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Lesson plan, Nursing Education

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Nursing Education.

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Lesson plan, Nursing Education

  2. 2. WHAT IS LESSON PLAN ? A plan prepared by a teacher to teach a lesson in an organized manner
  3. 3. EVOLUTION OF LESSON PLAN  Origin – is from Gestalt theory of learning  The Gestalt theory has a great influence on human learning “ the whole is perceived by parts”.
  4. 4. GESTALT THEORY- lesson plan  In lesson planning each unit plays an important role in learning, because the learner usually takes the help of units in understanding the whole concept.  The part conveys the whole.  The meaningful activities are related to each other within a unit.  These activities provides the purposeful learning experiences and the leaner understands the whole concept.
  5. 5. DEFINITION  Lesson plan is the title given to the statements of achievements to be realized and specific meaning by which these are to be attained as a result of activities engaged during the period -L.S.Bossing-
  6. 6. PURPOSE OF LESSON PLAN  Ensures definite objective for the days work  Keeps the teacher on track  Ensures selection, presentation and interpretation of subject matter  Helps to choose effective method of teaching  Enables to evaluate the teaching sessions  Helps to review the subject and gives up to date knowledge
  7. 7. PURPOSE OF LESSON PLAN cont..  Helps to clarify the ideas  Gives the teacher greater confidence  It stimulates the teacher to think of related material , illustrations and audio-visual aids.  Enables teacher to organize classroom teaching activities  Develops reasoning, imagination and decision making ability of the teacher  Facilitates micro teaching
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES  Used as a guide rather than as a rule of thumb  Teacher must have mastery of and adequate training in the topic  Needs to be fully conversant with new methods and techniques of teaching  Needs to organize the material in an organized rather than a logical fashion  Must ensure active student participation  Should use different teaching learning methods
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LESSON PLAN  Should have clearly stated objectives  To be linked with previous knowledge of students  Should show and specify illustrative aids  Should contain suitable organized subject matter  Should be divided into units  It should not make the students passive learner
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LESSON PLAN Cont..  There should be flexibility in changing lesson plan.  Should include the summary of the whole lesson.  The lesson plan should be in such a way that it should provide full justification to all students.  Should plan for student assignment.  Must have plan for self –criticisms and self evaluation of the lesson.
  11. 11. Prerequisites for making good lesson plan The teacher should have--  Good knowledge about the student’s interests, traits and abilities.  Mastery over the subject matter and adequate training on the subject.  Principles of teaching and learning.  Awareness of individual differences among the students.
  12. 12. Prerequisites for making good lesson plan cont..  The knowledge what the students already possess about the topic  Organization of the material in a psychological and logical fashion  Fully conversant with new methods and techniques of teaching the subject  Ensure active pupil participation
  13. 13. 5.Application 6.Recapitulation 3.Comparison or association 4.Generalizations 1.Preparation or introduction 2.Presentation STEPS IN LESSON PLANNING
  14. 14. Preparation or introduction  Knowledge which helps to lead them onto lesson.  Teacher prepares student to receive knowledge.  Testing previous knowledge.  It arouses interest and curiosity to learn new matter.  Introduction should be brief and to the point.
  15. 15. Presentation  Aim of the lesson should be clearly stated before the presentation.  In teaching –learning process ,both – actively participate.  The Teacher has to present the topic in enthusiastic manner  learner will be motivated and get interest to learn
  16. 16. Comparison or association  Quote examples  Associate facts with to example  So that learner can understand very easily and arrive at generalization on their own
  17. 17. Generalizations  It involves reflective thinking.  Knowledge presented by the teacher should be thought provoking.  Innovating and stimulating to assist the students to generalize the situation.
  18. 18. Application  The student make use of the knowledge acquired  What ever they learnt in the theory has to apply in clinical field to make learning more permanent and worthwhile.
  19. 19. Recapitulation  Ask suitable stimulating pivotal questions to student on topic.  The answer will give feed back, regarding the efficacy of the method of teaching clarification  Needed or not
  20. 20. TYPES OF LESSON PLAN Cognitive domain Affective domain Psychomotor domain  Lesson plan related to knowledge  Lesson plan related to appreciation  Lesson plan related to skills
  22. 22. Herbartian approach  John Frederick Herbart (1776-1841)- a German Philosopher and great educationist  This approach is influenced by classical human organizational theory The previous knowledge of the student is considered in preparing lesson plan ,but their abilities, attitudes and values are not taken into consideration while designing a lesson plan.
  23. 23. Five steps of teaching unit activities  Preparation  Presentation  Comparison  Generalization  Application
  24. 24. Merits of Herbartian lesson planning  It is logical and psychological  It assists in making teaching systematic  It is employed in the teaching of all school subjects  It is used in achieving the cognitive objective of teaching  It employs the deductive and inductive methods of teaching  It is simple and easy approach of lesson planning  It employs previous knowledge of the students for imparting new knowledge  It provides a useful framework, confidence and self reliance by following these steps and thus making teaching effective
  25. 25. Demerits of Herbartian approach  It is highly dominated by teacher  It is suited for knowledge lesson only  It is highly structured and does not provide opportunities for teacher’s creativity and originality  More stress on teaching than in learning  Is highly loaded by cognitive objectives  Does not consider the learning structures in organizing teaching activities  Teaching activities are less meaningful and practical  There is inactivity on the part of the students
  26. 26. Blooms approach  B .S . Bloom (1961)  He has made education as objective centered rather than client centered  His approach of lesson planning is termed as evaluative approach
  27. 27. Features  All educational activities are objective centered  The teaching and testing should be objective centered  The term evaluation concerns with all activities of teaching and testing  It does not confine to the students achievement only  It evaluates the teaching, learning objectives, methods and devices of providing learning experiences.  The student performances are evaluated in terms of learning objectives and not the achievement of the content
  28. 28. Tripolar process in Bloom Approach Formulating educational objective Creating learning experience Evaluating change of behavior
  29. 29. Merits of Blooms lesson planning  The objectives are written in behavioral terms  The teaching activities are related to learning structures  It makes the teaching purposeful and objective centered  It is based on psychological and scientific principles  It has greater scope for improving and modifying the learning experience or teaching activities
  30. 30. Demerits of blooms lesson planning  It is highly structured and mechanized and does not provide opportunity for creativity and originality  It has the greater scope for personal factors of teacher to influence the planning and organizing teaching activities  One teaching activity does not confine to one domain. it is concerned with more than one domain  The mental process and mental abilities are not taken into consideration in writing objectives in behavioral terms
  31. 31. RCEM Approach  Developed by Indian educationists at Regional college of Education , Mysore Design of lesson planning:-  input  process  output
  32. 32. HIGHLY STRUCTURED SESSON PLAN Time Specific Content Teaching Student Activity AV Aids Evaluation Name of Teacher: Class: Subject: No. Of Students: Unit: Date and Time: Topic of lesson : Duration Previous Knowledge Of students: Venue: Methods of Teaching: Resources: Central objectives: Specific Objectives: Recapitulation: Assignments: Reference:
  33. 33. LOOSELY STRUCTURED SESSON PLAN Time Specific objectives Content Teaching learning Name of Teacher Class: Subject: No. Of Students: Unit: Date and Time: Topic of lesson : Duration: Previous Knowledge Of students: Venue: Methods of Teaching: Resources: Central objectives: Specific Objectives: Recapitulation: Assignments: Reference:
  34. 34. Advantages/Disadvantages  Teacher:- Advantages:-  the teacher can plan the presentation in advance, helping in making the teaching effective  Helps in apparent time saving and avoids unnecessary repetition  New knowledge can be presented which is not there in the text book  Teacher can integrate the subject matter
  35. 35. Cont..  It enables the teacher to present a large amount of information in a short time  It acts as a plan for self criticisms and self evaluation Dis Advantage:-  The main emphasis is given to presentation  It confines the teaching up to memory level only
  36. 36. Cont.. Students:- Merit:-  A well presented class may increase the student motivation  Greater scope for improving and modifying the learning experience
  37. 37. Cont.. Demerits:- • Student attention may want the presentation to suit the level of understanding of all students • Poor planning and lack of direction of teaching may result in wasting student time • Poor lesson plan can make the student a mere passive learner
  38. 38. Guidelines for pupil teachers while doing teaching practice  Every activity you undertake needs to be carefully planned and executed  Show good taste and neatness in dress  Be mentally and physically alert  Make your voice clear ,pleasing and well modulated.  Prepare your lesson thoroughly and take it into account the probable questions that may be put to you by students during the course of your lesson  Divide your lessons into suitable sections
  39. 39. Guidelines for pupil teachers while doing teaching practice  Illustrate your teaching by example  Use correct and definite language while putting questions to the students  Be friendly and understanding but firm in your dealings with students  Use audiovisual aids properly  Teach the whole class and not a few students sitting on the front benches  Develop the blackboard summary along with the development of the lesson
  40. 40. Guidelines for pupil teachers while doing teaching practice  Make the blackboard writing very legible  Put thought provoking questions  Learn to ride your eyes, through the eyes of the students  Use refined and sweet language  Display sense of humor  Familiarize yourself with the textbook and instructional materials used in the class  Ensure your lesson plan is free from mistakes  Always consult dictionary while planning your lesson
  41. 41. Guidelines for pupil teachers while doing teaching practice  Be sure that everything you write on the blackboard is correct  Always be punctual in reaching your class  Make all possible efforts to base the discipline in the classroom on co-operation rather than moralizing  Try to forget that you are being watched over by colleagues and the supervisor  Do not critize the regular teachers who are teaching the class
  42. 42. Guidelines for pupil teachers while doing teaching practice  Cultivate the spirit of happiness and success in the class  Turn your head backward while writing on the board to ensure that all students are taking interest in the lesson  Use the pointer to show some places on the map or the chart  Avoid mannerisms and pet phrases  Do not feel nervous when your supervisor visits your class
  43. 43.  Give due attention to the views of the supervisor  Accept criticism without getting your feelings hurt
  44. 44. Thank you