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(A.P. STATE GOVT. SYLLABUS)
M. Padma Lalitha sharada
Govt. High School
Under Guidance of
Dy. Educational Officer
Contribution of Scientists to progress of Science
There is a lot of
difference between the
stone age man of
yesterday and today’s
man of atomic age.
We have many kinds of
machines available now
and we desire to get still
Noble Prize Winner – Indian Scientist
C. VENKATA RAMAN
Scientists alone are responsible for our comfortable life.
(Before 500 B.C.)
There were scientists in our country and in Greece
before 500 B.C., but the principles and facts told and
put forth by them were not believed because of the
superstitions and ignorance of the people. That’s why
that period is known as the “DARK AGE”.
From 16th century, scientists
came forward boldly and faced
Life to the scientific knowledge
Research and devotion,
Resourcefulness and their
process of formulating
facts gave life to the
As a result they
discovered many new
Wrought-Iron Pillar of New Delhi*
Ancient India was an early leader
JOHN GUTENBERG(1397 to 1468)
John Gutenberg realised the
necessity of the implement to
convey the principles, experiments
and inventions or discoveries to the
The printing machine is the
reflection of his thoughts.
Recording the scientific knowledge
has become very easy with that
John Gutenberg – style Printing Press from 1568.
Such presses could make 240 prints per hour.
There are many organisms
which are not visible to our
Some of those organisms cause
To find such organisms
Microscope in 1590.
ANTONIE VAN LEEUWEN HOEK (1632 -1723)
Replica of Microscope by
Antonie Van Leeuwen Hoek
In 1653 Antonie Van Leeuwen hoek
discovered the living organisms which
are invisible to our naked eye, those
are the unicellular organisms of
This enabled the scientists to discover
the diseases caused by those
organisms and also the preventive
measures of remedies.
A species of Protozoa identified by
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
ROBERT KOCH (1843-1910)
In the 19th century Robert Koch
formulated the symptoms and
preventive measures of Tuberculosis
and Cholera by studying the nature of
the disease causing micro organisms.
German Postage Stamp on
(Released in 2005)
Robert Koch’s fight against Malaria
East - German Commemorative Coin
(1968) on Robert Koch
According to Koch’s
instructions, all the ponds
and swamps where Malaria
hatched were reclaimed
and patients were treated
Malaria was thus iradicated
by 1902 and Kupelwieser
erected a monument to
Koch, which still stands in
Vicinity of the 15th century
Church of St. German on
Veliki Brijun Island.
Monument to Robert Koch and the fight against Malaria at
Veliki Brijun Island – istria country in Adriatic Sea.
An Electron Microscope that can magnify living cells, micro–organisms - parts
of the cells 10 thousand times is available. There is also scope for taking
photographs of Microscope organism and its parts also.
An image of ant in a
scanning Electron Microscope
An insect coated in gold for
viewing with a scanning
Louis Pasteur was surprised to see
the crude and dangerous method of
treatment for dog-bite.
He thought that it was not correct
and he conducted his experiments
on dog bite .
In 1885 he discovered a medicine
for “Rabis” – dog bite in scintific
method. He conducted his work in
Inventor of Pasteurization Method
Pasteur’s works in
Louis Pasteur discovered
the process of
Pasteurization to destroy
He proved that
fermentation of grape
juice is caused by micro –
He also proposed that
micro organisms are the
cause for contagious
diseases through Microbe
William Harvey (15781657)
Postage Stamp on
William Harvey by
William Harvey proved by his
experiments that blood circulation
is necessary for the functioning of
But he could not demonstrate how
blood is collected in the heart.
Marcello Malpighi (1638 – 1694)
systematic circulation of
blood being pumped by
the body to the heart.
Malpighi Tomb in Italy
In our country Dhanvantari, Sushruta, Charaka etc., were regarded
as Doctors, Scientists.
An idol of Dhanvantari at an
Ayurveda Expo in Bangalore
Dhanvantari is an Avatar
of Vishnu from the Hindu
tradition. He appears in
the vedas and Puranas
as the physician of the
Gods and the God of
Sushruta (800 B.C.) – Father of Surgery
Statue of Sushruta in Haridwar Sushrutha is the author
of the book “Sushrutha
In which he describes over
300 surgical procedures and
120 surgical instruments and
classifies human surgery in
Because of his seminal and
numerous contributions to
the science and art of
surgery he is also known by
the title “Father of Surgery”.
Charaka Monument in
Patanjali Yogpeeth Campus Haridwar
Charaka (300 B.C.)
Charaka is author of
It is a document which
about seasons, diet,
thinking, therapies and
various other guidelines
for getting good health
Acharya Nagarjuna was
the first Indian who
Nagarjuna proposed the “Theory of
Statue of Arya bhat on the
grounds of IUCAA (Pune)
Aryabhat formulated “Austronomical Facts”.
JAGADEESH CHANDRA BOSE (1858 – 1937 )
Jagadeesh Chandra Bose in Royal Institution (London)
Jagadeesh Chandra Bose conducted several experiments on
plants and discovered that plants have life.
GROWTH RATE OF PLANTS
He said that they exhibit
feelins. He discovered
“Cresco Graph” to find out
the growth of plants
Chandra Shekhara Venkata
Raman (1888 – 1970)
C.V. Raman conducted experiments
Raman Energy Levels
Energy Level Diagram showing the States involved in
C.V. Raman published the principles of “Raman Effect” which
explained the “Light Emission” and for it he awarded the Noble
Stamp released on
C.V. Raman in 1971
Acharya Prapulla Chandra
Roy (1861 – 1944 )
P.C. Roy conducted experiments on
An Exhibition on P.C. Roy was held at
the Science City, Kolkatta on his 150th
Birth Anniversary (2nd August, 2011)
MEGHANATH SAHA (1893 – 1956 )
Meghanath Saha formulated the theory of “Heat Emission”
Dr. MANKOMBU SAMBASIVAN SWAMINATHAN
(Born on August 7th 1925)
Today many countries are facing shortage of food. There is no
sufficient production of food for the population.
Dr. M.S. Swaminathan developed different high yielding new
varieties of crop plants (Hybrids) and his effort was admired by
many nations in the world.
M.S. Swaminathan is well known as
“FATHER OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN
He worked as President of International
Rice Research Institute. There he
worked for agricultural production in
Now He is the Founder and Chairman of
the M.S. Swaminathan Research
D.N.A. (De Oxy Ribonucleic Acid)
Man observed many
things in nature in the
stone age itself.
Some people conducted
results (inferences) for
which superstitions stud
It took sometime to
People came to a
decision that Scientific
discoveries could solve
Scientists followed an analytical way for finding the facts.
the results of
have made our
MY SINCERE THANKS
I offer my Sincere Thanks to Smt.
C.B. Nirmala, (Head Mistress) for
always encouraging teachers to
learn computer education and
supporting in giving proper
computer lab facilities and such
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