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Medical Image Processing

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Medical Image Processing

Publié dans : Formation, Business, Technologie

Medical Image Processing

  1. 1. Medical Image Processing- Introduction
  2. 2. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Medical Imaging • The study of medical imaging is concerned with Interaction of all forms of radiation with tissue. • The development of appropriate technology to extract clinically useful information, usually in the form of an image from the observed technology. • Non-invasive visualization of internal organs, tissue, etc. – Is endoscopy an imaging modality? • Image – a 2D signal f(x,y) or 3D f(x,y,z)
  3. 3. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Major Modalities • Projection X-ray (Radiography) • X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Ultrasound • Nuclear Medicine ( PET) • Magnetic Resonance Angiography • Fundus Images
  4. 4. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt X-ray • Image Formation • A beam of X-rays is directed through a patient onto a film. • The film provides a measure of the ray attenuation in tissue.
  5. 5. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample X-ray Slices
  6. 6. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Computer Tomography • Image Formation The object is viewed from a number of different angles and then a cross-sectional image of it can be computed (reconstructed).
  7. 7. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt 3D Reconstruction in CT
  8. 8. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample CT Slices
  9. 9. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  10. 10. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample MRI
  11. 11. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ultrasound
  12. 12. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample Ultrasound Image
  13. 13. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  14. 14. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample PET Images
  15. 15. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Magnetic Resonance Angiography • Image Formation Imagine the blood vessels (moving spins) using MRI scanner.  PCA -(phase contract angiography)  CEA -(contrast enhanced angiography)  CTA -(computer tomography angiography)  DSA- (digital subtraction angiography)  TOF -(time-of-flight)
  16. 16. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Samples of Angiography
  17. 17. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Fundus photography • Fundus photography (also called fundography[ ) is the creation of a photograph of the interior surface of the eye, including the retina, optic disc, macula, • Fundus photography is performed by a fundus camera, which basically consists of a specialized low power microscope with an attached camera. and posterior pole
  18. 18. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Sample Fundus Images Fundus photography is used by optometrists, ophthalmologists, and trained medical professionals for monitoring progression of a disease, diagnosis of a disease
  19. 19. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Basic Medical Image Processing System Acquisition Processing Visualizing/Reporting Pre processing Segmentation Detection Analyzing Diagnosis
  20. 20. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Acquisition of Images • X-RAY • MRI • CT • MRA • PET • MAMMOGRAM • ULTRASOUND…..and More.
  21. 21. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Preprocessing of Images • Filtering • Image Denoising • Image Registration • Image enhancement
  22. 22. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt List of algorithms for Preprocessing • Median filter • Mean filter • Wavelet Based Denoising • Wavelet based Image registration
  23. 23. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Segmentation
  24. 24. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt List of Segmentation Algorithms • K Means • Fuzzy • Neuro Fuzzy • Neural Network based Segmentation • Snake algorithm • Thresholding based Segmentation
  25. 25. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Detection
  26. 26. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Analysis
  27. 27. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Classification/Diagnoses
  28. 28. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt List of Applications • Medical Image Compression • Medical Image Denosing • Image Filtering • Medical Image Retrieval • Mammograms • Tumor detection • Medical Image fusion
  29. 29. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Medical Image Compression Why Compress Medical Images ? • Growing need for storage • Efficient data transmission • Telemedicine • Tele-radiology applications • Real time Tele-consultation. • PACS (Picture archiving and communication systems)
  30. 30. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Challenges unique to medical images. • Compression Algorithms • Lossy / Lossless • Medical Images should always be stored in lossless format. • Erroneous Diagnostics and its legal implications.
  31. 31. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Low motion areas  lossy High motion areas  lossless Future improvements Lossless Lossy
  32. 32. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Encoding using “slices” (group of macroblocks): – First slice for high motion areas – Second slice for low motion areas Slices may be encoded at different rates Future improvements First slice Second slice
  33. 33. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Medical Image Fusion- PET/CT PET Image of the Chest CT Image of the Chest PET/CT Fused Image of the Chest Multiple Modality images are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information
  34. 34. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Medical Image Retrieval What for ? • Medical assistance – Use of similar cases in order to assist medical detection/diagnosis, treatment, … • Difficult cases detection/diagnosis assistance • Treatment choice assistance  Education • Better understanding of diseases and phenomena using multiple similar examples • Better training by the recognition of similar symptoms – different origins cases • Updating and creating medical multimedia atlases  Research • Medical Image Data mining • New pathological trends, • Extract new global characteristics by type of population and geographic regions
  35. 35. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Medical Image Retrieval - Example
  36. 36. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt 1. Differentiation of benign from malignant lessions 2. Staging of malignant disease 3. Differentiation of reccurent malignant disease from therapy induced changes 4. Monitoring the response to therapy Tumor Imaging
  37. 37. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt - Weight lost (15 kg) - CT and endo ultrasound suspicion of malignancy - high risk patient undergoing dialysis - PET negative - clinical follow up without progression Differentiation of benign from malignant lessions
  38. 38. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Differentiation of reccurent malignant disease from therapy induced changes MRI PET
  39. 39. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt • At least one microaneurysm - earliest clinically detectable lesion • Retinal hemorrhages • Hard or soft exudates Diabetic Retinopathy-Ultrasound Imaging
  40. 40. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Healthy Retina Diabetic Retinopathy
  41. 41. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Most of the Medical Image processing system consist of 1)Preprocessing 2)Enhancement 3)Filtering , Denoising and Morphological Operations 4)Segmentation 5)Detection Conclusion
  42. 42. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Thank you!Thank you! Any doubts?
  43. 43. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt For more details – www.pantechsolutions.net – http://www.slideshare.net/pantechsolutions – http://www.scribd.com/pantechsolutions – http://www.youtube.com/pantechsolutions

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