1. GARDEN CITY COLLEGE
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT
Prepared by of MBA students batch (9)
2. TEAM MEMBER
Limya Abdel Aziz Mohamed
Omer Awad Elkarim
Asma Alfatih Altigani
Zeinelabdeen Abbas Mohamed ElBahari
is nothing more than
"Motivation is the art
of getting people to
do what you want
them to do because
they want to do it."
"Leadership is the
to cooperate toward
some goal which
they come to find
Management is our
only as good as our
is the fruit of Discipline”
“Conversation is the
simplest form of
Management in all business and organizational activities
is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired
goals and objectives using available resources efficiently
“Management is the process of getting things done through
the efforts of other people in order to achieve the
predetermined objectives of organization”.
Management brings together all Six Ms i.e. Men and
Women, Money, Machines, Materials, Methods and
Markets. They use these resources for achieving the
objectives of the organization such as high
sales, maximum profits, business expansion, etc. 9
Directing / Direction is giving instructions, guiding,
counseling, motivating and leading the staff in an
organization for doing work to achieve Organizational
Directing is a key managerial function to be performed
by the manager along with planning, organizing, staffing
Directing consists of the process and techniques used in
issuing instructions and making sure that operations are
carried as originally planned.
Directing is a continuous process initiated at top level
and flows to the bottom through organizational chain 13
14. Importance of Directing
Directing initiates actions to get the desired results in
Directing attempts to get maximum out of employees by
identifying their capabilities.
Directing is essential to keep the elements like
Supervision, Motivation, Leadership and Communication
15. It ensures that every employee work for
Coping up with the changes in the Organization is
possible through effective directing.
Stability and balance in the organization
can be achieved through directing
18. ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING
Others… (Efforts, Provides Stability, Initiates
Actions, Coping up with the changes, Efficient 18
Utilization of Resources)
Leadership is essentially a continuous process of
influencing behavior. A leader breathes life into the
group and motivates it towards goals.
20. THE TOP 5 LEADERSHIP SKILLS FOR
1. Challenge your assumptions
2. Change your perspective
3. Ask the right questions
4. Question the right answer
5. Stop jumping to solutions
Call to action: Pick one of these leadership skills and work on it 20
for the next month.
21. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF LEADERSHIP –
8 IMPORTANT TRAITS
Here are some of the most common traits in the
characteristic of leadership:
22. LEADERSHIP STYLES
Leadership style is the manner and approach of
providing direction, implementing plans, and
Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to
identify different styles of leadership. This early
study has been very influential and established
three major leadership styles. The three major
styles of leadership are
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
23. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of
them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick
with one style.
I want both of you to. . .
24. Participative (democratic)
Let's work together to solve this. . .
25. Delegative (free delagation)
You two take care of the problem while I go. .
26. o A good leader uses all three styles, depending on
what forces are involved between the followers, the
leader, and the situation. Some examples include:-
o Using an authoritarian style on a new employee
who is just learning the job. The leader is competent
and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn
a new skill. The situation is a new environment for
o Using a participative style with a team of workers
who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but
does not have all the information. The employees know
their jobs and want to become part of the team.
27. Using a delegative style with a worker who knows
more about the job than you. You cannot do
everything and the employee needs to take
ownership of his job! In addition, this allows you to
be at other places, doing other things.
Using all three: Telling your employees that a
procedure is not working correctly and a new one
must be established (authoritarian). Asking for
their ideas and input on creating a new procedure
(participative). Delegating tasks in order to
implement the new procedure (delegative).
28. FORCES OR FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE
STYLE TO BE USED INCLUDED:
How much time is available?
Are relationships based on respect and trust or
Who has the information — you, your
employees, or both?
How well your employees are trained and how
well you know the task.
Communication is the transfer of information from
one person to another by transmitting
ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values.
In its absence organization would cease to exist.
In an organization, supervisors transfer information
30. Proper communication result in clear massage
received , while incorrect communication can cause
problems due to miss understanding between high
managerial level and staff.
It is not necessary that the communication be from
supervisors to managers, it can be reverse also.
31. IMPORTANT OF COMMUNICATION
It helps employees to understand their role clearly.
It helps achieving the goals of the organization.
It improve managerial efficiency and increase staff
It means delegation of authority is successfully applied.
It gives good feedback.
Message is clear between supervisors and managers.
FLOW OF INFORMATION
Middle level Communication
The internal and external driving force that leads the
person to take an action which he considers meaning
Motivation = expectation of success + desirability of
reword + open communication
Motivation: depend on what the employee expect to get
out of it
35. What Motivate the Employee
36. 1. Money is most important motivator because it
satisfies physiological and security need,
money even affects social esteem, power, self
esteem and achievement.
2. Social esteem, status or prestige “Job position and
title have influence on social esteem”.
37. 4. Directors usually use incentive only to
motivate the staff but some employees can
respond negatively due to:
I. Worker do not trust that manager will
continue to pay the extra money
II. Additional money can be useless if
worker produces more living the other
with less work to do and so there may be
38. EFFECTIVE MOTIVATION
1. Employee should trust management in order to
respond positively to incentive
2. Management should keep it promises to win trust
3. Directors should activate other rewards
“Promotion, Title, public and privet praise”.
4. Job enrichment (improvement) fixed tasks can be
burring, so rearranging the tasks to have more
variety giving greater responsibility and flexibility
of work schedule and method.
39. Complete satisfaction is impossible, people ones
become satisfied with something there are not with
another, so there should be enrichment, even praise
most not be given all time to everyone regardless of
40. LAWS OF MOTIVATION
We have to be motivated to motivate
Motivate requires a goal
Motivations once established, Never lasts. (we must all
understand what really de-motivate us and then take steps to
prevent it happening as frequently as possible)
Seeing ourselves progressing Motivate us, (it’s the fear
of wondering what else can go wrong or can happen that cause the
Challenge only Motivates if you can WIN, (Those who
should be participating must believe that they have chance to win)
Every body have Motivated fuse, ( every body have a fuse
and can be sparked into life)
Group belonging Motivates 40
43. Conflict Resolution
Conflict and stress are very common in live between
individual and groups
People depend on one another for
assistance, communication….., these can be incentive for
cooperation but at the same time produce conflict.
Conflict is not always negative, and not always an
organizational failure, so conflict can be beneficial if it
promotes people to facing challenges or performing
harder, Negative conflict is uncontrolled one that
45. SOME REASON OF CONFLICT
Mistrust between individual and between groups
Disagreement on objective and goal
Lack of flexibility
Failure to appreciate diversity such as
age, culture, religion, education, exposure etc
Unmanaged introduction of personal
differences such as jealousy, competition etc.
Dependency of different parties on the same
resources. Fear of loss agitates and breed
46. CONFLICT RESOLUTION
There are different means for managing conflict:
The most common one is delaying and postponing
conflict “temporary avoidance”
Dominance: conflict can be avoided when one party
becomes a majority, be more powerful, or stronger
than the other party. Example “a manager can
exercises dominance by fairing on or more of the
47. Hierarchical decision Making: conflict can be solved
by shifting it to the hierarchical superior to resolve
Solving conflict by system restructuring this can be
- Rotating personnel
“periodical rotation of people reduces narrow
loyalties and misunderstanding.
- The directors reduces the dependency of the
conflicting parties on the common resources
“providing extra separate resources for each party.
48. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Directing said to be a process in which managers
instruct, guide and oversee the performance of
the workers to achieve desired goals.
49. What is the Purpose of Performance
Performance Improvement and
Understand what work should be done
Plan how the work should be done
Assess how well the work was done
50. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Performance Appraisal is the process of
planning, organizing, monitoring, and appraising
employees performance to ensure their meaningful
contribution to the achievement of the Business
Staff appraisal can be also described as a process
whereby the manager/supervisor measures the actual
contribution of each employee against the agreed
objectives, documenting the review and delivering the
review verbally in a face -to-face meeting. 50
Before the Organizing
Start of the
At the start of
The Performance The heart of P. Appraisal
Monitoring & Giving feedback
The Performance It is all about communication
At the end of the Appraisal
52. WHY APPRAISE PERFORMANCE
Good appraisal techniques increase the chances of
optimal achievement of business Objectives.
Areas of an employee’s performance that require
improvement are identified.
Appraisal results form the basis of financial
rewards, recognition, training & development and
planned career development.
54. IDENTIFY AND TREAT UNSATISFACTORY
Discuss Objectives and Responsibilities
not yet accomplished and discuss the
55. HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE THIS?
We have to ensure that performance is measured
against clear objectives.
Individual Objectives should be:
S pecific to the job
R esult oriented
T ime bound
MUTUALLY AGREED 55
56. HOW CAN WE ACHIEVE THIS?
We need to align the Performance Objectives to the
company Objectives to ensure that the strategy is executed.
Cascading of Objectives
Strategic Senior Management
Project Procurment Finanace Admin & GS HR
A supervisor can undertake many steps to
maintain discipline in the concern by regulating
checks and measures, strictness in orders and
instructions, keeping an account of general
discipline of organization, implementing
penalties and punishments for the indiscipline
Finally we can say that Directing is said to be all
those activities which are designed to encourage the
subordinates to work effectively and efficiently.
It is the heart of management process.
Planning, Organizing, Staffing have got no
importance if direction function does not take place.
Directing makes an action start or begin.