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Cold war

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Cold war

  1. 1. Cold War 1947-1991
  2. 2. VS A Battle of Ideologies And Changing the balance of power United States of America(USA) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
  3. 3. What is Cold war? This term is used to describe the relationship between America and the Soviet Union 1945 to 1980. Neither side ever fought the other - the consequences would be too appalling - but they did ‘fight’ for their beliefs using other states who fought for their beliefs on their behalf .
  4. 4. The competition between the superpowers influenced the foreign policies, political institutions, and economic systems of societies in almost every corner of the world.
  5. 5. Historical and intellectual paradigms #Adam smith #Karl Marx n’ Fredric Engles *Capitalism *Socialism/Communism
  6. 6. Communism was Based on the 1848 publication 'Communist Manifesto' by two German political philosophers, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and his close associate Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) What is communism?
  7. 7. It’s a economic and social system in which all (or nearly all) property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by individual citizens
  8. 8. Capitalists believe that markets are efficient and should thus function without interference, and the role of the state is to regulate and protect. What is Capitalism? First In 1776 work, Adam Smith describe the essential features of capitalism and how it functions in “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”
  9. 9. Why were these two super powers so distrustful of the other? America Soviet Union Free elections No elections or fixed Democratic Autocratic / Dictatorship Capitalist Communist ‘Survival of the fittest’ Everybody helps everybody Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Society controlled by the NKVD (secret police) Freedom of the media Total censorship
  10. 10. The Bolsheviks ,1919(1st socialist movement in Russia) overthrew the existing Russian government. In December 1922 began the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) under Communist control. War before the War Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin
  11. 11. But The capitalist United States refused to recognize the Soviet state until 1933. The seeds of hostility between the United States and the USSR began near the end of World War I.  America had depicted the Soviet Union as almost the devil-incarnate. The Soviet Union had depict America likewise. War before the War
  12. 12. The USA and the USSR fought as allies during World War Two, their relationship after the war would be firm and friendly. This never happened and any appearance that these two powers were friendly during the war is illusory. Their ‘friendship’ during the war was simply the result of having a mutual enemy - Nazi Germany. Friendship!!
  13. 13. Causes of the Cold War  The end of World War II and changes in the balance of power  Rebuilding Europe  The Truman Doctrine (1947)  European Recovery Program  Marshall Plan, 1947  Soviet troops occupied Eastern Europe and the Iron Curtain  Division of Germany
  14. 14. Major Leaders at the beginning Franklin Delano Roosevelt US President Joseph Stalin Russian Leader The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
  15. 15. Causes of cold war Again The Big three: Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin and the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945)
  16. 16. Leaders of the cold war
  17. 17. Josef Stalin (1878-1953) was the Dictator leader of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922 until his death in 1953. He led the Soviet Union through World War II and believed that his country made the greatest sacrifices to defeat Nazi Germany. Stalin Rules Cause…
  18. 18. Harry S. Truman, 33rd president of the United States assumed a combative stance against what he considered Soviet aggression. His policy was to help war effected Europe to resist socialist threats. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE Cause…
  19. 19. THE MARSHALL PLAN-The European recovery program Cause… The European recovery program known as Marshall Plan was designed according to the Truman Doctrine. The plan, which tried to check the spread of Communism, called for the United States to spend more than $13 billion to aid war effected European countries. George C. Marshall
  20. 20. Division of Germany :Occupation zone borders in Germany as of 21 February 1947 (valid up to 22 Apr 1949). At the end of World War II, the Allied powers divided conquered Germany into four zones, each occupied by either the United States, Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union (as agreed at the Potsdam Conference). The same was done with Germany's capital city, Berlin. Cause…
  21. 21. After the 2nd world war Stalin imply his dominance on eastern Europe. And Americans were not really happy with Stalin's power grab in Eastern Europe and began to take measures to contain Soviet influence. . Both of them had there own Justifications…….. BUT The Cold War was on. Eastern Blockade Cause…
  22. 22. Eastern Blockade Cause…
  23. 23. Iron Curtain British prime minister Winston Churchill in a speech at Fulton, Missouri, U.S., on March 5, 1946, said of the communist states, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” After that the phrase iron curtain gained popularity as a shorthand reference to the division of Europe as the Cold War strengthened. Winston Churchill at Fulton university Cause…
  24. 24. Iron Curtain Dividing Europe Dividing Germany Cause…
  25. 25. In 1948 , Soviet Union tried to limit the ability of France, Great Britain and the United States over Berlin and blockade the their sectors of Berlin, which lay within Russian-occupied East Germany THE Battle Has Began The Berlin Blockade and the airlift (1948-1949) Cause…
  26. 26. In June 1948 British and U.S. occupation authorities organized a system of air transport, known as the Berlin airlift, to supply the Western-occupied sectors of the city. The blockade was the first major clash of the Cold War. The Soviets lifted their blockade in May 12, 1949. Berlin Airlift Cause…
  27. 27. The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 to keep East Germans from fleeing their Communist state. For 28 years the wall symbolized tensions between the Soviet bloc and the West until it was torn down in 1989. Berlin Wall (13 August 1961- 1989) Cause…
  28. 28. Became the symbol of cold war
  29. 29. THE WORLD is now Divided 1st World 2nd word 3rd world The USA and the countries within Democratic block The USSR and the countries within Socialist block Non-aligned countries and the newly liberated countries (eventually these countries has become the under developed and developing countries)
  30. 30.  US President Harry Truman  “America will contain communism everywhere.”  Nikita Khruschcev, Leader of the Soviet Party  “History is on our side. We will bury you.” Leaders Used Strong Language
  31. 31. Chinese civil war and cold war •Korean War •Vietnam War •Cuban Missile crisis •Soviet occupation on Afghanistan •Cold war and the Liberation war of Bangladesh The Cold war is heating up Proxy Wars
  32. 32. On October 1, 1949, the People's Republic, under Mao Zedong, was proclaimed in China. This Communist triumph was a great shock to the United States. Mao Zedong Proxy Wars…. Chinese Civil war(1946-1949)
  33. 33. After the Second World War, Korea north of 38th parallel had been occupied by the Russians, while south of the 38th parallel by the Americans. As no agreement on a common government for the whole country had been reached, the Russians established a communist regime in North Korea and the Americans a western-oriented democracy in South Korea. Korean War(25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) Republic of Korea (South Korea), supported by the United Nations, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) Supported by Russia Proxy Wars….
  34. 34. Vietnam war (1 November 1955 - 30April 1975 ) After the 2nd world war the Viet Minh (rebel group of Vietnam, leaded by Ho chi Minh) were by receiving help from Communist China. The country was meant to be ruled by Bao Dai who was supported by the west. Communist victory in 1975 had profound ramification for the United States; it was a setback to the containment of communism in Asia. Proxy Wars….
  35. 35. In 1958 Fidel Castro won a revolution, took control of Cuba, and declared that he was a communist The US opened its borders to many Cubans and started an embargo against many communist products. In April 1961 Kennedy sent 1,500 Cuban exiles to the Bay of Pigs in Cuba to get them to incite a coup against Castro. Proxy Wars…. America Under Threat Cuban Missile crisis
  36. 36. Castro and Khrushchev Castro leads the rebels Che Guevara
  37. 37. A system was built that could launch a nuclear weapon into the US
  38. 38. USA needed to keep the missiles out of Cuba, but if he acted rashly he could start an all out Nuclear war…… He decided to order a blockade of Cuba to keep the missiles from reaching the area. The Russians protested, but turned the ships around Hotlines where Established where they could pick up the phone and call the other directly before annihilating the other But diplomacy saved the crisis
  39. 39. Afghan-Soviet War(1979-1988) The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a war fought between the forces of the Soviet Union, and Islamic tribes of Afghanistan who were against the Communist government set up by the Soviets. The war began in December 1979, and lasted until February 1989. Proxy Wars…. The Mujahideens
  40. 40. Cold war and the birth of BANGLADESH Richard Nixon Henry Kissinger
  41. 41. The United States supported Pakistan both politically and materially. And Russia supported the freedom fighter along with India. U.S. Nixon sent the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal, a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. On 6 and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, ; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 in the Indian Ocean from 18 December until 7 January 1972.
  42. 42. New Alliances and Agencies •NATO vs Warsaw pact •CIA vs KGB •SEATO •Non Alien movement(NAM) •OPEC
  43. 43. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  By 1949 the Cold War between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was underway.  To contain the USSR and Communism, the United States and 11 other nations entered into a mutual security agreement named NATO on April 4,
  44. 44. The Soviet Union and seven of its European satellites sign a treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states. The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991 Warsaw Pact (1955-1991)
  45. 45. Non Alien movement(NAM) The Non-Aligned Movement is a Movement of 115 members representing the interests and priorities of developing countries. The Movement has its origin in the Asia-Africa Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955.
  46. 46. Cold War : An Atomic Intelligence Game CIA-USA KGB-USSR KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its collapse in 1991
  48. 48. The Arm Race The Arms Race became the focus of the Cold War. After Nuclear bomb America tested the first Hydrogen (or thermo-nuclear) bomb in 1952, beating the Russians in the creation of the "Super Bomb".
  49. 49. The USA was the first introducer in 0n July 16, 1945. The USSR tested its nuclear weapons in September 23, 1949 at first. Great Britain possessed it on October 3 ,1952. France on 13th February,1960. China on 16th October,1964. Nuclear Weapons
  50. 50. Nuclear Bomb- The Symbol of Power
  51. 51. Arm Race between two powers
  52. 52. The space Race The Cold War rivalry between the two nations focused on attaining firsts in space exploration, which were seen as necessary for national security and symbolic of technological and ideological superiority. The Space Race involved pioneering efforts to launch artificial satellites, sub-orbital and orbital human spaceflight around the Earth, and piloted voyages to the Moon.
  53. 53. Space Race Began In October, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite named Sputnik — to be hurled into orbit around the Earth. What U.S. political leaders thought that if the Soviet Union had rockets powerful enough to launch a satellite, they might had rockets powerful enough to launch atomic bombs on the U.S. Sputnik 1
  54. 54. Yuri Gagarin In 1961 a Russian An air force pilot and cosmonaut, Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin became the first human in space on the historic flight of Vostok 1. Man on Space-USSR
  55. 55. In 1962 the US put their first man in Space, John Glenn. By 1967 they were ready to launch the first manned mission of the U.S. Apollo manned lunar landing program, Apollo 1. John Glenn But Unfortunately, Tragedy Struck Man on Space-USA
  56. 56. America Surprised the World In 1969 America gave the biggest surprise by successful landing of Apollo 11 on the moon. The Apollo 11 crew from left to right: Neil Armstrong, Commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and , Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.
  57. 57. An American flag was left on the moon's surface as a reminder of the accomplishment. On July 20, 1969, Commander Neil Armstrong became the first man on the moon. He said the historic words, "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
  58. 58. Race is Over By landing on the moon, the United States effectively "won" the space race that had begun with Sputnik's launch in 1957. the Soviets made four failed attempts to launch a lunar landing craft between 1969 and 1972, including a launch-pad explosion in July 1969
  59. 59. Russia is Declining Russia started to spend more on space an arm race, which their socialist economic system could not handle any more so the economic growth rate dropped ,They had to purchase food from the US. Beginning of the end
  60. 60. Mikhail Gorbachev Ronald Reagan Time to reform
  61. 61. Cold War is Cooling Down  Gorbachev & Reagan renew détente  Arms reduction  USSR collapsed
  62. 62. End of Cold War  The United States under President Ronald Reagan increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressure on the Soviet Union, which was already suffering from severe economic stagnation.  Gorbachev’s internal reforms had meanwhile weakened his own Communist Party and allowed power to shift to Russia and the other constituent republics of the Soviet Union.
  63. 63. U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty at the White House in 1987. It was to eliminate their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles.
  64. 64. On December 8, 1987, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty was signed On November 10, 1989, one of the most famous symbols of the Cold War came down: the Berlin Wall. By mid-1990, many of the Soviet republics had declared their independence. In late 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and 15 newly independent nations On December 8, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
  65. 65. AND The War IT’s OVER!