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Why Open Education?
Three Arguments
David Wiley
Lumen / BYU / Creative Commons
This presentation is licensed CC BY
unless indicated otherwise in notes
Download these slides
davidwiley.org
< philosophical >
education
education =
education = sharing
sharing
what you know
sharing
feedback
sharing
encouragement
sharing
passion
sharing
yourself
education
searching for parking
faculty meetings
tenure and promotion
educative acts
ALL
sharing
if
sharing
education
“rivalrous”
“nonrival”
sharing
asynchronously?
externalize
externalized ideas
converted to rivalrous
externalized & nonrivalrous?
“internet”
externalized ideas
externalized ideas + internet =
nonrival
Handwriting Printing Press Internet
Make a copy
of a textbook
$1000s per
copy
$1s per copy $0.0001s per
copy
Distribute
a ...
unprecedented capacity
sharing
education = sharing
unprecedented capacity
educate
except we can’t
©
Copyright
Regulates
Handwriting Printing Press Internet
Copying
of a textbook
$1000s per
copy
$1s per copy $0.0001s per
co...
Tech
Enables
Law
Forbids
in the air?
open
Open Educational Resources
open ≠ free
open = free + permissions
• Make and own copiesRetain
• Use in a wide range of waysReuse
• Adapt, modify, and improveRevise
• Combine two or moreRem...
Retain is fundamental
• Make and own copiesRetain
• Use in a wide range of waysReuse
• Adapt, modify, and improveRevise
• Combine two or moreRem...
Open
1. Free and unfettered access
2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright
permissions
Open
Permissions
Handwriting Printing Press Internet
Copying
of a textbook
$1000s per
copy
$1s per copy $0.0001s per
copy
...
Tech
Enables
OER
Permits
traditionally © materials
+ internet
openly licensed materials
+ internet
< / philosophical >
< innovation >
Infrastructure
Infrastructure is “resources that
create benefits for society
primarily through the facilitation
of downstream productive
...
“downstream productive activities”
Permissionless Innovation
Adam Thierer
Equal Participation in Innovation
Eric Von Hippel
Infrastructure and Innovation
Relatively inexpensive
Broad permissions
thrives when the costs and obstacles
to experimenting are low
“Intellectual infrastructure” is
“nonrival input into a wide variety
of outputs.”
-- Brett Frischmann
Educational
Materials
Research
Articles
Intellectual Infrastructure for Ed
Extremely expensive
Very narrow permissions
Educational
Materials
Research
Articles
Extremely Expensive
Only those with significant capital
can afford to experiment and
innovate
$0
$200
$400
$600
$800
$1,000
$1,200
$1,400
$1,600
$1,800
Tuition Textbooks
Annual Costs
$1288
$1666
Textbook Pricing in Context
One Month Streaming Access to… Costs…
Netflix – 10k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month
Hulu Plu...
Accelerating Journal Costs
Very Narrow Permissions
ALL Rights Reserved
Trouble with Costs and Permissions?
Open
1. Free and unfettered access
2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright
permissions
The Content Oligarchies
Textbooks (74%)
• Pearson
• Cengage
• McGraw-Hill
Journals (73%)
• Reed-Elsevier
• Wiley-Blackwell...
Open Education Infrastructure
Will enable everyone to innovate
Will enable everyone to benefit
< / innovation >
< evidence >
105
Textbook Costs and Student Success
Outcomes
Six-year
graduation
rate for
open access
institutions
33%
Avg. annual text...
106
Internet, Textbook Costs, Student Success
Outcomes
Six-year
graduation
rate for
open access
institutions
?%
Avg. annua...
The Impact of Open
Textbooks on Secondary
Science Learning Outcomes
Robinson, Fischer, Hilton, and Wiley
Published in Ed R...
Participants
• Nebo School District
• 4183 students
• 43 teachers
• Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry
Method
Quasi-experimental design with:
• Treatment and Control Group
• Pre and Post Test
• Dependent variable: Score on 20...
Propensity Score Matching
Increased group balance by 98%
Outcome: State Standardized Test
• IRT scaled scores increased
with open textbooks, p < .001
• Multiple r squared = .635
(...
A Multi-institutional Study of the
Impact of Open Textbook
Adoption on the Learning
Outcomes of Post-secondary
Students
Fi...
Participants
• 4909 treatment
• 11,818 control
• 50 different undergraduate courses
• 130 teachers
• 10 institutions
Method
Quasi-experimental design with:
• Propensity Score Matching
• Post Test Only
• Dependent variables: Completion; C o...
Results
Credits Taken
Semester Treatment Control Result
Fall 13.29 11.14 t (8101) = 27.81 p < .01
Winter 10.71 9.16 F(1, 6440) = 1...
The Tidewater Z-Degree and
the INTRO Model for
Sustaining OER Adoption
Wiley, DeMarte, Williams, and Hilton
Accepted in EP...
Associates of Business
“Z Degree”
Graduate without ever buying a textbook
World’s first “all-OER” degree
~30% cheaper for ...
When a student drops, it..
Slows down their graduation
Costs the institution tuition dollars
(refunds)
(182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state +
(182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state =
$101,042 annual INTRO
INTRO Model
Mad, Glad, Sad, Rad:
A Framework for Evaluating the
Academic Return on Investment
in Textbooks and Other
Educational Mater...
“Mad” “Glad”
“Sad” “Rad”
Cost
Completing with C or Better
Student Success per Dollar
0 100%
$200
“Mad” “Glad”
“Sad” “Rad”
Cost
Completing with C or Better
Commercial
Student Success per Dollar
0 100%
$200
“Mad” “Glad”
“Sad” “Rad”
Cost
Completing with C or Better
Commercial
OER
Student Success per Dollar
0 100%
$200
Completing with C or Better
Student Success per Dollar
0 100%
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Cost
$250
$0
openedgroup.org/review
11 Peer Reviewed Studies
http://openedgroup.org/
48,623 Students
http://openedgroup.org/
93% Same or Better Outcomes
http://openedgroup.org/
9 Peer Reviewed Studies of
Perceptions of OER Quality
http://openedgroup.org/
4,510 Professors and Students
http://openedgroup.org/
50%
Same35%
Better
15%
Worse
http://openedgroup.org/
impact.lumenlearning.com
< / evidence >
Why open education?
Why open education?
Better philosophical alignment
Increased academic freedom for faculty
Better academic outcomes for stu...
Why not open education?
Discussion!
davidwiley.org
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
Why Open Education? Three Arguments
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Keynote address delivered at the AECT International Research Conference. Shanghai, China, June 2015.

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Why Open Education? Three Arguments

  1. 1. Why Open Education? Three Arguments David Wiley Lumen / BYU / Creative Commons
  2. 2. This presentation is licensed CC BY unless indicated otherwise in notes
  3. 3. Download these slides davidwiley.org
  4. 4. < philosophical >
  5. 5. education
  6. 6. education =
  7. 7. education = sharing
  8. 8. sharing
  9. 9. what you know
  10. 10. sharing
  11. 11. feedback
  12. 12. sharing
  13. 13. encouragement
  14. 14. sharing
  15. 15. passion
  16. 16. sharing
  17. 17. yourself
  18. 18. education
  19. 19. searching for parking
  20. 20. faculty meetings
  21. 21. tenure and promotion
  22. 22. educative acts
  23. 23. ALL
  24. 24. sharing
  25. 25. if
  26. 26. sharing
  27. 27. education
  28. 28. “rivalrous”
  29. 29. “nonrival”
  30. 30. sharing
  31. 31. asynchronously?
  32. 32. externalize
  33. 33. externalized ideas
  34. 34. converted to rivalrous
  35. 35. externalized & nonrivalrous?
  36. 36. “internet”
  37. 37. externalized ideas
  38. 38. externalized ideas + internet =
  39. 39. nonrival
  40. 40. Handwriting Printing Press Internet Make a copy of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distribute a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  41. 41. unprecedented capacity
  42. 42. sharing
  43. 43. education = sharing
  44. 44. unprecedented capacity
  45. 45. educate
  46. 46. except we can’t
  47. 47. ©
  48. 48. Copyright Regulates Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  49. 49. Tech Enables Law Forbids
  50. 50. in the air?
  51. 51. open
  52. 52. Open Educational Resources
  53. 53. open ≠ free
  54. 54. open = free + permissions
  55. 55. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  56. 56. Retain is fundamental
  57. 57. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  58. 58. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions
  59. 59. Open Permissions Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  60. 60. Tech Enables OER Permits
  61. 61. traditionally © materials + internet
  62. 62. openly licensed materials + internet
  63. 63. < / philosophical >
  64. 64. < innovation >
  65. 65. Infrastructure
  66. 66. Infrastructure is “resources that create benefits for society primarily through the facilitation of downstream productive activities.” -- Brett Frischmann
  67. 67. “downstream productive activities”
  68. 68. Permissionless Innovation Adam Thierer Equal Participation in Innovation Eric Von Hippel
  69. 69. Infrastructure and Innovation
  70. 70. Relatively inexpensive Broad permissions
  71. 71. thrives when the costs and obstacles to experimenting are low
  72. 72. “Intellectual infrastructure” is “nonrival input into a wide variety of outputs.” -- Brett Frischmann
  73. 73. Educational Materials Research Articles Intellectual Infrastructure for Ed
  74. 74. Extremely expensive Very narrow permissions Educational Materials Research Articles
  75. 75. Extremely Expensive Only those with significant capital can afford to experiment and innovate
  76. 76. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  77. 77. Textbook Pricing in Context One Month Streaming Access to… Costs… Netflix – 10k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month Hulu Plus – 45k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook $19.67 / month
  78. 78. Accelerating Journal Costs
  79. 79. Very Narrow Permissions ALL Rights Reserved
  80. 80. Trouble with Costs and Permissions?
  81. 81. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions
  82. 82. The Content Oligarchies Textbooks (74%) • Pearson • Cengage • McGraw-Hill Journals (73%) • Reed-Elsevier • Wiley-Blackwell • Springer • Taylor & Francis • Sage
  83. 83. Open Education Infrastructure Will enable everyone to innovate Will enable everyone to benefit
  84. 84. < / innovation >
  85. 85. < evidence >
  86. 86. 105 Textbook Costs and Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions 33% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student $1,200 Costs growing 3x inflation Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 6 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 35% Access of community college students achieve credential goals <50%
  87. 87. 106 Internet, Textbook Costs, Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions ?% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student < $50 Costs dropping Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 0 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 0% Access of community college students achieve credential goals ?%
  88. 88. The Impact of Open Textbooks on Secondary Science Learning Outcomes Robinson, Fischer, Hilton, and Wiley Published in Ed Researcher
  89. 89. Participants • Nebo School District • 4183 students • 43 teachers • Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry
  90. 90. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Treatment and Control Group • Pre and Post Test • Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
  91. 91. Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%
  92. 92. Outcome: State Standardized Test • IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 • Multiple r squared = .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)
  93. 93. A Multi-institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-secondary Students Fischer, Hilton, Robinson, and Wiley Accepted in JCHE
  94. 94. Participants • 4909 treatment • 11,818 control • 50 different undergraduate courses • 130 teachers • 10 institutions
  95. 95. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Propensity Score Matching • Post Test Only • Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Next Term • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 3 covariates: including age, gender, and race
  96. 96. Results
  97. 97. Credits Taken Semester Treatment Control Result Fall 13.29 11.14 t (8101) = 27.81 p < .01 Winter 10.71 9.16 F(1, 6440) = 154.08, p <.01)
  98. 98. The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption Wiley, DeMarte, Williams, and Hilton Accepted in EPAA
  99. 99. Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree ~30% cheaper for students
  100. 100. When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars (refunds)
  101. 101. (182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $101,042 annual INTRO INTRO Model
  102. 102. Mad, Glad, Sad, Rad: A Framework for Evaluating the Academic Return on Investment in Textbooks and Other Educational Materials Wiley, Hilton, Fischer, and Puente Submitted
  103. 103. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  104. 104. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  105. 105. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial OER Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  106. 106. Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Cost $250 $0
  107. 107. openedgroup.org/review
  108. 108. 11 Peer Reviewed Studies http://openedgroup.org/
  109. 109. 48,623 Students http://openedgroup.org/
  110. 110. 93% Same or Better Outcomes http://openedgroup.org/
  111. 111. 9 Peer Reviewed Studies of Perceptions of OER Quality http://openedgroup.org/
  112. 112. 4,510 Professors and Students http://openedgroup.org/
  113. 113. 50% Same35% Better 15% Worse http://openedgroup.org/
  114. 114. impact.lumenlearning.com
  115. 115. < / evidence >
  116. 116. Why open education?
  117. 117. Why open education? Better philosophical alignment Increased academic freedom for faculty Better academic outcomes for students Positive institutional budget impacts
  118. 118. Why not open education?
  119. 119. Discussion! davidwiley.org
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Keynote address delivered at the AECT International Research Conference. Shanghai, China, June 2015.

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