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Understanding Digital Student Development

  1. Understanding Digital Student Development by Paul Gordon Brown
  2. (Turkle, 2004, para 6) “I want to study not only what the computer is doing for us, but what it is doing to us.” - Turkle
  3. 89% of adults 18-29 years old use social media 67% access it on mobile 98% of adults ages 18-29 are on the internet 70 70 70 43% 60% 89% 65+ 50-64 30-49 70 78% 18-29 social media use by age (Brenner, 2013; Brenner & Smith, 2013; Pew Internet Project, n.d.) younger generations are using the internet, social media, and mobile technologies at a high rate
  4. é Engagement é Persistence é Social Capital é Relationships é Narcissism ê Task-Switching Whattheresearchtellsus… Collegestudentsocialmedia useandoutcomes…
  5. Digital Identity
  6. confusion there’s a lot of with this word…
  7. “Many student affairs professionals use the term digital identity development to refer to online professional self- presentation; however, it is important to tease apart the differences between using social media as part of the exploration and development of identity and using social media to present oneself in a certain way.” (Junco, 2014, p. 257)
  8. “Labeling the latter digital identity development confounds a developmental process with a professional communication strategy. Furthermore, labeling online professional self-presentation digital identity development may keep the field of student affairs from more critically and deeply examining how the emerging adult identity development process is affected by online interactions.” (Junco, 2014, p. 257)
  9. Self Presentation A Developmental Process
  10. Self Presentation Some use it to refer to
  11. Psychological Process And conflate it with a
  12. in here today we’ll be talking about what’s going on
  13. research What does the say?
  14. NOTHING There has been little to no qualitative research focusing on the influence of digital and social media on student development.
  15. You can take two points of view…
  16. (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010, p. 5; Woodard, Love, & Komives, 2000) “Rapidly changing conditions within society have created dramatically different circumstances for students across time and location… student development must be considered in light of these changing scenarios.” develop new theories
  17. “human development ‘remain[s] much the same from age to age and must so remain as long as human nature and physical environment existing theories modify/apply (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010, p. 93; Haskins, 1957) continue what they have been. In his relations to life and learning the medieval student resembled his modern successor far more than is often supposed’ (p. 93).”
  18. Applying current theories to online/ social media contexts. • Chickering • Baxter Magolda/Kegan • Bronfenbrenner
  19. Vectorsof Identity Development Chickering’s DIGITAL
  20. • Developing competence • Managing emotions • Moving through autonomy to interdependence • Developing mature interpersonal relationships • Establishing identity • Developing Purpose • Establishing Integrity Vectors
  21. Developing Competence
  22. • Time management • Facility in using online tools to complete tasks • Communication and interaction skills • Relationship skills • Not exhibiting humblebrag behavior Developing Competence DIGITAL
  23. Managing Emotions
  24. • Anger management - Thinking before posting • Dealing with depression - Self confidence recognizing that social media posts often only show the positive • Expanding and expressing range of positive emotions • Not posting for sympathy or to elicit response form others Managing Emotions DIGITAL
  25. Autonomy & Interdependence
  26. • Ownership over one’s online life • Able to use social media as a tool for action • Finding information and resources • Resisting peer pressure • Consciously choosing peers and relationships • Basing relationships on equality and reciprocity Autonomy & Interdependence DIGITAL
  27. “And I like honesty in a relationship… I’m not into playing games.” Mature Interpersonal Relationships
  28. • Able to engage in civil discourse through comments and chats • Understanding what online versus offline relationship maintenance should look like - acts appropriately • Thinks about one’s posts and its impact on others Mature Interpersonal Relationships DIGITAL
  29. Establishing Identity
  30. • Identity exploration online — taking on personas, finding like communities • Acting consistently across contexts (?) Online/Offline, Across different sites • Developing comfort with body and appearance - Selfies? Narcissim? • Establishing and taking an active role in curating self-presentation with purpose Establishing Identity DIGITAL
  31. Developing Purpose
  32. • Utilizing online tools to network • Engaging in career interests and groups online • Able to articulate how/why they use social media Developing Purpose DIGITAL
  33. Developing Integrity
  34. • Clarify values through online interaction • Able to understand and contextualize others’ post/beleifs • Are you a authentic self online and off (does it matter?) • Ability to use social media for social good Developing Integrity DIGITAL
  35. Robert Kegan’s Orders of Consciousness
  36. Stage We are: Subject (structure of knowing) We Have: Object (content of knowing) Underlying Structure 1 Perceptions SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS Impulses Movement Sensation SinglePoint/ Immediate/ Atomistic 2 Concrete POINT OF VIEW Impulses Perceptions SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS Impulses Durable Category Kegan Subject/Object Schema of Cognitive Development
  37. Stage We are: Subject (structure of knowing) We Have: Object (content of knowing) Underlying Structure 3 Traditio- nalism Abstractions MUTUALITY/ INTERPERSONALISM Relationship Inner States Concrete POINT OF VIEW Enduring Dispositions, Needs, Prefs. Cross Categorical 4 Modernism Abstract Systems INSTITUTION Relationship-Regulating Forms Self-authorship Abstractions MUTUALITY Relationships Inner states, Subjectivity, Self-consciousness System/Complex
  38. Stage We are: Subject (structure of knowing) We Have: Object (content of knowing) Underlying Structure 5 Post-Modernism Dialectical INTER-INSTITUTIONAL Self-transformation Abstract Systems Ideology INSTITUTION Relationship-Regulating Forms Self-authorship Trans-System Trans-Complex
  39. Marcia Baxter Magolda’s Theory of Self-Authorship
  40. What is Self-Authorship? A particular and relatively enduring way of understanding and orienting oneself to provocative situations in a way that: 1) Recognizes the contextual nature of knowledge; and 2) Balances and guides this understanding with the development of internally defined goals and sense of self
  41. Self-authored individuals: • Look at all aspects of a situation or issue • All perspectives no longer equal • Learning involves thinking through problems and integrating knowledge in context • Points of view are supported by evidence
  42. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
  43. The student.
  44. is in network with others… campus cultures… decision makers and rules… and broader societal beliefs.
  45. These all interact in complex overlapping ways…
  46. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Creating an overall context within which interactions and processes occur that impact a student’s development through time.
  47. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Online interactions with other individuals are placed within the microsystem Microsystems are where one-on-one interactions occur.
  48. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem “Although Bronfenbrenner did not include computer-mediated contexts in which college students now experience ‘activities, roles, and interpersonal relations’ (p. 16), in the twenty-first century it seems reasonable to include these contexts, which are not face-to-face settings, in the definition of microsystems since they are sites where social, physical, and symbolic features may provoke or retard engagement with the environment, as described by Bronfenbrenner (1993).” p.163
  49. The student is at an intersection point of a number of networks.
  50. Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem is in network with others… is immersed in social media site culture… and is subject to rules and decisions made by social media designers… …and broader beliefs about how the site functions and is used.
  51. Engage with students on social media because we need to understand them in all of their contexts. Understand how each social media site and tool may impact the developmental process differently by the way they are structured and used. Realize development may happen differently and at different paces in different contexts. Understand that development may be more like a theory of relativity than concrete.
  52. Understanding Digital Student Development by Paul Gordon Brown
  53. @paulgordonbrown Paul Gordon Brown