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Troubleshooting of Packed Distillation Column

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Distillation is one of the widely used separation method in most of the Chemical Process Industries. Improper design/ operation & maintenance leads to various troubles like reduced plant capacity, poor quality of separated products, high energy consumption, etc. This presentation is for learning about the troubleshooting of packed type distillation systems. Through conceptual aspects of the overall distillation system, reader can easily identify the various causes of probable troubles and will be able to suggest their remedial measures.

Publié dans : Formation
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Troubleshooting of Packed Distillation Column

  1. 1. Troubleshooting of Packed Distillation Column Enhancing Visualization Pankaj Khandelwal Chief Konceptor B.E.(Chemical), M.Tech.(Chemical), DBM Koncept Learning Center (Pune) klcenter@gmail.com
  2. 2. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles a.) Capacity (Feed Rate) Expected : 100 m3/hr Actual : 90 m3/hr
  3. 3. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles b.) Quality of Separated Products Expected : 95 %v/v ‘A’ Actual : 94 %v/v ‘A’ Top Stream
  4. 4. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles c.) Steam (Energy) Consumption Expected : 10 TPH Actual : 11 TPH
  5. 5. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles d.) Material Wastage Expected : Zero Actual : 1 TPD
  6. 6. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles e.) Replacement of Internals Expected : 2 years Actual : 6 months
  7. 7. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles f.) Plant Shutdown Expected : Nil Actual : 4 times/year
  8. 8. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to a.) Inaccurate Column Design o Diameter o Height
  9. 9. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to b.) Wrong Purchase o MOC o Packing Size/ Type
  10. 10. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to c.) Improper Fabrication o Nozzle Location in column o Improper Sealing in Tube Pass
  11. 11. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to d.) Poor Erection o Column Perpendicularity o Liquid Distributor Leveling o Condensor Elevation
  12. 12. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to e.) Careless Pre-commissioning Checks o Debris left in column o Glass in SG/LG Missing o Wrong Direction of Rotameter
  13. 13. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to f.) Inexperienced Startup o Fast Initial Heating o No cooling water in condensor o Higher feed rate at the start
  14. 14. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to g.) Casual Normal Operation o High reflux ratio (than specified) o Low feed temperature o Sub-cooled reflux
  15. 15. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble may be due to h.) Careless Maintenance o Damaging column packing o Changed gasket material o Relocating instrument
  16. 16. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Distillation First (Lab) Observation 50%w/w Liquid converts to 70%w/w Vapor
  17. 17. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Distillation Second (Process) Requirement Heat Liquid by Direct Contact Vapors
  18. 18. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Distillation Here the Imperfection Starts (Man Made) which leads to Trouble Third (Plant) Provision Space like Packing for Heat & Mass Transfer
  19. 19. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column a.) Cylindrical Vertical Vessel with Nozzles, Manholes, etc.  Atmospheric  Pressure  Vacuum
  20. 20. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing  To provide space for Liquid/ Vapor direct contact  Simultaneous Heat & Mass Transfer  More Contact & Less Pressure Drop
  21. 21. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing First Generation (Raschig Ring, Berl Saddle) 1895 to the 1950s simple shapes with closed surfaces, robust and stable design, cost-effective production
  22. 22. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing Second Generation (Pall Ring, Intalox Saddle) late 1950s to the early 1970s surfaces with cutted windows and bent tongues, improved area distribution lowering pressure drop and enhancing capacity
  23. 23. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing Third Generation (Net/Grid Structures, IMPT Ring) late 1970s to the 1990s framework structure, large free cross section, low pressure drop, high efficiency
  24. 24. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing Fourth Generation (Raschig Super-Ring) late 1990s until present lower pressure drop and better mass transfer efficiency
  25. 25. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column b.) Packing Latest
  26. 26. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column c.) Support Plate
  27. 27. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know About Packed Bed Column d.) Liquid Distributor 1. Gravitational Types i. Orifice Type ii. Weir Type 2. Pressure Drop Types i. Spray Nozzle Type ii. Perforated Pipe Type
  28. 28. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know Distillation System Feed Preheater Reboiler Distillation Column Bottom Product Cooler Top Product Cooler Condenser A + B A B Steam Steam Cooling Water Cooling Water Cooling Water Feed Top Vapors Reflux Top Product Bottom Product
  29. 29. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know Distillation System Feed Preheater Reboiler Distillation Column Bottom Product Cooler Top Product Cooler Condenser A + B A B Steam Steam Cooling Water Cooling Water Cooling Water Feed Top Vapors Reflux Top Product Bottom Product a.) Feeding • Gravity/ Pump • Pre-heating
  30. 30. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know Distillation System Feed Preheater Reboiler Distillation Column Bottom Product Cooler Top Product Cooler Condenser A + B A B Steam Steam Cooling Water Cooling Water Cooling Water Feed Top Vapors Reflux Top Product Bottom Product b.) Vapor Condensation/ Reflux • Condensor – Horizontal/Vertical • Partial vs. Total Condensation • Reflux – Gravity / Pump
  31. 31. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Know Distillation System Feed Preheater Reboiler Distillation Column Bottom Product Cooler Top Product Cooler Condenser A + B A B Steam Steam Cooling Water Cooling Water Cooling Water Feed Top Vapors Reflux Top Product Bottom Product c.) Heat Supply • Direct / Indirect • Reboiler – Thermosiphon, Forced, Kettle
  32. 32. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Design of Distillation (Packed Column) a.) Height of Packing Theoretical Stages x HETP Based on Feed Condition & Reflux Ratio Based on Packing Type
  33. 33. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Design of Distillation (Packed Column) b.) Material & Energy Balance Overall Material Balance A=10 t B=90 t T =100 t A=9.99 t B=0.01 t T=10 t A=0.01 t B=99.99 t T=90 t
  34. 34. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Design of Distillation (Packed Column) b.) Material & Energy Balance At Reflux Ratio = 4 Reflux Flow = 40 t Vapor Flow = 50 t A=10 t B=90 t T =100 t A=9.99 t B=0.01 t T=10 t A=0.01 t B=99.99 t T=90 t
  35. 35. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Design of Distillation (Packed Column) b.) Material & Energy Balance Energy Balance •for Condensor Load •for Reboiler Load A=10 t B=90 t T =100 t A=9.99 t B=0.01 t T=10 t A=0.01 t B=99.99 t T=90 t
  36. 36. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Design of Distillation (Packed Column) c.) Column Diameter Tower Area = Vapor Mass Rate / Vapor Mass Velocity
  37. 37. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) A.) Feed a.) Feed Flow Rate a.1) Expected = 100 TPH Actual = 50 TPH a.2) Expected = 100 TPH Actual = 150 TPH Vapor / Liquid Load
  38. 38. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) A.) Feed b.) Feed Composition b.1) Expected : 10% w/w ‘A’ Actual : 5 % w/w ‘A’ b.2) Expected : 10% w/w ‘A’ Actual : 20 % w/w ‘A’ Change of Feed Nozzle
  39. 39. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) A.) Feed c.) Feed Temperature/ Condition c.1) Expected : 900C Liquid Actual : 600C Liquid c.2) Expected : 900C Liquid Actual : 900C Vapor Heat Load to Reboiler
  40. 40. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) B.) Reflux a.) Flow Rate a.1) Expected : 50 TPH Actual : 25 TPH a.2) Expected : 50 TPH Actual : 100 TPH
  41. 41. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) B.) Reflux b.) Temperature b.1) Expected : 790C Actual : 500C
  42. 42. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) C.) Steam in Reboiler a.) Flow Rate b.) Pressure c.) Quality : Dry, Wet, Superheated
  43. 43. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Variation Analysis (in Designed Column) D.) Cooling Water a.) Flow Rate b.) Temperature
  44. 44. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble Identification a.) By Operating Parameter Study Pressure, Temperature, Composition at different locations Bottom Pressure Expected : 2.5 kg/cm2(g) Actual : 2.6 kg/cm2(g) Bottom Temperature Expected : 105oC Actual : 104oC Bottom Composition Expected : 0.01%w/w ‘A’ Actual : 0.1%w/w ‘A’
  45. 45. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble Identification b.) By Visual Inspection During Operation : Flooding through SG/LG On Column Opening : Choked Liquid Distributor
  46. 46. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Trouble Identification c.) By Advanced Tools •Simulation Models •Gamma Scanning •X-Ray Analysis •Video Camera
  47. 47. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Typical Troubling Issues a.) Flooding b.) Channeling c.) Entrainment
  48. 48. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles within Column a.) Fluid Specific •Scaled/ Fouled Packing •Corroded Packing •Foaming Liquid
  49. 49. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Troubles within Column b.) Hardware Specific •Packing : Size, Type, Broken/Damaged Packing •Liquid Distributor : Choked holes, Tilted, Under/Over sized •Vapor Supply : Sheath
  50. 50. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Other Hardware Affecting Distillation a.) Equipment other than Distillation Column a.1) Heat Exchanger •Feed Pre-heater •Condensor •Reboiler •Coolers •Heat Transfer Area – Less / More •Orientation – Horizontal / Vertical •Location - Elevation
  51. 51. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Other Hardware Affecting Distillation a.) Equipment other than Distillation Column a.2) Pump •Feed Pump •Reflux Pump •Product Draw Pump •Flow Rate vs. Head •NPSH (Required) vs. NPSH (Available)
  52. 52. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Other Hardware Affecting Distillation b.) Pipe Line •Reflux Line with Loop •Thermo-siphon Reboiler Piping •Utility Piping – Steam, Cooling Water •Vacuum Line •Pump Suction Line
  53. 53. klcenter@gmail.comKoncept Learning Center Troubleshooting of Distillation Column (Packed Type) Enhancing Visualization Other Hardware Affecting Distillation c.) Instrument •Wrong Calibration •Control Valve Operation •Wrong Placement/Installation
  54. 54. Koncept Learning Center 9371121220 klcenter@gmail.com 8237829150 9623232500 9371121220 www.facebook.com/KonceptLearningCenter www.konceptlearningcenter.com www.linkedin.com/company/koncept-learning-center Enhancing Visualization Since 2001

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