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"عسى أن تكون علما ينتفع به"
Fat soluble vitamins
Poultry vitamins
Votamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K

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  1. 1. Fat Soluble Vitamins for Poultry
  2. 2. What are Fat Soluble Vitamins? Fat soluble vitamins are: 1. Vitamin A 2. Vitamin D 3. Vitamin E 4. Vitamin K 5. ß-carotene (precursor of vitamin A)
  3. 3. Cont. …  The hydrophobic character of these vitamins is a result of the long side- chain within the molecule.  The fat-soluble vitamins consist of only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
  4. 4. Cont. … Fat soluble vitamins are relatively sensitive to external influences such as: 1. Oxidation 2. Heat 3. Ultraviolet light 4. Metal ions 5. Specific enzymes
  5. 5. Absorption ..  Inside the body, fat-soluble vitamins are found in relationship with fats and are absorbed together with them. – The mechanisms of absorption are similar.
  6. 6. Storage …  The body is able to store considerable quantities of fat-soluble vitamins depending on species and age. – The sites of storage are inner organs such as kidneys, liver, muscles, brain and fat tissue.
  7. 7. Excretion…  Excretion normally only occurs after transformation during metabolism.
  8. 8. Functions … Vitamin Main function Vitamin A Protection of the epithelium Beta-Carotene Precursor of vitamin A Vitamin D Regulation of the calcium and phosphorus metabolism Vitamin E Antioxidant Vitamin K Blood coagulation
  9. 9. Vitamin A
  10. 10. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin A (retinol) is found only in feeds of animal origin, e.g. liver, fish oil and high-fat fishmeal.  Feeds of plant origin (grass, carrots) only contain ß-carotene, a precursor that can be converted into vitamin A.
  11. 11. Cont. … The vitamin A content of milk and eggs is low.
  12. 12. Cont. … Conversion ratio of ß –carotene into vitamin A depending on animal species Species Vitamin A per mg B-Carotene Conversion ratio Dairy cows 370 IU 8–10 : 1 Fattening cattle 440 IU 7–8 : 1 Horses 420 IU 6–10 : 1 Sheep 480 IU 6–8 : 1 Pigs 510 IU 6–7 : 1 Poultry 1667 IU 2 : 1
  13. 13. Cont. … The ratio of conversion of ß-carotene into vitamin A depends on: 1. Animal species. 2. Quantities consumed.
  14. 14. Physiological Role 1. Formation, protection and regeneration of skin and mucous membranes (epithelium protection). 2. Promotion of fertility by: a) Improving ovulation and implantation of the ovum b) Embryonic and foetal development c) Hormone activation for pregnancy. 3. Control of growth and differentiation processes of the cellular metabolism by influencing the transcription of more than 300 genes (genetic expression). 4. Increased resistance to infectious diseases.
  15. 15. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Cornification of skin and mucous membranes and subsequent risk of infection. 2. Retarded maturation of the ova and embryo mortality. 3. Disturbed embryonic development. 4. Increased risk of infections.
  16. 16. Additional Effects Immune reaction: Increased antibody production and phagocytosis.
  17. 17. ß-Carotene
  18. 18. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  ß-Carotene only occurs in plants.  Plants rich in ß-carotene are alfalfa, grass and grass silage and carrots.
  19. 19. Cont. …  The ß-carotene contents of cereals are low.
  20. 20. Cont. …  Natural ß-carotene content of the feed will vary considerably depending on: 1) Vegetation period 2) Time of harvest 3) Type of preservation (hay, silage) 4) Drying temperature 5) Duration of storage
  21. 21. Absorption and Storage  Absorption and storage will differ between animal species; 1. It is high in yellow-fat species (cattle, horses) 2. It is low or nil in white-fat species (pigs, buffalos, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, rodents)
  22. 22. Physiological Role 1. Precursor of vitamin A – By specific means of metabolic transport ß-carotene is carried into specific organs were it is converted into vitamin A. 2. Stimulation of progesterone synthesis, necessary for the formation of the mucous membranes of the uterus. 3. Probable influence independent from vitamin A by antioxidative effect on cell-degrading lipid radicals, resulting in; a) Increased hormonal activity (FSH, LH) b) Improved immunity (multiplication of lymphocytes)
  23. 23. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Fertility problems, e.g. prolonged oestrus and silent oestrus. 2. Retarded follicle maturation and ovulation. 3. Cyst growth in follicle and corpus luteum. 4. Embryo losses and early abortion. 5. Increased somatic cell counts in milk, mastitis. 6. Increased susceptibility of young animals to infectious diseases.
  24. 24. Additional Effects 1. Increased resistance of young animals owing to the high content in the colostrum (unspecific immunity) 2. Synergistic antioxidant effect with other carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene etc.)
  25. 25. Vitamin D3
  26. 26. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin D is found in very few products; – As vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in whole milk and liver oils – As vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) in sun-dried green forage.
  27. 27. Cont. …  Vitamin D2 – Is formed under the influence of UV radiation from ergosterol in plants when they are dried.  Vitamin D3 – Is formed in the epidermis from 7-dehydrocholesterol by UV radiation (exceptions: dogs, cats). – The production of vitamin D3 is limited when animals are confined to the stable for long periods.
  28. 28. Cont. …  Owing to the limited availability in nature, natural sources of vitamin D are not important for covering requirements.  Furthermore, animals are only able to utilize vitamin D precursors of plant origin to a limited degree.
  29. 29. Physiological Role  Vitamin D3 has no direct metabolic activity.  In the liver, – It is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3  Then, in the kidney, – It is converted to 1,25-, 24,25- and 1,24,25- hydroxyvitamin D3 in the kidneys.  1,25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 is the form with the largest biological effect.
  30. 30. Cont. … In the organism, vitamin D fulfils the following tasks: 1. It promotes calcium and phosphate absorption in the intestine. 2. It regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism. 3. It controls excretion of calcium and phosphate by the kidneys and storage of calcium and phosphate in the skeleton. 4. It mobilizes calcium and phosphorus from the skeleton.
  31. 31. Cont. … 5. It promotes germ cell production. 6. It increases the performance of the immune system, and inhibits auto-immunization. 7. It controls the transcription of more than 50 genes.
  32. 32. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism. 2. Inhibited mineralization of bone during growth (rickets). 3. Extraction of mineral substances from the bones. 4. Deformed bones and joints (softening of the bones). 5. Growth disorders. 6. Spontaneous bone fractures. 7. Poor eggshell stability.
  33. 33. Vitamin E
  34. 34. Natural Sources And Bioavailability  Vitamin E is a generic term for various compounds based on tocopherol or tocotrienol.  It is found in plants and animals.  Grass, clover, alfalfa, green meal and uncrushed oilseeds are rich in vitamin E.  Extracted oilseed meals are poor in vitamin E.  Not all the total tocopherol content that is important, but the content of the biologically active d tocopherol.
  35. 35. Cont. …  Humidity and long storage have an adverse effect on vitamin E stability and content. – Conserved green forages and cereals are the types of feed mostly affected.
  36. 36. Physiological Role 1. Antioxidant effect – Reduces the production of lipid peroxyl radicals from highly unsaturated fatty acids. – Reduces the incidence of liver necrosis and muscular degeneration. 2. Fertility – Controls metabolism of the hormones. – Controls the development and function of the gonads. – Preparation for pregnancy and protection against abortion. 3. Immune stimulant – Stimulates antibody production, phagocytosis and the bactericide effects of phagocytes.
  37. 37. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Fertility disorders. 2. Reduced hatchability. 3. Liver lesions and changes in fat deposits. 4. Damage to cardiac and skeletal muscles (dystrophy, myopathy) 5. Sudden death through damage to the heart muscle (mulberry heart disease)
  38. 38. Additional Effects 1. Stabilization of fat (protection against oxidation) in animal products (meat, milk, eggs)
  39. 39. Vitamin K
  40. 40. Natural Sources And Bioavailability  Vitamin K is a generic term for vitamin K1 (phylloquinone), K2 (menaquinone) and K3 (menadione).  Green plants are rich in vitamin K1.  Cereals, beets, meat and fish meals are poor in vitamin K1.
  41. 41. Cont. …  The fat-soluble forms K1 and K2 can only be absorbed when pancreas lipase and bile acid are secreted. – This is not necessary for the water-soluble vitamin K3 forms.  Vitamin K3 (menadione) is an industrial form, which is offered in various water-soluble menadione compounds for animal nutrition: – Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB) – Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulphite (MPB) – Menadione nicotinamide bisulphite (MNB)
  42. 42. Physiological Role 1. Synthesis of blood coagulation factors II (pre-thrombin), VII, IX and X. 2. Production of the calcium transport protein osteocalcin for bone mineralization. 3. Participation in carboxylation of other proteins.
  43. 43. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Haemorrhages in various tissues and organs. 2. Blood coagulation disorders. 3. Growth disorders.
  44. 44. Antagonists 1. Dicoumarol 2. Coumarin derivatives 3. Sulphonamides 4. Mycotoxins

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"عسى أن تكون علما ينتفع به" Fat soluble vitamins Poultry vitamins Votamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K


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