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Behaviorism as a philosophy of education

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Behaviorism as a philosophy of education

  1. 1. Behaviorism as a Philosophy of Education. with Pavlov and Skinner
  2. 2. Behaviorism as a Philosophy of Education Behaviorism is a branch of psychology that, when applied to a classroom setting, focuses on conditioning student behavior with various types of behavior reinforcements and consequences called operant conditioning. The principles of behaviorism and the techniques of behavioral engineering go back at least to PAVLOV, WATSON, and SKINNER . But skinner pioneered their implementation in many fields of contemporary life. . Into politics, economics, and other social organization.
  3. 3. Aims of Education - Although many people disapprove of the concepts of behavioral engineering. It has increasingly become part of the educational process. • Teacher have conditioned to sit up straight and to be quite through looks, grades and physical punishment. • When students are emotionally disturbed, conditioning is one way to develop a step-by-step program through rewards (or punishment.)
  4. 4. Watson • Believed that psychology could become a • science when it became possible to • predict responses from stimuli; • psychology should be objective & • Experimental. ■Famous for his behavioral with dogs. • Taught dogs to salivate when he rang a bell. • Provide a stimulus of food and achieved his desire reflex which was the dog salivating. • Pavlov was most known for his use of classical conditioning to train dogs. Pavlov
  5. 5. Skinner. Skinner also advocate of education, although many critics argue that what he meant by education is not education but training. Behaviorist consider the child to be an organism who already a highly programmed before coming to school. This programming is accomplished by among other influences by Parents, Peers, Sibling, and Television. ● Some programming might have been bad, but the child has been receptive to it and has absorbed a lot of it. ● SKINNER believes that one reason why people have trouble making moral decisions is that they received contradictory. ● And skinner also believed that people should try to create a world of Peace and justice, and if conditioning can help, then it should be used.
  6. 6. Praise, if used correctly, can increase intrinsic motivation by being informational • Give unexpected rewards • Avoid tangible rewards for something the student already finds interesting • Rewards may decrease intrinsic motivation when given for simply engaging in an activity. Rewards should be contingent upon meeting a standard or advanced level of performance. Effects of Rewards
  7. 7. Methods and Curriculum according to the behaviorist, teachers have many rewards or reinforcement at their disposal, including praise, a smile, a touch , stars, or candies. Many people have questioned the use of intrinsic rewards but behaviorist claim that they are only to be in place of intrinsic one that should be encouraged later. Studies indicate that rewards need to be given every time. The Outcomes: 1. specify the desire outcomes, what needs to be changed, and how it will evaluated. 2. establish a favorable environment by removing unfavorable stimuli that might complicate learning 3. choose the proper inforcers for desired behavioral manifestation. 4. begin shaping desired behavior by using immediate reinforces for desired behavior. 5. Once a pattern of desired behaviors has begun, slacken the numbers of times reinforcers are given. 6. evaluates results and reassess for future development.
  8. 8. The cognitive Theory. • many destructive and upsetting emotions and behaviors are caused by what people believe about themselves. • A mentally healthy person is one who has an accurate perceptions of things and who can act intelligently on the basis of such perceptions.
  9. 9. Role of the teacher. • All teachers use behavioral techniques of one kind of another in their classrooms. Teacher condition students through grades, their attitudes toward them, gestures, and in a thousand other ways. • Also, teacher may fail to reward an appropriate behavior in a timely manner. This often happens in a school were one teacher might reward a particular behavior but another teacher might not. ● Skinner and other behaviorist would like to see some consensus among educators as to the kinds of behavior they would like to see reinforced and then use proven methods of conditioning to achieve such behaviors. • One of the most important things a teacher can do is learn the theory and the techniques of the conditioning process. • Teachers must not learn the techniques of conditioning but also use them effectively.

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