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Agril. Waste management

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Agricultural waste, definition, classification, 3Rs, Agril Waste Management system

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Agril. Waste management

  1. 1. Agricultural Waste Management Prof. P. K. Mani BCKV, India pabitramani@gmail.com
  2. 2. Syllabus: Introduction to agricultural waste management. Nature and Characteristics of agricultural waste and their impact on the envt. Kinds of waste, classification, role of soil and plants in waste management, sources of waste, impact of waste on soil and plant quality. Biological processes of waste management. Utilization and recycling of Agricultural waste, Potential of Recyclable Crop Residues and its management, In-situ management of agriculture waste Composting and Vermicomposting for the bio conservation of biodegradable waste. Biogas Technology, Agricultural waste and water, air and animal resources, Impacts of waste on human, animal health and environment. Management of bedding and litter, wasted feed, run off from feed lots and holding areas and waste water from dairy parlours, agro waste recycling through farming systems. Waste management machineries, environmental benefits of waste mangmt.
  3. 3. Agricultural wastes (AW) can be defined as the residues from the growing field crops and processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry, dairy products and crops. They are the non-product outputs of production and processing of agricultural products that may contain material that can benefit man but whose economic values are less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. This term includes both natural (organic) and non-natural wastes produced through various farming activities such as dairy farming, horticulture, seed growing, livestock breeding, grazing land, market gardens, nursery plots and even woodlands AW can be in the form of solid, liquid or slurries depending on the nature of agricultural activities.  Although the quantity of wastes produced by the agricultural sector is significantly low compared to wastes generated by other industries, the pollution potential of agricultural wastes is high on a long-term basis.
  4. 4. Agricultural waste : Glossary of Environment Statistics, UN (1997)defines agricultural waste as: Agricultural waste is waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses; harvest waste; fertilizer run- off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils; and salt and silt drained from fields. Agricultural waste otherwise called agro-waste is comprised of animal waste (manure, animal carcasses), food processing waste (only 20% of maize is canned and 80% is waste), crop waste (corn stalks, sugarcane bagasse, drops and culls from fruits and vegetables, prunings) and hazardous and toxic agricultural waste (pesticides, insecticides and herbicides, etc). Types of Agricultural waste
  5. 5. Agro industrial wastes and their types Diagram shows 2 different types of agro- industrial wastes, i.e., agriculture residues and industrial residues. Agriculture residues can be further divided into field residues and process residues. Field residues are residues that present in the field after the process of crop harvesting, whereas the  process residues are residues present even after the crop is processed into alternate valuable resource Industrial wastes A huge amount of organic residues and related effluents are produced every year through the food processing industries like juice, chips, meat, confectionary, and fruit industries. These organic residues can be utilized for different energy sources. fruit industrial wastes constituents have potential to biochemically digested to produce useful products like pdn of biogas, bio-ethanol. The waste produced from food industries contains high value of BOD, COD, and other suspended solids..
  6. 6. Characterization of AW depending on the agricultural activity (Loehr, 1978) Agricultural activity Types of wastes Method of disposal Crop pdn and harvest Straw, stover Land application, burning, plowing Fruit and vegetable processing Biological sludges, trimings, peels, leaves, stems, soil, seeds, pits Land filling, animal feed, Land application, burning Sugar processing Biological sludges, pulp, lime mud, Land filling, burning, composting, animal feed Animal Production Blood, bones, feather, litter, manures, liquid effluents Land application, manure Dairy pdt processing Biological sludges Land filling, Land spreading Leather tanning Fleshings, hair, raw and tanned trimmings, lime & chrome sludge, grease By product recovery, Land filling, Land spreading Rice production Bran, straw, hull / husk Feeds, mulch/ soil conditioner, packaging material for glass, ceramics Coconut production Stover, cobs, husk, leaves, coco meal Feeds, vinegar, activated carbon, coir pdts.
  7. 7. According to Subba Rao [1993] and Caprara et al. [2011], Agrowastes contain  insoluble chemical constituents (e.g., cellulose and lignin) and  soluble constituents (e.g., sugar,amino acids, and organic acids). Other constituents are fats, oil waxes, resins, pigment, protein, & mineral. The agrowastes such as decaying part of plants are the primary source of organic matter in soil. Therefore, agro-wastes are the cheapest source that can be used by farmers to improve the fertility of soil.
  8. 8. Agricultural Waste management If wastes are not properly handled they can pollute surface and groundwater and contribute to air pollution. The proper management of waste from agricultural operations can contribute in a significant way to farm operations. Waste management helps to maintain a healthy environment for farm animals and can reduce the need for commercial fertilizers while providing other nutrients needed for crop production. The waste which is reduce, recycle and make it usable for different purpose is a waste management.
  9. 9. An GRICULTURAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (AWMS) consists of six basic functions (fig.1 ): • production • collection • transfer • storage • treatment • utilization Fig. 1: Waste management functions For a specific system, these functions may be combined, repeated, eliminated, or rearranged as necessary
  10. 10. (a) Production Production is the function of the amount and nature of agricultural waste generated by an agricultural enterprise. The waste requires management if the quantity produced is sufficient enough to become a resource concern.  A complete analysis of production includes the kind, consistency, volume, location, and timing of the waste produced. Generation:-  India is one of the richest country in agricultural resources. Presently in India, annually 350 MT are organic wastes from agricultural sources. The major quantity of solid waste generated from agricultural sources are sugarcane bagasse, paddy and wheat straw and husk, waste of vegetables', food products, tea, oil production, jute fibres, groundnut shell, wooden mill waste, coconut husk, cotton stalk, etc.
  11. 11. (b) Collection Collection refers to the initial capture and gathering of the waste from the point of origin or deposition to a collection point. The AWMS plan should identify the method of collection, location of the collection points, scheduling of the collection, labor requirements, necessary equipment or structural facilities, management and installation costs of the components, and the impact that collection has on the consistency of the waste. Waste like fruit and vegetable waste are collected form houses called domestic waste Waste collected form road street or side . Collected waste like dry refuse and green waste, animal dung from agricultural field.
  12. 12. (c) Transfer Transfer refers to the movement and transportation of the waste throughout the system. It includes the transfer of the waste from the collection point to the storage facility, to the treatment facility, and to the utilization site. (d) Storage Storage is the temporary containment of the waste. The waste management system should identify the storage period; required storage volume; type, estimated size, location, and  installation cost of the storage facility; management cost of the storage process; and impact of the storage on the consistency of the waste.
  13. 13. (e) Treatment : Treatment is any function designed to reduce the pollution potential or modify the physical characteristics of the waste, such as moisture and TS content, to facilitate more efficient and effective handling. Manure treatment is comprised of physical, biological, and chemical unit processes. It also includes activities that are sometimes considered pretreatment, such as the separation of solids. Various treatment process are performed on agricultural waste :- When dealing with agricultural waste, we must follow health and safety regulations . We should provide written instructions for storing and disposing of each type of waste we produce. Treatment process:  Composting  Recycling  Incineration
  14. 14. (f) Utilization Utilization includes reusing and/or recycling of waste products. Agricultural wastes may be used as a source of energy, bedding, mulch, organic matter, or plant nutrients. Properly treated, they can be marketable. A common practice is to recycle the nutrients in the waste through land application
  15. 15. Challenges or obstacles in going from ‘‘organic waste production’’ (inner circle) to ‘‘organic waste utilization’’. The challenges for integration of organic wastes into agriculture  regional imbalances of nutrients (e.g., not enough land on the farm to apply nutrients produced by animals on the farm), imbalance of nutrients in organic residues compare with fertilizer the relatively low nutrient concentration the often bulky nature of organic waste making it more difficult to haul and spread consistently possible environmental concerns, such as emission of ammonia and other gases, odor, and pathogens.
  16. 16. Waste hierarchy Waste hierarchy refers to 3 R’s:Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Waste minimization efficiency is stated to be better achieved applying 3Rs in a hierarchical order- Reduce, Reuse and Recycle . The waste hierarchy refers to the "3Rs" i.e., reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. The concept of minimizing waste reduces the quantity and ill-effects of waste generation by reducing quantity of wastes, reusing the waste products with simple treatments and recycling the wastes by using it as resources to produce same or modified products.
  17. 17. BASIS FOR COMPARISON REUSE RECYCLE Meaning Reuse, means putting an item to same or a different use, after it has fulfilled its original function. Recycle is a process, wherein a used item is turned into a new product, to reduce waste of potentially useful material. Form Does not change the original form of the product. A new product is created, so form of product is changed. Harm to environment It does not harm environment, in any way. It sometimes causes harm to environment. Energy Saves energy Consumes a little amount of energy, but saves it too. Objective To elongate the life of article. To use basic material in the creation of various products.
  18. 18. Waste handling options—dairy Production : Waste associated with dairy operations includes manure, contaminated runoff, milking house waste, bedding, spilled feed, and silage leachate Storage: Milking house waste and contaminated runoff must be stored as a liquid in a waste storage pond or structure. Utilisation: Dairy waste is used as bedding for livestock, marketed as compost, and used as an energy source, but the most common form of utilization is through land application. Treatment : Liquid waste can be treated in an aerobic lagoon, anaerobic lagoon. Energy production and odor abatement can be accomplished through anaerobic digestion or thermo-chemical conversion. Transfer : Pumps can be used to transfer liquid waste as needed. Solid and semisolid waste can be transferred by mechanical conveyance equipment
  19. 19. Zero waste agriculture is a type of sustainable agriculture which optimizes use of the five natural kingdoms, i.e. plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and algae, to produce biodiverse-food, energy and nutrients in a synergistic integrated cycle of profit making processes where the waste of each process becomes the feedstock for another process. Zero Waste is a philosophy that encourages the redesign of resource life cycles so that all products are reused. The goal is for no trash to be sent to landfills, incinerators, or the ocean. The process recommended is one similar to the way that resources are reused in nature
  20. 20. To clarify the juice, milk of lime (calcium hydroxide) is added and the solids (“filter mud”) are removed by filtration. The filtrate is evaporated under vacuum to leave ~60% sugar solution. Further evaporation yields the first crop (A-strike) of raw sugar. After the crystals are collected by centrifugation, two more crops (B- and C-strikes) are harvested from the mother liquors. The C-strike is not used commercially; it becomes seed crystals for the next crop. The crystals of the A- and B-strikes are the raw sugar—about 98% sucrose. The raw sugar is shipped to a refinery, where it is recrystallized into table sugar—99.9% sucrose. The final mother liquor is known as blackstrap molasses, and the remaining plant material is bagasse. Each of the four components— sugar, molasses, bagasse, and filter mud—has several uses and can lead to value-added products Corn stover consists of the leaves, stalks, and cobs of maize (corn) (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) plants left in a field after harvest Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics.
  21. 21. The main by-products of rice are rice straw, rice husk or hull, and rice bran. Rice straw is produced when harvesting paddy. Straw comes from what is left on the plant after it is harvested and the grains are threshed. Rice husks or hulls are generated during the first stage of rice milling, when rough rice or paddy rice is husked. Rice bran is produced during the second stage in milling, the whitening or polishing process, when the bran layer is removed from the brown rice kernel.

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