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Negotiation skills

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Negotiation
Win-Win
Win-Lose

Publié dans : Formation
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Negotiation skills

  1. 1. Negotiation Skills
  2. 2. Plan of Talk  Introduction – Why we negotiate? – What is negotiation? – Elements of negotiation  Models of negotiation – Win-Win – Win-Lose – Lose-Lose – RADPAC  Essentials of WIN-WIN negotiation  Challenges of negotiation
  3. 3. Plan of Talk  Introduction – Why we negotiate? – What is negotiation? – Elements of negotiation  Models of negotiation – Win-Win – Win-Lose – Lose-Lose – RADPAC  Essentials of WIN-WIN negotiation  Challenges of negotiation
  4. 4. Introduction Life situation 1  Your friends want you to come for a late night movie with them.  You know that your parents will never appreciate your staying away from house at late nights  You don’t even want to miss the movie as well as the company of your friends.
  5. 5. Cont. … Life situation 2  Tom went to a nearby mall and after a day of extensive shopping came across a CD player which he instantly liked.  The cost of the CD player was around $30, but unfortunately he was not left with much cash.  There was no way he could leave the CD player as it was an exclusive model and Tom was eyeing the product for quite some time.
  6. 6. Cont. … The answer to all the above questions lies in a simple word “Negotiation”
  7. 7. Why We Negotiate?  You negotiate to achieve whatever you want without the fear of conflicts or misunderstandings.
  8. 8. What Is Negotiation?  Negotiation is a technique of discussing issues and reaching to a conclusion benefiting all parties involved in the discussion.
  9. 9. Cont. …  Negotiation is one of the most effective ways to avoid conflicts and tensions.
  10. 10. Cont. …  When individuals do not agree with each other, they sit together, discuss issues on an open forum, negotiate with each other and come to an alternative which satisfies all.
  11. 11. Cont. … Back to the previously mentioned two real life situations once again.
  12. 12. Cont. … Life situation 1  Your goal is to go for a movie  You may sit with your parents and try to negotiate, probably you may offer spending the coming weekend with them if they allowed you today for the movie.  Also you may negotiate with your friends so that they agree for a noon show.
  13. 13. Cont. … Life situation 2  Tom could not afford to lose the CD player as it was an exclusive one.  He may negotiate with the store owner to lower the price so that it suits his pocket and even the store owner earns his profit as well.
  14. 14. Cont. … Business situation  Negotiation is essential in corporate as well as personal lives.  Your boss asks you to submit a report within two working days and you know that the report is a little critical one and needs more time.  Will you say a yes to your boss just to please him?
  15. 15. Cont. …  Your yes might make the boss happy then but later you will land yourself in big trouble if you fail to submit it within the desired time frame.  It’s always better to negotiate with your boss rather than accepting something which you know is difficult.  Ask for some more time from your boss or probably don’t make an exhaustive report.
  16. 16. Substance Behavior Process Negotiation Elements of Negotiation
  17. 17. Cont. … Process  It is the way individuals negotiate with each other.  The process includes the various techniques and strategies employed to negotiate and reach to a solution.
  18. 18. Cont. … Behavior  It describes how the two parties behave with each other during the process of negotiation.  The way they interact with each other, the way they communicate with each other to make their points clear all come under behavior.
  19. 19. Cont. … Substance  There has to be an agenda on which individuals negotiate.  In the first situation, going for the late night movie was the agenda on which you wanted to negotiate with your parents as well as your friends.
  20. 20. Plan of Talk  Introduction – Why we negotiate? – What is negotiation? – Elements of negotiation  Models of negotiation – Win-Win – Win-Lose – Lose-Lose – RADPAC  Essentials of WIN-WIN negotiation  Challenges of negotiation
  21. 21. Models of Negotiation
  22. 22. Models of Negotiation  Negotiation is a discussion among individuals to reach to a conclusion acceptable to all.
  23. 23. Cont. …  It is a process where people rather than fighting among themselves, they; 1. Sit together 2. Evaluate the pros and cons. 3. Come out with an alternative which would be a WIN-WIN situation for all.
  24. 24. WIN-WIN Model Of Negotiation
  25. 25. Win-Win Model of Negotiation Win-Win Model  In this model; – Every individual involved in negotiation wins, and nobody is at loss. – Every one is benefited out of the negotiation.  This is the most accepted model of negotiation.
  26. 26. Cont. … Example;  Daniel wanted to buy a laptop, but it was an expensive model.  He went to the outlet and negotiated with the shopkeeper to lower the price.  Initially, the shopkeeper was reluctant, but after several rounds of discussions and persuasion, he quoted a price best suited to him as well as Daniel.  Daniel was extremely satisfied as he could now purchase the laptop without burning a hole in his pocket.  The negotiation also benefited the store owner as he could earn his profits and also gained a loyal customer who would come again in future.
  27. 27. Win-Lose Model Of Negotiation
  28. 28. Win-Lose Model of Negotiation Win Lose Model  In this model; – One party wins and the other party loses.
  29. 29. Cont. … Example;  In the previous example, suppose Daniel could not even afford the price quoted by the storeowner and asked him to lower the price.  If the store owner further lowered the price, he would not be able to earn his profits, but Daniel would be very happy.  Thus after the negotiation, Daniel would be satisfied but the shopkeeper wouldn’t.  In a WIN-LOSE model, both the two parties are not satisfied, only one of the two walks away with the benefit.
  30. 30. Lose-Lose Model Of Negotiation
  31. 31. Lose-Lose Model of Negotiation Lose-Lose Model  In this model; – The outcome of negotiation is zero. – No party is benefited out of this model. – The two parties are not willing to accept each other’s views and are reluctant to compromise. – No discussions help.
  32. 32. Cont. … Example;  In the previous example, after several rounds of negotiation, Daniel didn’t purchase the.  Neither Daniel or the store owner would have got anything out of the deal.  Daniel would return empty handed and the store owner would obviously not earn anything.
  33. 33. Business Situation  Let us understand the above three models with an example from the corporate world.  Mike got selected with a multinational firm of repute.  He was called to negotiate his salary with Sara, the HR Head of the organization.
  34. 34. Cont. … Case 1  Sara quoted a salary to Mike, but Mike was not too pleased with the figure.  He insisted Sara to raise his salary to the best extent possible.  After discussions Sara came out with a figure acceptable to Mike and she immediately released his offer letter.  Mike got his dream job and Sara could manage to offer Mike a salary well within the company’s budgets.  A WIN-WIN Situation (Both the parties gained)
  35. 35. Cont. … Case 2  Sara with her excellent negotiation skills managed to convince Mike at a little lower salary than he quoted.  Mike also wanted to grab the opportunity as it was his dream job and he was eyeing it for quite some time now.  He had to accept the offer at a little lower salary than expected.  Thus in this negotiation, Mike was not completely satisfied but Sara was.  A WIN-LOSE negotiation
  36. 36. Cont. … Case 3  Mike declined the offer as the salary quoted by Sara did not meet his expectations.  Sara tried her level best to negotiate with Mike, but of no use.  No body neither Mike nor Sara gained anything out of this negotiation.  A LOSE-LOSE model of negotiation.
  37. 37. RADPAC Model of Negotiation RADPAC Model of Negotiation  RADPAC Model of Negotiation is a widely used model of negotiation in corporate.  Every alphabet in this model signifies something: 1. R – Rapport 2. A – Analysis 3. D – Debate 4. P – Propose 5. A – Agreement 6. C - Close
  38. 38. Cont. … R - Rapport:  It signifies the relation between parties involved in negotiation.  Parties involved in negotiation ideally should be comfortable with each other and share a good rapport with each other.
  39. 39. Cont. … A - Analysis:  It is important that the individual understand each other’s needs and interest.  The shopkeeper must understand the customer’s needs and pocket, in the same way the customer mustn’t ignore the shopkeeper’s profits as well.  People must listen to each other attentively.
  40. 40. Cont. … D - Debate:  This round includes discussing issues among the parties involved in negotiation.  The pros and cons of an idea are evaluated in this round.  People debate with each other and each every one tries to convince the other.  You must not lose his temper in this round, remain calm and composed.
  41. 41. Cont. … P - Propose:  Each individual proposes his best idea in this round.  Each one tries his level best to come up with the best possible idea and reach to a conclusion acceptable by all. P - A - Agreement:  Individuals come to a conclusion at this stage and agree to the best possible alternative.
  42. 42. Cont. … C - Close:  The negotiation is complete and individuals return back satisfied.
  43. 43. Example  Let us again consider Mike and Sara’s example to understand RADPAC Model; R - Rapport between Mike and Sara.  They must be comfortable with each other and should not start the negotiation right away.  They must first break the ice.  The discussions must start with a warm smile and greetings.
  44. 44. Cont. … A – Analysis  Both Mike and Sara would try their level best to understand each other’s needs.  Mike’s need is to grab the opportunity.  Sara wants to hire an employee for the organization.
  45. 45. Cont. … D – Debate  The various rounds of discussions between Mike and Sara, both would debate with each other trying to get what they want. P – Propose  Mike would propose the best possible salary he can work on while Sara would also discuss the maximum salary her company can offer.
  46. 46. Cont. … A – Agreement  Both Mike and Sara would agree to each other, where both of them would compromise to their best possible extent.  C – Close  The negotiation is complete and probably the next course of action is decided, like in this case the next step would be generation of the offer letter and its acceptance.
  47. 47. Plan of Talk  Introduction – Why we negotiate? – What is negotiation? – Elements of negotiation  Models of negotiation – Win-Win – Win-Lose – Lose-Lose – RADPAC  Essentials of WIN-WIN negotiation  Challenges of negotiation
  48. 48. Essentials of Win-Win Negotiation?
  49. 49. 1- Proper Preparation – Have Knowledge
  50. 50. 1- Proper Preparation – Have Knowledge  Before starting with the negotiation, you have to be very clear with the agenda (topic) of the negotiation.  Ask yourself; – Why this negotiation? – What is the objective of the negotiation? – What information may I need in this negotiation?
  51. 51. Cont. … Knowledge is power  You should be well prepared before going for a negotiation.  You have to collect as much information as possible.  The other party might ask/tell you anything and you should be ready with your facts, you better go through as many details as you can.  Don’t go blank; the other party might fool you.
  52. 52. Cont. … Tips;  If you intend buying a pen, try to check out prices of the leading brands as well, and compare their features.  It is always better to check a few shops before finalizing the product.  Never be in a rush.
  53. 53. Cont. … Example 1;  Let us suppose you want to buy a Parker pen for your friend’s birthday.  Before purchasing, it is always better if you check out the prices of other brands as well for instance Mont Blanc.  Also check out its features; it will help you in better negotiation with the store owner.
  54. 54. Cont. … Example 2;  Janet wanted to purchase a new laptop.  She checked out the prices of almost all the leading brands along with their features before going to the outlet.  She went well prepared and thus managed to crack the best deal and took the best quality laptop with the maximum possible discount.
  55. 55. Cont. …  For business deals, check out all the relevant documents so that you don’t miss out anything.  Do carry all the necessary documents along with you at the time of negotiation, you might need them.
  56. 56. 2- Set Specific Expectations
  57. 57. 2- Set Specific Expectations  The purpose of the negotiation must be clear.  Why do you want to come out of the negotiation?
  58. 58. Cont. … Don’t;  Quote anything just for the sake of it, be reasonable.  Quote imaginary or unusually high figures.  Ask for anything you yourself know is not possible, it will just be wastage of time and no one would benefit out of it.  Be in a confused state of mind.
  59. 59. Cont. …  Be focused and don’t change your mind quite often. If you expect a particular salary, it’s better to stick to it.  If you have the caliber and talent, you will definitely get what you want but it is important to have realistic expectations.
  60. 60. 3- Set an Alternate Plan
  61. 61. 3- Set an Alternate Plan  Don’t rely on a single plan. It might not work out sometimes.  You should always have some other options to offer to the other party else you might end up sitting blank at the time of discussion.
  62. 62. Cont. … Example;  If you want to purchase a laptop and you have decided to ask for a discount but you realize that the shopkeeper is a little reluctant to offer the discount, don’t start fighting with him.  Don’t be adamant.  You can always ask for a laptop bag or probably some accessories. Learn to be a little tactful and intelligent
  63. 63. 4- Be Honest
  64. 64. 4- Be Honest  Lies and manipulations never help.  Honesty always pays in the long run.  Don’t hide anything from the other party.  If you hide the terms and conditions, the deal might turn in your favor but you might land yourself in trouble later.  If you are honest with the second party, you will be at peace and there is no need to worry at all.
  65. 65. 5- Be Very Confident
  66. 66. 5- Be Very Confident  You needs to be confident enough for an effective negotiation.  You might need something but never show your desperation to anyone. – They will take undue advantage of your helplessness.  Take care of your facial expressions.  Never be nervous in front of the second party.  Don’t start sweating.
  67. 67. Cont. …  A business deal might be very crucial for your promotion but the second party must not come to know about this, otherwise he will try to act pricy.  Show a positive attitude and do flaunt your smile more often.
  68. 68. Cont. … Example;  Greg was offered a job with a leading advertising agency.  He was really very happy as he was jobless for quite some time now.  The HR quoted a figure to Greg, which did not impress him much.  Greg tried his level best to negotiate with the HR, but unfortunately the HR had already found that Greg was in dire need of the job. He refused to negotiate further.  Poor Greg, he had no option than to accept it.
  69. 69. Cont. … Where did Greg go wrong?  The only mistake he did was he made it very obvious that there was no way he could afford to miss this opportunity.
  70. 70. 6- Understand the Second Party Well
  71. 71. 6- Understand the Second Party Well  Try to find out more about his needs and interests of the other party you will negotiate with, and put them in consideration.  Do not decide on something which would not be feasible for the other party.  You should try to come to a conclusion that makes both parties happy.
  72. 72. 7- Be a Good Communicator
  73. 73. 7- Be a Good Communicator  Don’t play with words; make sure you carefully chose relevant words.  Avoid using foul words against anyone; it goes a long way in spoiling the ambience. There are other ways by which you can show your displeasure.  Avoid being rude to anyone.  Take care of your tone and pitch as well. It should not be too high and must be audible to all.  Don’t stammer in between.
  74. 74. Cont. … Be a Good Listener  Don’t jump to conclusions; instead listen to what the other party offers.  Understand the other party situation very well.  It’s okay to think about your personal interests but don’t be mad for it.  If the deal is not benefiting the other party, he will obviously not accept it.  If you don’t listen to others, they would obviously not respond to you.
  75. 75. 8- Take Care Of Your Dressing
  76. 76. 8- Take Care of Your Dressing  You must be well dressed for a negotiation.  Don’t adopt a casual approach as the other person will never take you seriously.  Prefer wearing formals to create the desired first impression on others.
  77. 77. 9- Learn to Compromise
  78. 78. 9- Learn to Compromise  You have to know when to compromise, as it is important to reach to a conclusion.  Remember you can’t get everything.  If everyone is rigid on his views, no conclusion would ever come out.  For a WIN-WIN negotiation, it is better if individuals try to adjust with each other and decide on something best suited to all.
  79. 79. 10- Have a Positive Attitude
  80. 80. 10- Have a Positive Attitude  Adopting a negative attitude will lead to negativity all around.  Don’t pretend, just be yourself and things will definitely fall into place.
  81. 81. 11- React Sensibly
  82. 82. 11- React Sensibly  You should never lose your temper or over react.  If you are unhappy with the deal, show your displeasure. – Don’t keep things to yourself or assume that the others will understand it on their own. – Voice your opinions. – Make the other person realize that you are not satisfied with the deal and it must be revised. – Show your unhappiness to others.
  83. 83. 12- Be Patient
  84. 84. 12- Be Patient  You needs to be patient enough for a good negotiation.  It is not always that the other person will accept your suggestions in the first attempt itself.  You need to convince him, and it needs patience.  Never be in a hurry to close the deal.
  85. 85. 13- Be Dignified
  86. 86. 13- Be Dignified  You should maintain the decorum of the place and should not stoop to any level for getting the best deal.  Present your ideas in a dignified way.  Remember it is just a discussion, not a battle field.  Avoid shouting or using derogatory statements against anyone.  If you are not satisfied with the deal, its better to quit rather than fighting and using abusive languages.
  87. 87. 14- Get Ready to Finish
  88. 88. 14- Get Ready to Finish  Once you are done with the negotiation, do sign contracts and agreements in the presence of both the parties.  Make sure that all the necessary terms and conditions are mentioned clearly in the contract.
  89. 89. Plan of Talk  Introduction – Why we negotiate? – What is negotiation? – Elements of negotiation  Models of negotiation – Win-Win – Win-Lose – Lose-Lose – RADPAC  Essentials of WIN-WIN negotiation  Challenges of negotiation
  90. 90. Negotiation Challenges
  91. 91. Negotiation Challenges  There are few challenges to negotiation and one must try his level best to overcome them, let us review them in detail:
  92. 92. 1- Not Ready to Understand the Other Party
  93. 93. 1- Not Ready to Understand the Other Party  This is the biggest challenge to negotiation.  There are individuals who only think about their interests and tend to ignore interests and needs of the other.
  94. 94. Cont. … Example;  Jim wanted to buy a shirt for himself. He was only concerned with his pocket and never bothered about the store owner.  He quoted an unusually low price and the store owner refused to sell the shirt.  The outcome was a big zero.  Nobody could get what they wanted.
  95. 95. Cont. …  Jim failed to understand the fact that the store owner is not sitting for charity. – He also has a family to look after and thus even his profits are important. – Why would he sell something at a less rate which would not earn him his profits?  Try to find out the expectations of the other party as well.
  96. 96. Cont. … For business negotiation;  You will definitely be appreciated if you save your organization’s money but remember the other party is also doing business.  Quote something which will save your company’s money as well as earn some profits for the other party as well.
  97. 97. 2- Lack of Time
  98. 98. 2- Lack of Time  One should never be in a hurry.  You need time to convince others.  Never be in a rush to purchase things or close a deal.  Analyze things carefully and then only come to conclusions.
  99. 99. 3- Going Unprepared For A Negotiation
  100. 100. 3- Going Unprepared For a Negotiation  Going unprepared for a negotiation is unacceptable.  Don’t underestimate the second party.  You should do your home work carefully.  Check out even the smallest details before going for a negotiation.  Don’t think that the other person is not as smart as you, remember he will try his level best to convince you.  You need to have valid answers for his questions.
  101. 101. 4- Lack of Patience
  102. 102. 4- Lack of Patience  Lack of patience leads to a bad negotiation.  Every individual has the right to express his views and one should not interfere in other’s speech.  You might not agree to him but at least listen.  Explain to the second party and make him realize how the deal would benefit you as well as him.  If possible take a note pad and a pen with you to explain things in a better way.  Carry all the necessary documents which you might require at the time of negotiation.
  103. 103. 5- Criticism, Sarcasm & Derogatory Remarks
  104. 104. 5- Criticism, Sarcasm & Derogatory Remarks  They are the biggest threats to an effective negotiation.  Never ever say anything which might hurt others.  Remember everyone is here to do business and make profits, so be logical and justified.  Don’t get too involved and over emotional.  One should be a little diplomatic and intelligent for an effective negotiation.
  105. 105. 6- Avoid Last Minute Changes
  106. 106. 6- Avoid Last Minute Changes  Avoid last minute changes as it result in confusions and misunderstandings.  The two parties must be very clear on what they expect from each other, and must stick to it.  Don’t change statements every now and then.  Once a conclusion is reached or a deal is cracked, it’s always better to sign an agreement in presence of both the parties.
  107. 107. 7- Being Too Rigid
  108. 108. 7- Being Too Rigid  Be a little flexible.  Compromise to your best extent possible and don’t crib always.  You should adopt a positive attitude and try your level best to adjust with each other and find out a solution which will satisfy all.
  109. 109. Cont. …  Price is not the most important factor, other factors like quality, brand name, durability must also be taken into consideration.  One CD player might cost you $5 but another might cost you $4, a little cheaper than the first one, but it is quite possible that the first one is far superior in quality than the second one.  Be a little sensible and understand things.
  110. 110. 8- Lack of Confidence
  111. 111. 8- Lack of Confidence  Make an eye contact with the person sitting on the other side of the table.  It’s important to be serious but that does not mean you will not even greet the other person.  Be straightforward and crisp in your communication.  Take care of your dressing and appearance as well.

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