and most of the rest from theUSA
Bio diesel feed stocks:Soybeans are used as a source of bio diesel Plant oilsOlive oilTypesVegetable fats(list)Essential oil (list)Macerated (list)UsesDrying oil - Oil paintCooking oilFuel – Bio dieselAromatherapyComponentsSaturated fatMonounsaturated fatPolyunsaturated fatTrans fat
Quantity of feed stocks required: Worldwide production of vegetable oil and animal fat is not yet sufficient to replace liquid fossil fuel use The estimated transportation diesel fuel and home heating oil used in the United States is about 160 million ton n e s ]. In the United States, estimated production of vegetable oil for all uses is about 11 million ton n e s (24 billion pounds) and estimated production of animal fat is 5.3 million ton n e s
Main article: Food v s fuel:Food quality vegetable oil has become so expensive there isno longer a profit viability for its use. Food grade vegetableoil pricing is on a similar upward ramp as food in general.Accessing food stuffs in poor countries has always beenproblematic for the inhabitants. Non food grade vegetableoils are under use or consideration for use to make bio dieseland have been so during the entire history of bio diesel