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“Affordable” Is Too Low a Bar: 
The Future of the Textbook 
David Wiley, PhD 
Lumen Learning / CC / BYU 
@opencontent :: #...
This presentation is licensed CC BY 
unless otherwise noted
education
education =
education = sharing
sharing
what you know
sharing
feedback
sharing
encouragement
sharing
passion
sharing
yourself
education
faculty meetings
tenure and promotion
fighting for parking
educative acts
ALL
sharing
if
sharing
education
.
rivalrous
nonrivalrous
“He who receives 
ideas from me, 
receives instruction 
himself without 
lessening mine; as 
he who lights his 
taper at m...
sharing
sharing
asynchronously?
externalize
externalized ideas
converted to rivalrous
Expressions Are Different 
To give a book you must give it away
externalized = nonrivalrous?
“internet”
externalized ideas
externalized ideas + online =
nonrivalrous
unprecedented capacity
sharing
education = sharing
unprecedented capacity
educate
except we can’t
©
Uses Regulated 
by Copyright 
Handwriting Printing Press Internet 
Make a copy 
of a work 
$1000s per 
copy 
$1s per copy ...
Tech 
Enables 
Law 
Forbids
in the air?
open
Open Educational Resources
Open Educational Resources? 
Any kind of teaching materials – 
textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, 
videos, readings, exams
Open Educational Resources? 
(1) Free and unfettered access, and 
(2) Free copyright permissions to 
engage in the 5R acti...
open ≠ free
open = free + permissions
The 5Rs 
Retain • Make and own copies 
Reuse • Use in a wide range of ways 
Revise • Adapt, modify, and improve 
Remix • C...
Tech 
Enables 
OER 
Permits
traditionally © materials
openly licensed materials
not about cost
enabling innovation
improving student learning
not just copy and distribute
revise and remix
adapting
improving
local control
revisit
rivalrous / nonrivalrous
“anti-rivalrous”
open your resources
still have your resources
improved resources
when you… then you… 
Rivalrous give away… have less. 
Nonrivalrous give away… have the same. 
“Anti-Rivalrous” give away… ...
over 880M OER
miniscule adoption
we help get open adopted
we help get open adopted 
effectively
adoption support 
faculty training 
instructional design 
ongoing support 
hosting 
LMS integration 
continuous improvemen...
everything we make is open
(CC BY)
Red Hat for OER
no “catch”
small – UGA Biology
large – TCC Z Degree
open keeps us honest
Project Kaleidoscope
Participants 
• 4,909 treatment 
• 11,818 control 
• 50 undergraduate courses 
• 130 teachers 
• 8 institutions
Method 
Quasi-experimental design with: 
• Propensity Score Matching 
• Dependent variables: Completion; C 
or Better; Cre...
Propensity Score Matching 
Increased group balance by 98%
Results 
Increased: 
• Completion (X2 
res = +2.9, -2.9) 
• C or Better (X2 
res = -2.5, +2.7) 
• Credits this term t(8101...
Utah Open Textbooks
Participants 
• Nebo School District 
• 4183 students 
• 43 teachers 
• Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry
Method 
Quasi-experimental design with: 
• Treatment and Control Group 
• Propensity Score Matching 
• Dependent variable:...
Outcome: State Standardized Test 
• IRT scaled scores increased 
with open textbooks, p < .001 
• Multiple r squared = .63...
Developmental Math 
Published in Educause Review
% Completing with C or Better 
48.4% 
60.2% 
70% 
60% 
50% 
40% 
30% 
20% 
10% 
0% 
Spring 
2011 
No OER 
Spring 
2013 
Al...
From textbook and MyMathLab ($170) 
To OER and MyOpenMath ($5)
Learning Outcomes per Dollar 
“Mad” “Glad” 
“Sad” “Rad” 
Cost 
Completing with C or Better
Learning Outcomes per Dollar 
“Mad” “Glad” 
“Sad” “Rad” 
Cost 
0 100% 
Completing with C or Better 
$200
Learning Outcomes per Dollar 
Pearson 
“Mad” “Glad” 
“Sad” “Rad” 
Cost 
0 100% 
Completing with C or Better 
$200
Learning Outcomes per Dollar 
Pearson 
“Mad” “Glad” 
“Sad” “Rad” 
Cost 
OER 
0 100% 
Completing with C or Better 
$200
public funding
gross negligence in procurement
$3500%, worse quality?
Associates of Business 
“Z Degree” 
Graduate without ever buying a textbook 
World’s first “all-OER” degree 
~30% cheaper ...
When a student drops, it.. 
Slows down their graduation 
Costs the institution tuition dollars 
(refunds)
INTRO Model 
(182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * 
$358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $304,269 annual INTRO 
Submitt...
open pedagogy
what’s possible?
disposable assignments
PM4ID
An Open Education Reader
Learning Objects Book
“If I have seen 
further it is by 
standing on the 
shoulders of giants.” 
Isaac Newton
Traditional 
Copyright 
= 
Spiked 
Shoulder Pads
Open Licenses 
= 
Bringing 
Students 
a Ladder
in conclusion
affordable > expensive
free > affordable
open > free
open = free + 5R permissions
open 
permissionless innovation
open 
increased learning outcomes / $
open 
anti-rivalrous serendipity
don’t settle for affordable
when you could have open
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook
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Keynote address to the Affordable Learning Georgia Symposium on the Future of the Textbook. 12 December 2014, Athens GA.

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Affordability is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook

  1. 1. “Affordable” Is Too Low a Bar: The Future of the Textbook David Wiley, PhD Lumen Learning / CC / BYU @opencontent :: #algeorgia
  2. 2. This presentation is licensed CC BY unless otherwise noted
  3. 3. education
  4. 4. education =
  5. 5. education = sharing
  6. 6. sharing
  7. 7. what you know
  8. 8. sharing
  9. 9. feedback
  10. 10. sharing
  11. 11. encouragement
  12. 12. sharing
  13. 13. passion
  14. 14. sharing
  15. 15. yourself
  16. 16. education
  17. 17. faculty meetings
  18. 18. tenure and promotion
  19. 19. fighting for parking
  20. 20. educative acts
  21. 21. ALL
  22. 22. sharing
  23. 23. if
  24. 24. sharing
  25. 25. education
  26. 26. .
  27. 27. rivalrous
  28. 28. nonrivalrous
  29. 29. “He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me.” Thomas Jefferson
  30. 30. sharing
  31. 31. sharing
  32. 32. asynchronously?
  33. 33. externalize
  34. 34. externalized ideas
  35. 35. converted to rivalrous
  36. 36. Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  37. 37. externalized = nonrivalrous?
  38. 38. “internet”
  39. 39. externalized ideas
  40. 40. externalized ideas + online =
  41. 41. nonrivalrous
  42. 42. unprecedented capacity
  43. 43. sharing
  44. 44. education = sharing
  45. 45. unprecedented capacity
  46. 46. educate
  47. 47. except we can’t
  48. 48. ©
  49. 49. Uses Regulated by Copyright Handwriting Printing Press Internet Make a copy of a work $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Make changes to a work $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Redistribute a work $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Public performance of a work 10s of people 100Ks of people 100Ms of people
  50. 50. Tech Enables Law Forbids
  51. 51. in the air?
  52. 52. open
  53. 53. Open Educational Resources
  54. 54. Open Educational Resources? Any kind of teaching materials – textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams
  55. 55. Open Educational Resources? (1) Free and unfettered access, and (2) Free copyright permissions to engage in the 5R activities
  56. 56. open ≠ free
  57. 57. open = free + permissions
  58. 58. The 5Rs Retain • Make and own copies Reuse • Use in a wide range of ways Revise • Adapt, modify, and improve Remix • Combine two or more Redistribute • Share with others
  59. 59. Tech Enables OER Permits
  60. 60. traditionally © materials
  61. 61. openly licensed materials
  62. 62. not about cost
  63. 63. enabling innovation
  64. 64. improving student learning
  65. 65. not just copy and distribute
  66. 66. revise and remix
  67. 67. adapting
  68. 68. improving
  69. 69. local control
  70. 70. revisit
  71. 71. rivalrous / nonrivalrous
  72. 72. “anti-rivalrous”
  73. 73. open your resources
  74. 74. still have your resources
  75. 75. improved resources
  76. 76. when you… then you… Rivalrous give away… have less. Nonrivalrous give away… have the same. “Anti-Rivalrous” give away… have more.
  77. 77. over 880M OER
  78. 78. miniscule adoption
  79. 79. we help get open adopted
  80. 80. we help get open adopted effectively
  81. 81. adoption support faculty training instructional design ongoing support hosting LMS integration continuous improvement research support
  82. 82. everything we make is open
  83. 83. (CC BY)
  84. 84. Red Hat for OER
  85. 85. no “catch”
  86. 86. small – UGA Biology
  87. 87. large – TCC Z Degree
  88. 88. open keeps us honest
  89. 89. Project Kaleidoscope
  90. 90. Participants • 4,909 treatment • 11,818 control • 50 undergraduate courses • 130 teachers • 8 institutions
  91. 91. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Propensity Score Matching • Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Next Term • Independent variable: Textbook condition • Covariates: age, gender, and race
  92. 92. Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%
  93. 93. Results Increased: • Completion (X2 res = +2.9, -2.9) • C or Better (X2 res = -2.5, +2.7) • Credits this term t(8101) = 27.81, p < .01 • Credits next term F(1, 6440) = 154.08, p <.01 Submitted to Computers in Education
  94. 94. Utah Open Textbooks
  95. 95. Participants • Nebo School District • 4183 students • 43 teachers • Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry
  96. 96. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Treatment and Control Group • Propensity Score Matching • Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
  97. 97. Outcome: State Standardized Test • IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 • Multiple r squared = .635 • Published in Ed Researcher
  98. 98. Developmental Math Published in Educause Review
  99. 99. % Completing with C or Better 48.4% 60.2% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER
  100. 100. From textbook and MyMathLab ($170) To OER and MyOpenMath ($5)
  101. 101. Learning Outcomes per Dollar “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better
  102. 102. Learning Outcomes per Dollar “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost 0 100% Completing with C or Better $200
  103. 103. Learning Outcomes per Dollar Pearson “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost 0 100% Completing with C or Better $200
  104. 104. Learning Outcomes per Dollar Pearson “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost OER 0 100% Completing with C or Better $200
  105. 105. public funding
  106. 106. gross negligence in procurement
  107. 107. $3500%, worse quality?
  108. 108. Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree ~30% cheaper for students
  109. 109. When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars (refunds)
  110. 110. INTRO Model (182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $304,269 annual INTRO Submitted to EPAA
  111. 111. open pedagogy
  112. 112. what’s possible?
  113. 113. disposable assignments
  114. 114. PM4ID
  115. 115. An Open Education Reader
  116. 116. Learning Objects Book
  117. 117. “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” Isaac Newton
  118. 118. Traditional Copyright = Spiked Shoulder Pads
  119. 119. Open Licenses = Bringing Students a Ladder
  120. 120. in conclusion
  121. 121. affordable > expensive
  122. 122. free > affordable
  123. 123. open > free
  124. 124. open = free + 5R permissions
  125. 125. open permissionless innovation
  126. 126. open increased learning outcomes / $
  127. 127. open anti-rivalrous serendipity
  128. 128. don’t settle for affordable
  129. 129. when you could have open
  • jonmott

    Dec. 13, 2014

Keynote address to the Affordable Learning Georgia Symposium on the Future of the Textbook. 12 December 2014, Athens GA.

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