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Copyright and Creativity: Getting Balance Back

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This slideshow identifies the problem of copyright imbalance and addresses where it is possible to effect change that broadens the opportunities for new creators who use existing copyrighted material, such as people making remixes, mashups, slideshows, and other works.

Publié dans : Formation, Technologie
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Copyright and Creativity: Getting Balance Back

  1. 1. Copyright and Creativity: Getting Balance Back Pat Aufderheide Center for Social Media, School of Communication, American University
  2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do copyright policies inhibit the growth of digital culture? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Purpose of Copyright
  4. 4. One Purpose : <ul><li>To promote the creation of culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. By: <ul><ul><li>Rewarding creators with limited monopoly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging new makers to use existing culture </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Why balance? <ul><li>All culture created on existing culture (we used to know that) </li></ul>
  7. 10. How we forgot balance: <ul><li>Copyright term extension </li></ul><ul><li>Default copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>Large copyright holders’ anti-piracy tactics </li></ul>
  8. 11. Two challenges: <ul><ul><li>Collapse of business models (incumbents’ problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyright imbalance (emergent users’ problem) </li></ul>
  9. 12. Business models eroding <ul><li>P2P </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy </li></ul><ul><li>Downloading </li></ul><ul><li>Etc </li></ul>
  10. 15. The Imbalance Problem
  11. 16. When we try to use existing culture to make new culture: <ul><li>It’s hard to license </li></ul><ul><li>It’s hard to find out who owns it </li></ul><ul><li>We’re locked out and punished if we break the locks </li></ul><ul><li>We’re not sure what the balancing features of our laws are </li></ul>
  12. 17. Licensing <ul><li>Usually time-limited </li></ul><ul><li>Too many layers </li></ul><ul><li>too many regions </li></ul>
  13. 18. Solution:
  14. 20. +
  15. 21. Build an Artificial Public Domain by Tweaking Licenses <ul><li>GPL (free software license) & Creative Commons licenses </li></ul><ul><li>… enabling new pools of content </li></ul><ul><li>Open source software </li></ul><ul><li>Open CourseWare </li></ul>
  16. 23. Portugal’s first branch of Students for Free Culture, started here!
  17. 25. “ Orphan Works”
  18. 27. Tech/Legal Pre-emption of Balancing Rights <ul><li>DMCA (US) </li></ul><ul><li>EU Copyright Directive </li></ul>
  19. 30. Patches: <ul><ul><li>Citizen participation in legislation (NZ; France) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press on exemptions (U.S.) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 31. Using Balancing Rights
  21. 32. Fair Use <ul><li>U.S., Israel, Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>legal, unauthorized use of copyrighted material--under some circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Broad </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable </li></ul>
  22. 33. The list approach: Fair dealing (Commonwealth) Fair dealing (UK] Many many exemptions to EU laws (national basis + Berne convention) Flexible dealing (Australia, more like fair use)
  23. 34. CENTERFORSOCIALMEDIA.ORG/FAIRUSE <ul><li>AU’s Fair Use Project </li></ul>
  24. 35. Fair Use Project
  25. 36. Judges love fair use <ul><li>They ask: </li></ul><ul><li>Did you transform the use? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you use the appropriate amount to satisfy the transformative use? </li></ul><ul><li>PLUS: What are your community’s expectations/practices? </li></ul>
  26. 37. Individuals fear… <ul><li>Will I get it wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>Will I get sued? ($125K+ per infringement!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Will my boss/librarian/client get angry? </li></ul>
  27. 38. BEST PRACTICES
  28. 39. Education <ul><li>Knowledge of the law </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of problem </li></ul><ul><li>Define interpretation of fair use </li></ul>
  29. 40. Communities define fair use for themselves: <ul><li>Documentary filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>Film scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy teachers </li></ul><ul><li>More </li></ul>
  30. 42. Doc
  31. 43. Results: <ul><li>Broadcasters program films </li></ul><ul><li>Cablecasters program films </li></ul><ul><li>Filmmakers develop new kinds of projects </li></ul><ul><li>Television/web companies expand their plans </li></ul><ul><li>All insurers of errors and omissions insurance now accept fair use claims </li></ul>
  32. 44. English teachers
  33. 45. Media literacy categories <ul><li>Teaching with copyrighted material </li></ul><ul><li>Using copyrighted material in curriculum materials </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating curriculum materials with copyrighted material in them </li></ul><ul><li>Student use of copyrighted materials in their work </li></ul><ul><li>Circulating student work </li></ul>
  34. 46. Online video
  35. 47. Online Video Code <ul><li>Comment/critique </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration/example </li></ul><ul><li>Accidentally/incidentally </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve/recall </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Collage </li></ul>
  36. 48. U.S. movement: Film scholars Archivists Open Courseware Int’l Communication Ass’n Business (“we wouldn’t even be talking if…”)
  37. 49. First steps of international movement to use exemptions : <ul><li>Canadian filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>EU filmmakers </li></ul><ul><li>South African filmmakers </li></ul>
  38. 50. To join the movement: <ul><li>Document the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research the reality </li></ul><ul><li>Define the opportunity </li></ul>
  39. 51. Pat Aufderheide <ul><li>Center for Social Media </li></ul><ul><li>School of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>American University </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, DC </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>202-885-2069 </li></ul>
  40. 52. Please feel free to share this presentation in its entirety. For excerpting, kindly employ the principles of fair use.

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