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Nano Technology for UG students of Agriculture

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Brief introduction of Nano Science and Nanotechnology at UG level for the students of Agriculture. Smart delivery of Fertilizers pesticides, smart seed, nano biosensors etc dealt.

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Nano Technology for UG students of Agriculture

  1. 1. Prof. P. K. Mani pabitramani@gmail.com Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India Nanotechnology for Precision Farming
  2. 2. There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom Richard Feynman Cal Tech, 1959 “People tell me about miniaturization, and how far it has progressed today. They tell me about electric motors that are the size of the nail on your small finger. And there is a device on the market, they tell me, by which you can write the Lord's Prayer on the head of a pin. But that's nothing; that's the most primitive, halting step in the direction I intend to discuss. It is a staggeringly small world that is below. In the year 2000, when they look back at this age, they will wonder why it was not until the year 1960 that anybody began seriously to move in this direction. Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Brittanica on the head of a pin?” This goal requires patterning at the 10 nanometer scale. Historical milestones
  3. 3. The Interesting Length Scale
  4. 4. Types of nanomaterials • Nanomaterials can… • occur naturally • be produced by human activity either as a product of another activity • on purpose (engineered) • Our focus: engineered nanomaterials as these are designed and integrated into products because of the specific characteristics of the nanomaterial References: https://nanohub.org/groups/gng/training_material s (Introduction to Nanomaterials and Occupational Health) Images: http://www.everychina.com/m-rubber-nano-zinc-oxide http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/76747818.png http://www.nanodic.com/carbon/Fullerene/1_resize.jpg http://www.carbonallotropes.com/39-122- thickbox/single-wall-carbon-nanotubes.jpg http://www.icbpharma.pl/techno_slow.html
  5. 5. According to Royal Society, "Nanotechnologies are the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nanometer scale"
  6. 6. Fig 3. Top-down and bottom-up techniques for the production of nanocapsules. (Nano encapsulation ) In general, the pdn of nanoparticles can be performed by both the “top-down” and the “bottom-up” techniques, and nanocapsules are not an exception.  For the former approach, the nanonization is achieved by the application of energy, while for the latter;  the aggregation of molecules, monomers, ions, or even atoms is controlled physico- chemically to form the nanocapsule.
  7. 7. Surface Areas at the Nanoscale http://www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/special 1 mm cubes1 cm cubes 1 nm cubes
  8. 8. Potential applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. (A) Increase the productivity using nanopesticides and nanofertilizers; (B) Improve the quality of the soil using nanozeolites and hydrogels; (C) Stimulate plant growth using nanomaterials (SiO2, TiO2, and Carbon Nanotubes, CNT); (D) Provide smart monitoring using nanosensors by wireless communication devices.
  9. 9. A schematic representation of different aspects of nanotechnology in agriculture is shown in Fig. 4. Detection of agrochemicals e.g. DDT, Endosulfun and chloropyrofos from H20 Aspects of Nanotechnology in Precision Agriculture Nanosensors to monitor soil heath and conditions Slow release of agrochemicals e.g. acetamprid and hexaconazole Plant disease management e.g. nanosillver, nano alumino silicate and TiO2 NPs Enhancement of self life of agro products by nanocoating e.g. AgNPs Growth regulators e.g. Silver nanoparticles Zeolites for soil water retentions Nutrient/water delivery systems via selective localization Quality enhancement of agri-products e.g. zinc spray
  10. 10. 6 types of nanostructured materials as nutrient Carriers: 1. Nanoclays, 2. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, 3. Mesoporous silica, 4. Carbon-based nanomaterials, 5. Polymeric nanoparticles, and 6.Other nanomaterials Core criteria to evaluate their potential for practical agricultural applications
  11. 11. SDS, ranging from treatments with agrochemicals to delivery of nucleic acids for genetic transformation Boopathi et al. (2011)
  12. 12. These “nano-fertilizers” have high surface area, sorption capacity, and controlled-release kinetics to targeted sites attributing them as smart delivery system.
  13. 13. Smart Delivery System “Smart delivery system” means combination of specifically targeted, highly controlled, remotely regulated, and multifunctional characteristic to avoid biological barriers for successful targeting (Nair et al. 2010)
  14. 14. Nanofertilizers Poor use efficiency of current fertilizers is a major issue. For instance, in China, the world’s largest consumer of nitrogen fertilizer, up to 50% of the nitrogen applied is lost by volatilization and another 5–10% by leaching. Loss of fertilizers has severe environmental consequences such as eutrophication. Nanotechnology is applied in the sector of plant nutrition with the aim of increasing the use efficiency of current fertilizers, either by improving the delivery of poorly bioavailable elements (e.g. phosphorus, zinc) and/or by limiting losses of mobile nutrients to the surrounding environment ( nitrate). Depending on the role of the nanomaterials, and the nutrients in use, nanofertilizers can be separated into three different categories: (1) Nanomaterials made of macronutrients, (2) Nanomaterials made of micronutrients, and (3) Nanomaterials acting as carriers for macronutrients. Some researchers refer to the first two categories only as nanofertilizers, and the third category(3) is ‘nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers’ or ‘nanomaterial-enhanced fertilizers’. Recent examples for category 1, 2 and 3 nanofertilizers are hydroxyapatite, layered double hydroxides intercalated with phosphate ions nano chitosan-NPK fertilizers. and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively.
  15. 15. Nanofertilizer refers to a product that delivers nutrients to crops in one of three ways: 1. The nutrient can be encapsulated inside Nano-materials such as nanotubes or nanoporous materials, 2. coated with a thin protective polymer film, 3. delivered as particles or emulsions of nanoscale dimensions. Slow, targeted, efficient release becomes possible. In some cases, the nano particles itself can be used NANOFERTILIZERS ?
  16. 16. Properties Examples of Nanofertilizers-Enabled Technologies Conventional Technology Solubility and dispersion for mineral micronutrients Nanosized formulation of mineral micronutrients may improve solubility and dispersion of insoluble nutrients in soil; reduce soil absorption and fixation and increase the bio-availability. Less bioavailalbility to plants due to large particle size and less solubility. Nutrient uptake efficiency Nanostructured formulation might increase fertilizer efficiency and uptake ratio of the soil nutrients in crop production; and save fertilizer resource. Bulk composite is not available for roots resource and decrease efficiency Controlled release modes Both release rate and release pattern of nutrients for water-soluble fertilizers might be precisely controlled through encapsulation in envelope forms of semi- permeable membranes coated by resin-polymer; waxes and sulphur. Excess release of fertilizers may produce toxicity and destroy ecological balance of soil Effective duration of nutrient release Nano-structured formulation can extend effective duration of nutrient supply of fertilizers into soil. Used by the plants at the time of delivery, the rest is converted into insoluble salts in the soil. Loss rate of fertilizer nutrients Nanostructured formulation can reduce loss rate of fertilizer nutrients into soil by leaching and/or leaking. High loss rate by leaching, runoff and drift. Comparison of Nanotechnology based formulations and conventional fertilizer application
  17. 17. Method of application of Nano fertilizer The formulation of any nano-fertilizer should be in such a way that they possess all desired properties such as  high solubility, stability, effectiveness, time-controlled release , enhanced targeted activity with effective concentration, and less eco-toxicity with safe, easy mode of delivery and disposal. Nanoparticles have great potential to deliver nutrients to specific
  18. 18. Nano materials have potential contributions in slow release of fertilizers Nanoparticles hold the material more strongly from the plant due to higher surface tension of nanoparticles than conventional surfaces. Moreover, nanocoatings provide surface A schematic representation of delivery of pesticides /fungicides/nutrients from nanocoating is shown in this figure
  19. 19. Nano porous zeolites
  20. 20. Novel Slow-Release Nanocomposite Nitrogen Fertilizers: The Impact of Polymers on Nanocomposite Properties and Function
  21. 21. Conceptual release of ZNO2 NPS” Under nutrient limitation, crops can secrete certain compounds into rhizosphere to enable biotic mineralization of N or P from SOM and P-associated with soil organic colloids. •These root exudates can be considered as environmental signals that can be recognised by nanobiosensor and release of nutrient occurs that synchronise with the plant’s need.
  22. 22. Smart delivery of nano encapsulated herbicide in the crop-weed environment. Nanoparticles targetting specific receptor of weed Nano technology in Weed Management Developing a target specific herbicide molecule encapsulated with nanoparticle is aimed at specific receptor in the roots of target weeds, which enter into root system and translocated to parts that inhibit glycolysis of food reserve in the root system. This will make the specific weed plant to starve for food and gets died.
  23. 23. Nano-pesticides: Solution or threat for a cleaner and greener agriculture?
  24. 24. It is self perpetuating biological entity that is able to survive in harsh environment on its own. Nanotechnology can be used to harness the full potential of seed. Seed production is a tedious process especially in wind pollinated crops. Detecting pollen load that will cause contamination is a sure method to ensure genetic purity. Pollen flight is determined by air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and pollen production of the crop. Use of bio nanosensors specific to contaminating pollen can help alert the possible contamination and thus reduces contamination. The same method can also be used to prevent pollen from Genetically modified crop from contaminating field crops. Novel genes are being incorporated into /seeds and sold in the market. Tracking of sold seeds could be done with the help of nano barcodes (Pena et al., 2001) that are encodable, machine-readable, durable and sub-micron sized taggants. Disease spread through seeds and many times stored seeds are killed by pathogens. Nano- coating of seeds using elemental forms of Zn, Mn, Pa, Pt, Au, Ag will not only protect seeds but used in far less quantities than done today. Seeds can also be imbibed with nano encapsulations with specific bacterial strain termed as Smart Seed. Khodakovskaya et al. (2009) have reported the use of carbon nanotube for improving the germination of tomato seeds through better permeation of moisture. Their data show that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serve as new pores for water permeation by penetration of seed coat and act as a passage to channelize the water from the substrate into the seeds. These processes facilitate germination which can be exploited in rainfed agricultural system. Application of nanotechnology in seed science
  25. 25. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were found to penetrate tomato seeds and affect their germination and growth rates. Analytical methods indicated that the CNTs are able to penetrate the thick seed coat and support water uptake inside seeds, a process which can affect seed germination and growth of tomato seedlings Carbon Nanotubes Are Super Fertilizer
  26. 26. Characterisation of Nano Fetilizer
  27. 27. Fig. 1: Key drivers for applying nanotechnology to improve the efficacy of agrochemicals. Associated socio-economic and environmental considerations that still need to be addressed
  28. 28. Do You Love Nano, Too? http://www.nisenet.org/catalog

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