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Also called a glasshouse.
It is a building or complex with protection boundaries in
which plants are grown.
Commercial glass greenhouse
Provides a controlled and favorable environment for crop to
grow and yield high in all the seasons.
Saves crop from excessive cold in winters, from heat in
summers and from rain in monsoon seasons.
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL SHAPE OF FRAME
The design of a greenhouse depends upon the latitude of the
place and the requirement of crop.
a) ATTACHED GREENHOUSES
i) Lean-to- half greenhouse,split along the peak of the roof.
Useful where space
availability of water
Location of windows
and doors on the
structure must be
kept in mind
ii) Even-span - full-size structure that has one gable end
attached to another building.
usable space and
can be lengthened
two to three
Better shape for air
Most costly option
iii) Window-mounted- attached on the south or east side of a
This glass enclosure gives space for conveniently growing a few
plants at relatively low cost.
The special window extends outward from the house a foot or
so and can contain two or three shelves.
B) FREESTANDING (DETACHED) STRUCTURES:
They can be set apart from other buildings to get more sun and
can be made as large or small as desired.
COMPONENTS IN A GREEN HOUSE
Green House components can be broadly divided into 3 main
1) Structural Design- must provide protection against damages
from wind, rain, heat and cold.
2) Green House covering- Polyethylene Film
and Polycarbonate Panels.
3) Environmental controls.
STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION IN GREEN HOUSE
Hot galvanized steel poles and profiles. It is
based on the desired length, width, gutter
height, spans etc for the green houses.
For Poly or Aluminum/metallic lock profiles
connect polythene to metallic construction and
The roof should be built from strong gothic type
arches with narrow spacing for higher stability of
the PE cover and increased resistance to heavy
rainfall and strong winds.
For most efficient release of hot air and excess
humidity, ventilation openings are placed in the
Opening should be vertical in order to prevent
rainfall from reaching the growing areas.
GREENHOUSE COVERING SHOULD HAVE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES…..
Anti – Fog
• These are special strips which insulate the
covering polythene from heat of the steel arches
and protect the PE at the point of contact.
• The strip lengthens the life of PE.
PE strip for
• Net is required for preventing entrance of insects into
green houses with minimum effect on ventilation.
• They minimizes the consumption of pesticides thus
reducing the cost and negative effects of chemicals.
For longer duration of PE itself and prevent
harmful radiation from reaching the plants .
Accumulation of condensation and uncontrolled
dripping inside the green house are avoided with
the help of a special anti fog coating.
• Evaporative cooling pad can be installed in order
to reduce temperatures up to 150°C during the
dry period and to increase humidity if necessary.
• Dedicated fans with air replacement capacity and
cooling operation for climate control function and
• They are used for the purpose of air movements in
order to prevent diseases and to create a uniform
environment. They are resistant to high humidity and
temperatures as well as to chemicals
A fully integrated computer network constantly
monitors and controls the variables in our
WHY GREEN HOUSE YIELDS MORE
U.V. film does not allow harmful U.V. rays to enter the green
house thus protecting the crop.
The use of artificial light allows photosynthesis to continue
beyond daylight hours while the use of artificial heating allows
photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate.
The use of additional carbon dioxide released into the
atmosphere inside the greenhouse also allows photosynthesis
to continue at an increased rate. Thus the plants get about 8-10
times more food than the open field condition.
Water is piped to one or
more central locations
within the field and
distributed by overhead
Water falls drop by drop
just at the position of
All connector should be
made for fast connection
Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil.
One of the important aspect in a green house is Irrigation
and Fertigation System.
Fertigation is the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or
other water-soluble products through an irrigation system.
It enables both the water movement in the soil and nutrient
supply to be controlled.
This system allows adjustments of fertigation program according
to both the stages and rate of growth of plants and changing
The fertilizers are dissolved separately in tanks and are mixed in
a given ratio and supplied to the plants through drippers.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF
• Manipulation of Growing season.
• Production volume increases
more than 10-12 times than
• Round the year production of
most desired crop.
• Disease and pest attack is
• Suitable for rearing/hardening of
tissue culture plants.
• Latest technologies can be
incorporated to get maximum
• Initial cost is very high.
• Maintenance cost is high.
• Knowledge of various factors are
required to effectively control
climate inside the greenhouse.
Plant biotech can play a potential role of increasing agricultural
productivity, bring food security by its contribution to greenhouse
Plant biotech methods have helped produce plants resistant to
drought, flood, soil infertility, pests, abiotic stress etc. These
plants are grown in greenhouses for hardening.
Tissue culture plays an important role to improve agronomic
traits of many plants.
ROLE OFPLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
A French botanist named Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1803 to
1857), is said to have designed the first modern greenhouse in
Leiden, Holland, which housed medicinal plants.
There are more than 50 countries now in the world where
cultivation of crops is undertaken on a commercial scale under
Asia, China and Japan are the largest users of greenhouses.
The development of greenhouse technology in China has been
faster than in any other country in the world.
STATUS IN INDIA
In India use of greenhouse technology started only during
1980’s and it was mainly used for research activities.
Greenhouses are being built in the Ladakh region for extending
the growing season of vegetables from 3 to 8 months.
In the North-East, greenhouses are being constructed
essentially as rain shelters to permit off-season vegetable
In India greenhouse cultivation is
mainly in Maharashtra, Uttarakhand,
Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir.
Cultivation of cabbage, cauliflower, knoll-khol, broccoli, brussel's
sprouts, tomato, brinjal, chilli, capsicum and onion has been
possible because of greenhouse technology in areas such as
Leh and Ladakh.