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"عسى ان تكون علما ينتفع به"
Vitamins for poultry
Water soluble vitamins

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  1. 1. Water Soluble Vitamins for Poultry
  2. 2. Water-soluble Vitamins The water-soluble vitamins of the B group; 1. B1 2. B2 3. B6 4. B12 5. Biotin 6. Folic acid 7. Niacin 8. Pantothenic acid
  3. 3. Cont. …  They act as co-enzymes, and are hence very important for the metabolism.  Each co-enzyme is specialized on specific metabolic reactions.  Vitamin C and choline are also water-soluble; however, there is currently no evidence for any co-enzyme function.
  4. 4. Cont. … The most important co-enzymes of the water-soluble vitamins and their main functions Vitamin Main co-enzymes Main functions Vitamin B1 Thiamine pyrophosphate Carbohydrate metabolism Vitamin B2 FAD, FMN (hydrogen transfer) Energy metabolism Vitamin B6 Pyridoxal phosphate Amino acid metabolism Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin (transfer of methyl groups) Protein turnover Biotin Pyruvate-acetyl-CoA -carboxylase Fatty acid metabolism and energy metabolism Folic acid Tetrahydrofolic acid Amino-and nucleic acid metabolism Niacin NAD, NADP (hydrogen transfer) Energy metabolism Pantothenic acid Co-enzyme A Fat metabolism and energy conversion Vitamin C – Redox reactions Choline – Fat metabolism, transmission of neural impulses
  5. 5. Synthesis …  The B vitamins can be produced by microbes in the stomach and intestine.  In ruminants, auto-synthesis occurs when the rumen system is functioning normally.  In pigs, bacterial synthesis of the B vitamins takes place in the large intestine, where they are absorbed only to a limited degree.
  6. 6. Storage …  Animals are not able to store major quantities of the water- soluble vitamins, so that a continuous supply has to be assured.
  7. 7. Deficiency … An insufficient supply of the B vitamins will lead to: 1. Reduced activity of the corresponding enzyme and in turn metabolic disorders. 2. Disorders of the skin, mucous membranes and hair. 3. Impaired immune system. 4. Reduced performance.
  8. 8. Vitamin B1
  9. 9. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin B1 (thiamine) occurs in all feeds in various concentrations. – Cereals and middlings, oilseed meals, dairy products and brewer´s yeast are rich in vitamin B1. – Tapioca, dried sugar beet pulp, meat meal, fishmeal and coconut meal are poor.  The vitamin B1 in feedstuffs is well utilized by animals.  There are antagonists that can limit utilization considerably.
  10. 10. Physiological Effects  In its phosphorylated form (thiamine pyrophosphate); 1. It is indispensable to degradation processes in CHO metabolism. 2. It is important for the function of neural and cardiac tissue. 3. It is necessary for the peristalsis of the stomach and intestine.  In the form of thiamine triphosphate; 1. It is a possible activating substance for the stimulation of peripheral nerves.
  11. 11. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Reduced feed consumption. 2. Insufficient energy utilization. 3. Growth depression and weakness.
  12. 12. Antagonists 1. Thiaminases – In fresh fish 2. Feed contaminated with bacteria or fungi. 3. Amprolium (coccidiostat), especially when administered at high levels. 4. Phenol derivatives and heavy metals, e.g. arsenic and mercury.
  13. 13. Vitamin B2
  14. 14. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is contained in feed of plant and animal origin.  Feedstuffs of animal origin, especially dairy products such as skim milk and whey powders and brewer´s yeast, have a high vitamin B2 content.  Feedstuffs of plant origin, e.g. cereals and tapioca, have a low vitamin B2 content.  The vitamin B2 contained in the feed is only partly bioavailable.
  15. 15. Physiological Role  Riboflavin, which is almost always bound to proteins (flavoproteins), is a component of the co-enzymes: 1. FMN (flavin mononucleotide) 2. FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)  It is of importance for the following: 1. Hydrogen transfer within the respiratory chain for energy metabolism. 2. Oxidation and reduction processes for producing and breaking down fatty acids and amino acids.
  16. 16. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Inflammatory skin disorders (atrophy, hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia) 2. Neurological disorders. 3. Retarded growth, poor feed conversion efficiency and diarrhea. 4. Curled Toe Paralysis in chicks. 5. Reduced hatchability and higher losses during rearing.
  17. 17. Vitamin B6
  18. 18. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is found in feed of plant and animal origin.  Feedstuffs of plant origin such as cereals, milling by-products, extracted oilseed meals and brewer´s yeast are rich in vitamin B6.  Feedstuffs of animal origin and tapioca are poor in vitamin B6.  The vitamin B6 contained in feed of plant origin is only partially bioavailable: 65% in soybean meal, and 50% in maize.
  19. 19. Physiological Role  Vitamin B6 as a component of the co-enzyme pyridoxal-5´- phosphate plays a central part in: 1. Transamination, decarboxylation and racemising processes during the metabolism of amino acids. 2. The breaking down of tryptophan (e.g. in niacin synthesis) requires the enzyme kynureninase, which is linked to vitamin B6. 3. CHO metabolism by participating in phosphorylation.
  20. 20. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Retarded growth, reduced feed consumption and protein retention. 2. Skin inflammation. 3. Damage to liver and heart. 4. Disorders of blood parameters. 5. Malfunction of the peripheral and central nervous systems.) 6. Reduced hatchability in poultry.
  21. 21. Antagonists  Inhibiting factor in linseed.
  22. 22. Vitamin B12
  23. 23. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) only occurs in feed of animal origin.  Fishmeal and skim milk powder are rich in vitamin B12.  Microbes will produce sufficient quantities of B12 in the rumen if feed with a sufficient cobalt content (> 0.1 mg/kg dry matter) is consumed.  The vitamin B12 present in feed is normally well utilized.
  24. 24. Physiological Role 1. Production and growth of blood cells. 2. Production of the co-enzyme 5-desoxyadenylcobalamin, which is necessary for the utilization of propionic acid and thus for the production of glucose and lactose in ruminants. 3. Production of the co-enzyme methylcobalamin, which is necessary for methylation reactions and hence e.g. for the metabolism of methionine.
  25. 25. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Reduced synthesis of DNA and protein. 2. Growth disorders. 3. Lower feed conversion. 4. Anaemia. 5. Rough coat and inflammation of the skin. 6. Poor plumage, reduced hatchability and increased embryo mortality.
  26. 26. Antagonists  Tannic acid reduces the absorption of vitamin B12
  27. 27. Biotin
  28. 28. Natural Sources And Bioavailability  Biotin is present in many feeds of animal and plant origin.  Biotin-rich products are brewer´s yeast and extracted oilseed meals.  Poor sources of biotin are cereals and tapioca.
  29. 29. Cont. …  Monogastric animals are not always able to assimilate a sufficient percentage of biotin from plant feed (0–10% in wheat, 20–30% in barley).  Higher levels of utilization are achieved with maize and soybean meal.
  30. 30. Physiological Role  Biotin is required as a co-enzyme for the production of a number of enzymatic systems (carboxylases).  Biotin-dependent enzymes play an important role in the several metabolic processes: 1. Fatty acid synthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) 2. Gluconeogenesis (pyruvate carboxylase) 3. Propionic acid metabolism (propionyl-CoA carboxylase) 4. Decomposition of leucine (methyl crotonyl-CoA- carboxylase) 5. Synthesis of DNA and RNA (via purine synthesis)
  31. 31. Deficiency Symptoms Various symptoms occur according to the severity and duration of the deficiency: 1. Retarded growth and fertility disorders. 2. Skin disorders. 3. Poor plumage, inflammatory lesions of beak, legs and toes, fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS)
  32. 32. Antagonists  Avidin in raw egg white
  33. 33. Folic acid
  34. 34. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid) is a generic term for various compounds, also known collectively as folates.  The biologically active form of folic acid is tetrahydro folic acid.  Folates are found in feeds of both plant and animal origin.  Folate-rich feedstuffs are lucerne green meal and brewer´s yeast.  Folate-poor feedstuffs are tapioca and cereals.
  35. 35. Cont. …  In feed, folates are found as monoglutamates and as polyglutamates. – Polyglutamates have a very low bioavailability, so that natural folic acid can only partly be utilized by monogastric animals.  Only 20–60% of the folates in cereals is utilized by poultry and pigs.
  36. 36. Physiological Role  Folic acid in the form of tetrahydrofolic acid is biologically active as a co-enzyme, with the following metabolic functions: 1. Transfer of specific C1 units (methyl and formyl groups), which are important for cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation in the metabolism of proteins and of DNA and RNA. 2. Together with vitamin B12, it converts homocysteine into methionine.
  37. 37. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Macrocytic anaemia. 2. Damage to the skin and mucous membranes. 3. Disorders of growth 4. Bad plumage and depigmentation 5. Perosis, 6. Increased embryo mortality 7. Reduced hatchability 8. Laying performance
  38. 38. Antagonists  Sulphonamides and aflatoxins in feed and in drugs to inhibit intestinal microflora.
  39. 39. Additional Effects  Increased antibody production.
  40. 40. Niacin (nicotinic acid/nicotinamide)
  41. 41. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Niacin is found as nicotinic acid in varying concentrations in almost all feeds of plant origin.  Brewer´s yeast, bran, green forage and plant protein feeds are rich in niacin.  Maize and dairy products are poor in niacin.
  42. 42. Cont. …  Nicotinamide is frequent in animal cells.  Minor quantities are produced by microbial synthesis in the intestine and by transformation of the amino acid tryptophan.  From a physiological point of view, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide can be considered as equivalent sources of niacin.  Pigs, poultry and ruminants possess a limited capability to utilize niacin derived from wheat.
  43. 43. Physiological Role 1. Constituent of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) which act as hydrogen-transferring co-enzymes and participate in vital metabolic reactions (carbohydrates, fats and amino acids) 2. Key functions in energy metabolism.
  44. 44. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Functional disorders of the nervous system. 2. Skin disorders (pellagra) 3. Increased peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract. 4. Retarded growth. 5. Inflammation and ulcers of the mucous membranes. 6. Disorders of feather development . 7. Reduced laying activity and brood capability in poultry.
  45. 45. Pantothenic acid
  46. 46. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Pantothenic acid is found in almost all types of feed.  Dairy products, fish solubles, brewer´s yeast, middlings, green meals and oilseed meals are rich in pantothenic acid.  Beans, dried beet pulp and meat meal are poor in pantothenic acid.  Pantothenic acid in feed stuffs can be well utilized.
  47. 47. Physiological Role 1. As a constituent of co-enzyme A in synthesis and degradation processes in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. 2. Production of acetylcholine for the function of neural cells. 3. Function of skin and mucous membranes. 4. Pigmentation of hair.
  48. 48. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Alterations of the skin and mucous membranes. 2. Loss of pigmentation. 3. Rough coat, loss of hair and feathers. 4. Decreased synthesis of steroid hormones. 5. Poor appetite and diarrhea due to functional disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. 6. In poultry, scabby crusts on the toes and beak, secretions around the eye, low hatchability, increased embryonic mortality and poor plumage.
  49. 49. Vitamin C
  50. 50. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is not found in many feedstuffs, and degrades rapidly during storage and processing.  Feedstuffs rich in vitamin C are green forage and potatoes.  The vitamin C present in stuffs can be utilized very well.
  51. 51. Physiological Role 1. Antioxidant effect – Removal of radicals and lipid peroxyl compounds in the cell metabolism in co-operation with other antioxidative vitamins such as vitamin E and ß–carotene. 2. Regulation of calcium metabolism by activating vitamin D3 metabolites. – Collagen synthesis in bones, cartilage, muscles, skin and eggshell. 3. Function of macrophages, granulocytes and lymphocytes in the immune system.
  52. 52. Cont. … 4. Inhibition of stress reactions caused by reduced hormone production (cortisol). 5. Improved fertility-linked properties such as sperm quality, follicle maturation and progesterone synthesis. 6. Improved resorption of iron. 7. Reduction of the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and nickel.
  53. 53. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Susceptibility to infections and parasites. 2. Retarded growth. 3. Bone diseases. 4. Reduced eggshell stability. 5. Increased susceptibility to stress factors such as heat, transport and housing changes. 6. Reduced immune reaction in general and after vaccination. 7. Decreased fertility in both males and females.
  54. 54. Additional Effects 1. Increased antibody production. 2. Better resistance of younger animals through increased content in the colostrum (unspecific immunity).
  55. 55. Choline
  56. 56. Natural Sources and Bioavailability  Choline is present in all feeds.  Feeds rich in choline are protein-based feeds of animal origin, yeasts and some extracted oilseed meals.  Tapioca and corn have a poor choline content.
  57. 57. Cont. …  Choline from soybean meal is bioavailable to 60–70%.  The bioavailability of choline from cereals is lower, and in the case of rapeseed meal falls to 25%.  With a sufficient supply of methionine, serine, folic acid and vitamin B12, choline can be produced in the liver.  Young animals and broilers are not capable of producing sufficient choline quantities for their own requirements.
  58. 58. Physiological Role 1. Production of phospholipids (e.g. lecithin) and lipoproteins. 2. Transport and metabolism of fats. 3. Production of electrical signals in nerve cells (involved in the production of acetyl choline) 4. In a phospholipid form, choline is a constituent in most cell types. 5. Methyl group donor in metabolism (other methyl group donors in metabolism are e.g. methionine and betaine)
  59. 59. Deficiency Symptoms 1. Functional disorders in fat metabolism and fatty liver. 2. Functional disorders in joints and bones (perosis of poultry) 3. Retarded growth, mainly of young animals. 4. Increased mortality in chicks.
  60. 60. Additional Effects  Higher choline supplements may improve growth and feed conversion of high-fat rations, especially in broiler production.

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"عسى ان تكون علما ينتفع به" Vitamins for poultry Water soluble vitamins


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