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Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG.

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Human chorionic gonadotropin HCG.

  1. 1. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Omar Aljabri (Master student in the Department of Laboratories, King Saud University, Riyadh.)
  2. 2. STRUCTURE hCG is a glycoprotein Molecular weight is 36000-40000 daltons. The HCG is produced by the placental trophoblastic cells made of two subunits, alpha, and beta. α-HCG, produced by cytotrophoblasts, structurally resembles follicle-stimulating hormone, leutinizing hormone, and thyroid- stimulating hormone. β-HCG, made by syncitiotrophoblasts, has a unique structure, making it the earliest characteristic clinical marker of pregnancy.
  3. 3. Function HCG 1. rescue and maintenance of corpus luteum till 6-8 weeks of pregnancy. 2. stimulus for the secretion of progesteron by the corpus luteum. 3. It stimulate Leyding cells of the male fetus to produce testosterone 4. inhibit the maternal process of immunorejection of the fetus as a homograft. 5. Stimulates both adrenal and placental steroidogenesis. 6. Stimulates maternal thyroid because of its thyrotrophic activity.
  4. 4. NORMAL LEVEL HCG Men = < 5.0 mIU/mL Non Pregnant women = < 5.0 mIU/ mL 1. HCG is detectable after 6 to 8 days. 2. The HCG doubles every two days until 10 weeks. 3. By second trimester the peak level is 10,000 (800 ng/mL)
  5. 5. High levels of hCG Multiple Fetuses Molar pregnancy. Choriocarcinoma. Germ cell tumors of ovary and testes HCG may be produced in primary liver cell carcinoma Medication
  6. 6. Low HCG level In an early pregnancy as estimated by the last menstrual period. An ectopic pregnancy Death of the baby Miscarriage (spontaneous abortion)