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Greenhouse technology

greenhouse technology

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Greenhouse technology

  1. 1. Presented by- Panchali Das 3rd Semester M.Sc.
  2. 2. GREENHOUSE  Also called a glasshouse.  It is a building or complex with protection boundaries in which plants are grown. Commercial glass greenhouse Miniature greenhouse
  3. 3. GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGY  Provides a controlled and favorable environment for crop to grow and yield high in all the seasons.  Saves crop from excessive cold in winters, from heat in summers and from rain in monsoon seasons.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL SHAPE OF FRAME  The design of a greenhouse depends upon the latitude of the place and the requirement of crop.  a) ATTACHED GREENHOUSES i) Lean-to- half greenhouse,split along the peak of the roof. Advantages Useful where space is limited Least expensive, availability of water and electricity Disadvantages Temperature control is difficult Location of windows and doors on the supporting structure must be kept in mind
  5. 5. CONTD..  ii) Even-span - full-size structure that has one gable end attached to another building. Advantages Provides more usable space and can be lengthened Can accommodate two to three benches for growing crops. Better shape for air circulation Disadvantages Most costly option
  6. 6. CONTD..  iii) Window-mounted- attached on the south or east side of a house.  This glass enclosure gives space for conveniently growing a few plants at relatively low cost.  The special window extends outward from the house a foot or so and can contain two or three shelves.
  7. 7. B) FREESTANDING (DETACHED) STRUCTURES:  Separate structures.  They can be set apart from other buildings to get more sun and can be made as large or small as desired.
  8. 8. COMPONENTS IN A GREEN HOUSE  Green House components can be broadly divided into 3 main categories. 1) Structural Design- must provide protection against damages from wind, rain, heat and cold. 2) Green House covering- Polyethylene Film and Polycarbonate Panels. 3) Environmental controls.
  9. 9. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATION IN GREEN HOUSE Hot galvanized steel poles and profiles. It is based on the desired length, width, gutter height, spans etc for the green houses. For Poly or Aluminum/metallic lock profiles connect polythene to metallic construction and gutters. The roof should be built from strong gothic type arches with narrow spacing for higher stability of the PE cover and increased resistance to heavy rainfall and strong winds. For most efficient release of hot air and excess humidity, ventilation openings are placed in the roof. Opening should be vertical in order to prevent rainfall from reaching the growing areas.
  10. 10. GREENHOUSE COVERING SHOULD HAVE FOLLOWING PROPERTIES….. UV Filtration: Anti – Fog properties: • These are special strips which insulate the covering polythene from heat of the steel arches and protect the PE at the point of contact. • The strip lengthens the life of PE. PE strip for Insulation: • Net is required for preventing entrance of insects into green houses with minimum effect on ventilation. • They minimizes the consumption of pesticides thus reducing the cost and negative effects of chemicals. Insect Proof Net: For longer duration of PE itself and prevent harmful radiation from reaching the plants . Accumulation of condensation and uncontrolled dripping inside the green house are avoided with the help of a special anti fog coating.
  11. 11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL • Evaporative cooling pad can be installed in order to reduce temperatures up to 150°C during the dry period and to increase humidity if necessary. Cooling • Dedicated fans with air replacement capacity and cooling operation for climate control function and disease prevention. Electric fan • They are used for the purpose of air movements in order to prevent diseases and to create a uniform environment. They are resistant to high humidity and temperatures as well as to chemicals Air mixers Sensors A fully integrated computer network constantly monitors and controls the variables in our greenhouses.
  12. 12. WHY GREEN HOUSE YIELDS MORE  U.V. film does not allow harmful U.V. rays to enter the green house thus protecting the crop.  The use of artificial light allows photosynthesis to continue beyond daylight hours while the use of artificial heating allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate.  The use of additional carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere inside the greenhouse also allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate. Thus the plants get about 8-10 times more food than the open field condition.
  13. 13. Irrigation System Sprinkler System Water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. Drip lines Water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots. Distribution pipes All connector should be made for fast connection and disconnections. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. One of the important aspect in a green house is Irrigation and Fertigation System.
  14. 14. FERTIGATION SYSTEM  Fertigation is the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, or other water-soluble products through an irrigation system.  It enables both the water movement in the soil and nutrient supply to be controlled.  This system allows adjustments of fertigation program according to both the stages and rate of growth of plants and changing climate conditions.  The fertilizers are dissolved separately in tanks and are mixed in a given ratio and supplied to the plants through drippers.
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF Advantages • Manipulation of Growing season. • Production volume increases more than 10-12 times than normal production. • Round the year production of most desired crop. • Disease and pest attack is minimum. • Suitable for rearing/hardening of tissue culture plants. • Latest technologies can be incorporated to get maximum benefits. Disadvantages • Initial cost is very high. • Maintenance cost is high. • Knowledge of various factors are required to effectively control climate inside the greenhouse.
  16. 16.  Plant biotech can play a potential role of increasing agricultural productivity, bring food security by its contribution to greenhouse technology.  Plant biotech methods have helped produce plants resistant to drought, flood, soil infertility, pests, abiotic stress etc. These plants are grown in greenhouses for hardening.  Tissue culture plays an important role to improve agronomic traits of many plants. ROLE OFPLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
  17. 17. GREENHOUSES– WORLDSCENARIO  A French botanist named Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1803 to 1857), is said to have designed the first modern greenhouse in Leiden, Holland, which housed medicinal plants.  There are more than 50 countries now in the world where cultivation of crops is undertaken on a commercial scale under cover.  Asia, China and Japan are the largest users of greenhouses.  The development of greenhouse technology in China has been faster than in any other country in the world.
  18. 18. STATUS IN INDIA  In India use of greenhouse technology started only during 1980’s and it was mainly used for research activities.  Greenhouses are being built in the Ladakh region for extending the growing season of vegetables from 3 to 8 months.  In the North-East, greenhouses are being constructed essentially as rain shelters to permit off-season vegetable production.  In India greenhouse cultivation is mainly in Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir.
  19. 19. CONTD..  Cultivation of cabbage, cauliflower, knoll-khol, broccoli, brussel's sprouts, tomato, brinjal, chilli, capsicum and onion has been possible because of greenhouse technology in areas such as Leh and Ladakh.

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