1. A SeminarReport
SIR. ANUJ GUPTA
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
IEC Group of Institutions
Greater Noida (UP) 201306
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those who
helped in making of this seminar.
I am grateful to SIR
ANUJ GUPTA, for his necessary help in the fulfilment of
I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to our seminar
coordinator Mrs. RINKU YADAV for their valuable
guidance, constant encouragement and creative suggestions on
making this seminar.
I am also grateful to all my friends and classmates for helping
me to make this seminar.
3. Table Of Contents
1. Introduction- what is 3D printing.................................( i )
2. History of 3D printing..................................................( ii )
3. Sustainable Environment Friendly.............................( iv )
4. 3D Printing Material.....................................................( v )
5. Choosing Printing Inks.................................................( vii )
6. General Principles.......................................................( vii )
7. 3D Printing Application...............................................( xi )
8. Consumers...................................................... ( xv )
9. Advantages........................................................( xvi )
10. Disadvantages................................................( xvi )
11. Glossary...........................................................( xiv )
12. Reference........................................................(xvii )
Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, has the potential to
vastly accelerate innovation, compress supplychains, minimize materials and
energy usage, and reduce waste.
Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993. 3D
printing technology forms the basis of Z Corporation’s prototyping process.
3DP technology creates
3D physical prototypes by solidifying layers of deposited powderusing a liquid
binder. By definition 3DP is an extremely versatile and rapid process
accommodating geometry of varying complexity in hundreds of different
applications, and supporting many types of materials. Z Corp. pioneered the
commercial use of 3DP technology, developing 3D printers that leading
manufacturers use to produceearly conceptmodels and productprototypes.
Utilizing 3DP technology, Z Corp. has developed 3D printers that operate at
unprecedented speeds, extremely low costs, and within a broad range of
applications. This paper describes the core technology and its related
Additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3D printing, is a new way of
making products and components from a digital model. Like an office printer
that puts 2D digital files on a piece of paper, a 3D printer creates components by
depositing thin layers of material one after another ,only where required , using
a digital blueprint until the exact component has been created.
Interest in additive techniques is growing swiftly as applications have
progressed from rapid prototyping to the production of end-use products
5. Additive equipment can now use metals, polymers, composites, or other
powders to “print” a range of functional components, layer by layer, including
complex structures that cannot be manufactured by other means.
By eliminating production steps and using substantially less material, ‘additive’
processes could be able to reduce waste and save more than 50% of energy
compared to today’s ‘subtractive’ manufacturing processes, and reduce material
costs byup to 90%. The use of additive manufacturing can potentially benefit a
wide range of industries including defence, aerospace, automotive, biomedical,
consumer products, and metals manufacturing.
6. Introduction – What is 3D printing ?
3D Printing is a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model,
typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material. It brings a digital object
(its CAD representation) into its physical form by adding layer by layer of materials.
There are several different techniques to 3D Print an object. 3D Printing brings two
fundamental innovations: the manipulation of objects in their digital format and the
manufacturing of new shapes by addition of material.
Technology has affected recent human history probably more than any other field. These
technologies have made our lives better in many ways, opened up new avenues and
possibilities, but usually it takes time, sometimes even decades, before the truly disruptive
nature of the technology becomes apparent.
Fig (i) –simplified process of 3d printing
7. It is widely believed that 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) has the vast potential
to become one of these technologies. 3D printing has now been covered across many
television channels, in mainstream newspapers and across online resources. What really is
this 3D printing that some have claimed will put an end to traditional manufacturing as we
know it, revolutionize design and impose geopolitical, economic, social, demographic,
environmental and security implications to our every day lives?
The most basic, differentiating principle behind 3D printing is that it is an additive
manufacturing process. And this is indeed the key because 3D printing is a radically
different manufacturing method based on advanced technology that builds up parts,
additively, in layers at the sub mm scale. This is fundamentally different from any other
existing traditional manufacturing techniques.
History of 3D Printing
1980: The Birth of a Technology
3d printing story starts in the 1980s. Cumbernauld got its big Hollywood break as the
backdrop for Gregory’s Girl, Pac-Mac was busy taking the world by storm and Taggar
started solving crimes in Glasgow.
Fig (ii) – first 3d printer by MakerBot Industries
8. On the other side of the world, Japan’s Dr Kodama submitted a patent for Rapid
Prototyping (RP) technologies. This tech was envisaged as a means to create prototypes
faster and is the first glimpse we got of 3D printing.
Sadly Dr Kodama’s patent wasn’t actually filed because the submission exceeded the one-
Six years later and 11,000 miles away in South Carolina, 3D printing rears its head
again. Chuck Hull invents and patents the world’s first stereolithography (SLA)
rapid prototyping system and founds the now iconic 3D Systems.
Stereolithography is the process of building an object in exceedingly thin slices from the
ground up. Sort of like stacking a pile of plastic Digestives until you’ve got a shiny new
prototype. Although the SLA technology has been largely supplanted by Selective Laster
Sintering (SLS) and Multijet Printing (MJP), it’s still used in some rapid prototyping
This is the first proper glimpse we get at 3D printing.
1990: 3D Printing Grows Up
While 3D Systems patented the first SLA machine during the 1980s, it would take a further
six years until the first 3D printer was actually built. In 1992 3D Systems took their first steps
into the practical world of 3D printing and actually built a SLA printer.
Their first machine used a UV laser to solidify layers of photopolymer and could gradually
build up complex objects over the course of hours. The process was slow and was far
from perfect but it was – and is – ground breaking stuff.
At the end of the ‘90s things began to sound like a science fiction movie: scientists began
printing human organs. Okay, technically the organs weren’t printed but the organ in
question – a bladder – was actually grown around a 3D printed scaffold.
Nonetheless, a manmade bladder was grown around a 3D-printed mould and successfully
implanted in a person. It’s amazing stuff.
2000: The Open-Source Era
9. It was during the 2000s that 3D printing technology started to gain popularity and take
off in the mainstream. A lot of that success is down to the efforts of a few people who tried
to promote open-source versions of the technology.
.A couple years later 3D printing technology starts to creep into commercial uses. The
first 3D-printed prosthetic was manufactured in 2008 and DIY printing kits targeted at
kids followed the next year.
2010s: How Far Can We Push It?
We’re only half way through the decade but we’ve already pushed back the edges of the
Engineers at the University of Southampton recently designed and flew the world’s first
3D-printed aircraft. Despite including traditionally expensive features like elliptical wings,
the unmanned aircraft cost a measly £5,000. Such is the benefits of 3D printing technology.
The same year, Kor Ecologic introduced the world’s first 3D-printed car. Well, the body
was 3D-printed at least. The ultra-efficient car achieves 200 mpg – around four times fuel
efficiency of the average modern car.The year after that, Dutch doctors worked with
engineers to design a 3D-printed jaw for an 83-year-old women suffering from chronic
Sustainable / Environmentally Friendly
3D printing is also emerging as an energy-efficient technology that can provide
environmental efficiencies in terms of both the manufacturing process itself, utilising up to
90% of standard materials, and, therefore, creating less waste, but also throughout an
additively manufactured product’s operating life, by way of lighter and stronger design that
imposes a reduced carbon footprint compared with traditionally manufactured products.
Furthermore, 3D printing is showing great promise in terms of fulfilling a local
manufacturing model, whereby products are produced on demand in the place where they are
needed — eliminating huge inventories and unsustainable logistics for shipping high volumes
of products around the world.
10. 3D Printing Materials
The materials available for 3D printing have come a long way since the early days of the
technology. There is now a wide variety of different material types, that are supplied in
different states (powder, filament, pellets, granules, resin etc).
Nylon, or Polyamide, is commonly used in powder form with the sintering process or
filament form with the FDM process.
Fig (iv) – Polyamide wire
It is a strong, flexible and durable plastic material that has proved reliable for 3D printing. It
is naturally white in colour but it can be coloured — pre- or post printingLayWood is a
specially developed 3D printing material for entry-level extrusion 3D printers. It comes in
filament form and is a wood/polymer composite (also referred to as WPC).
A growing number of metals and metal composites are used for industrial grade 3D printing.
Two of the most common are aluminium and cobalt derivatives.
One of the strongest and therefore most commonly used metals for 3D printing is Stainless
Steel in powder form for the sintering/melting/EBM processes. It is naturally silver, but can
be plated with other materials to give a gold or bronze effect. In the last couple of years Gold
and Silver have been added to the range of metal materials that can be 3D printed directly,
11. with obvious applications across the jewellery sector. These are both very strong materials
and are processed in powder form.
Ceramics are a relatively new group of materials that can be used for 3D printing with
various levels of success. The particular thing to note with these materials is that, post
printing, the ceramic parts need to undergo the same processes as any ceramic part made
using traditional methods of production — namely firing and glazing.
Living tissue is being investigated at a number of leading institutions with a view to
developing applications that include printing human organs for transplant, as well as external
tissues for replacement body parts. Other research in this area is focused on developing food
stuffs — meat being the prime example.
An experiment with extruders for 3D printing food substances has increased dramatically
over the last couple of years. Chocolate is the most common (and desirable). There are also
printers that work with sugar and some experiments with pasta and meat. Looking to the
future, research is being undertaken, to utilize 3D printing technology to produce finely
balanced whole meals
CHOOSING PRINTING INKS
Printing inks are chosen according to the need and kind of object that has to print. Different
types of inks are available according to the size, type, resolution and function of the object.
Three-dimensional periodic structures fabricated from colloidal “building blocks” may find
widespread technological application as advanced ceramics, sensors, composites and tissue
12. engineering scaffolds. These applications require both functional materials, such as those
exhibiting Ferro electricity, high strength, or biocompatibility, and periodicity engineered at
length scales (approximately several micrometers to millimeters) far exceeding colloidal
dimensions. Colloidal inks developed for robotic deposition of 3-D periodic structures. These
inks are also called general purpose inks.
These types of inks are used for creating soft devices. The type of ink is capable for self-
organizing which results in self regenerative devices.
The object that has to be printed sometimes need conductor for its function. For printing
conductors, special types of inks called Nanoparticle inks are used.
1. MODELLING 2. PRINTING 3. PROCESS
There are some procedures for printing. First we must create a computer model for printing
the object. For creating that, we can use Computer Aided DesignSoftware like AutoCAD,
3DS Max etc. After the object file is created, the file need to be modified. The object file
contains numerous amount of curves. Curves cannot be printed by the printer directly. The
13. curves has to be converted to STL (Stereo lithography) file format.
Fig(v) – CAD Model of an object
The STL file format conversion removes all the curves and it is replaced with linear shapes.
Then the file need to be sliced into layer by layer. The layer thickness is so chosen to meet
the resolution of the 3D printer we are using. If you are unable to draw objects in CAD
software, there are many websites available which are hosted by the 3D printing companies
to ease the creation of 3D object.
Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a "slicer,"
which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing
instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).This G-code file can then
be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code, and uses it to instruct
the 3D printer during the 3D printing process) The sliced file is processed and generates the
special coordinates. These coordinates can be processed by a controller to generate required
14. signal to the motor for driving extruder.
This layer by layer process generate a complete object.
Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi)
or micrometres (µm). Typical layer thickness is around 100 µm , although some machines
can print layers as thin as 16 µm . The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 µm (510 to
250 DPI) in diameter
Fig(vi) – An overview of the printing process from 2d diagram to real 3d printed object
15. 3. PROCESS
Several 3D printing processes have been invented since the late 1970s. The printers were
originally large, expensive, and highly limited in what they could produce.
Fig(vii) – Block diagram of 3d printer
A large number of additive processes are now available. The main differences between
processes are in the way layers are deposited to create parts and in the materials that are used.
Some methods melt or soften the material to produce the layers, for example SELECTIVE
LASER MELTING (SLM) or DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING (DMLS),
SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING (SLS), FUSED DEPOSITION MODELLING (FDM), ,
Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks, which is why some companies offer a
choice of powder and polymer for the material used to build the object. Others sometimes use
standard, off-the-shelf business paper as the build material to produce a durable prototype.
The main considerations in choosing a machine are generally speed, costs of the 3D printer,
of the printed prototype, choice and cost of the materials, and color capabilities.
3D Printing Applications
The developments and improvements of the process and the materials, since the emergence of
3D printing for prototyping, saw the processes being taken up for applications further down
16. the product development process chain. Similarly for final manufacturing operations, the
improvements are continuing to facilitate uptake.
The following are some of the applications
Medical and Dental
Professor Leroy Cronin of Glasgow University proposed in a 2012 that it was possible to use
chemical inks to print medicine Similarly, 3D printing has been considered as a method of
implanting stem cells capable of generating new tissues and organs in living humans. With
their ability to transform into any other kind of cell in the human body, stem cells offer huge
potential in 3D bio-printing.
Fig (viii) – Real 3d printed ear
A printing based on fused filament fabrication (FFF) approach has been already implemented
for the creation of microstructures having an internal 3D microstructure geometry. These
objects can be produced without any sacrificial structures or additional support materials, just
by precisely tuning the nozzle heating, fan cooling and translation velocity parameters. The
manufactured microporous structures out of polylactic acid (PLA) can have fully controllable
porosity (20%–60%). Such scaffolds could serve as biomedical templates for cell culturing,
as well as biodegradable implants for tissue engineering.
The first pill manufactured by 3D printing was approved by the FDA in August 2015. Binder-
jetting into a powder bed of the drug allows very porous pills to be produced, which enables
high drug doses in a single pill which dissolves quickly and can be ingested easily.
Because of the critical nature of aircraft development, the R&D is demanding and strenuous,
standards are critical and industrial grade 3D printing systems are put through their paces.
Process and materials development have seen a number of key applications developed for the
aerospace sector — and some non-critical parts are all-ready flying on aircraft.
High profile users include GE / Morris Technologies, Airbus / EADS, Rolls-Royce, BAE
Systems and Boeing. While most of these companies do take a realistic approach in terms of
what they are doing now with the technologies, and most of it is R&D, some do get quite
bullish about the future.
In early 2014, the Swedish supercar manufacturer, Koenigsegg, announced the One:1, a
supercar that utilizes many components that were 3D printed. In the limited run of vehicles
Fig(ix) – 3d printed wearable item
18. the One:1 has side-mirror internals, air ducts, titanium exhaust components, and complete
turbocharger assemblies that were 3D printed as part of the manufacturing process.
Urbee is the name of the first car in the world car mounted using the technology 3D printing
(his bodywork and his car windows were "printed"). Created in 2010 through the partnership
between the US engineering group Kor Ecologic and the company Stratasys(manufacturer of
printers Stratasys 3D), it is a hybrid vehicle with futuristic look.
Many automotive companies are now also looking at the potential of 3D printing to fulfill
after sales functions in terms of production of spare/replacement parts, on demand, rather
than holding huge inventories.
For the jewellery sector, 3D printing has proved to be particularly disruptive. There is a great
deal of interest — and uptake — based on how 3D printing can, and will, contribute to the
further development of this industry. From new design freedoms enabled by 3D CAD and 3D
printing, through improving traditional processes for jewellery production all the way to
direct 3D printed production eliminating many of the traditional steps, 3D printing has had —
and continues to have — a tremendous impact in this sector.
According to Erik Kinipper, clients usually need to see the product from all possible
viewpoints in space to get a clearer picture of the design and make an informed decision. In
order to get these scale models to clients in a small amount of time, architects and
architecture firms tend to rely on 3D printing. Using 3D printing, these firms can reduce lead
times of production by 50 to 80 percent, producing scale models up to 60 percent lighter than
the machined part while being sturdy.
The use of 3D printing in architecture is still small as logistics are being ironed out, but a
new proof of concept has just been unveiled. The 250-square-metre space (2,700 square foot)
is what Dubai's Museum of the Future project is calling the world's first 3D-printed office
building. China unveiled the world's first 3D printed office building and mansion in early
19. As 3D printing processes have improved in terms of resolution and more flexible materials,
one industry, renowned for experimentation and outrageous statements, has come to the fore.
We are of course talking about fashion!
3D printed accessories including shoes, head-pieces, hats and bags have all made their way
on to global catwalks. And some even more visionary fashion designers have demonstrated
the capabilities of the tech for haute couture — dresses, capes, full-length gowns an
evensome under wear have debuted at different fashion venues around the world.
Fig(x) – Application of 3d printer
Initial forays into 3D printing food were with chocolate and sugar, and these developments
have continued apace with specific 3D printers hitting the market. Some other early
experiments with food including the 3D printing of “meat” at the cellular protein level. More
recently pasta is another food group that is being researched for 3D printing food.
20. Fig(xi) – 3d printer printing eadable burger
Looking to the future 3D printing is also being considered as a complete food preparation
method and a way of balancing nutrients in a comprehensive and healthy way.
The holy grail for 3D printing vendors is consumer 3D printing. There is a widespread debate
as to whether this is a feasible future. Currently, consumer uptake is low due to the
accessibility issues that exist with entry level (consumer machines). There is headway being
made in this direction by the larger 3D printing companies such as 3D Systems and
Makerbot, as a subsidiary of Stratasys as they try to make the 3D printing process and the
ancillary components (software, digital content etc) more accessible and user-friendly. There
are currently three main ways that the person on the street can interact with 3D printing tech
for consumer products:
design + print
choose + print
choose + 3D printing service fulfilment
Create anything with great geometrical complexity.
Ability to personalize every product with individual customer needs.
Produce products which involve great level of complexity that simply could not be
produced physically in any other way.
Additive manufacturing can eliminate the need for tool production and therefore
reduce the costs, lead time and labour associated with it.
3D printing is an energy efficient technology.
Additive Manufacturing use up to 90% of standard materials and therefore creating
Lighter and stronger products can be printed.
Increased operating life for the products.
Production has been brought closer to the end user or consumer.
Spare parts can be printed on site which will eliminate shipping cost.
3D printing can create new industries and completely new professions.
Printing 3D organs can revolutionarise the medical industry.
Rapid prototyping causes faster product development.
Since the technology is new, limited materials are available for printing.
Consumes more time for less complicated pats.
Size of printable object is limited by the movement of extruder.
In additive manufacturing previous layer has to harden before creating next layer.
Curved geometry will not be much accurate while printing.
3DP 3D Printing
AM Additive Manufacturing
CAD / CAM Computer-aided design / Computer-aided manufacturing
CAE Computer-aided engineering
DMD Direct Metal Deposition
DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering
FDM Fused Deposition Modelling (Trademark of Stratasys)
FFF Freeform Fabrication
LS Laser Sintering
RM Rapid Manufacturing
RP Rapid Prototyping
SLA Stereolithography Apparatus (Registered Trademark of 3D Systems)
SLM Selective Laser Melting
SLS Selective Laser Sintering (Registered Trademark of 3D Systems)
MJP Multijet Printing
WPC Wood/Polymer Composite
DMLS Direct Metal Laser Sintering
PLA Polylectic Acid
INTRODUCTION : http://3dprinting.com/what-is-3d-printing/
HISTORY : http://www.capture-all.co.uk/a-brief-history-of-3d-printing-1980-to-2015/
CHOOSING 3D PRINTER INK : http://3dprintingforbeginners.com/filamentprimer/
3D PRINTING MATERIALS : https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-basics-free-
GENERAL PRINCIPLES & APPLICATION : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printing
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES : https://3dprintingindustry.com/3d-printing-