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LTE Review - Load Balancing and Interfreq HO

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LTE Review - Load Balancing and Interfreq HO

  1. 1. LTE Review Inter Frequency Load Balancing Analysis Paulo Campolina Sr. RF Engineer / June, 2016
  2. 2. • Introduction The description given on the next pages can be applied to Ericsson, Nokia or other vendor. It is always needed to verify the associated features per Vendor and the associated “Golden Parameters List” and strategy per operators. • Requirements For E/// LTE network, the following must be fulfilled at feature activation: • A license key must be activated to operate these features: • Coverage-Triggered Inter-Frequency Handover feature • Inter-frequency Load Balancing feature • The cell relations where load balancing is desired must be configured to allow load balancing actions and reporting. The loadBalancing parameter is set to ALLOWED in the desired EUtranCellRelation MO. • Load balancing between cells in different RBS nodes requires an X2 connection between the RBS nodes. More information about this feature and related topics can be found in the following documentation: • 3GPP TS 36.300, Overall description; Stage 2 • 3GPP TS 36.331, Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol Specification • 3GPP TS 36.423, X2 Application Protocol (X2AP) Inter Frequency Load Balancing (IFLB) Network Requirements 2
  3. 3. • Subscription Ratio Definition The IFLB feature uses a model for the assessment of traffic load in a cell, wherein the expected load of each E-RAB is quantified based on the QoS class to which it belongs as follows: • A qciSubscriptionQuanta value is associated with each E-RAB, and it is an estimate of the expected traffic activity for an E-RAB of the particular QoS class. • The assessment of traffic load in a cell is made in terms of a ‘‘subscription ratio’’ value; • The cellSubscriptionCapacity value is an estimate of the total amount of qciSubscriptionQuanta values the cell is expected to accommodate at full system load. • A configuration of the qciSubscriptionQuanta and the cellSubscriptionCapacity values is required to obtain the desired load balancing behavior. • It enables the Inter-frequency Load Balancing feature to perform load balancing between cells with different mix of UE population and between cells with different traffic capacity. • The exchange of cell load information is performed over X2 private messages. • Each cell may receive load reports from one or more other cells in the same RBS or in the remote RBS. • The selection of target cells is controlled with the loadBalancing parameter. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Definitions 3
  4. 4. In practice, the following recommendations are made: • The qciSubscriptionQuanta parameter for a GBR type of E-RAB is chosen in proportion to the typical ‘‘guaranteed downlink bit rate’’ (in kbps) for the particular QCI: • QCI=1 (conversational voice) the value depends on the typical voice codec in use. • Other GBR types of E-RAB (QCI=2..4, …) the value depends on the type of streaming media. The qciSubscriptionQuanta parameter for a non-GBR type of E-RAB is chosen in proportion to what is considered an acceptable downlink bit rate (in kbps) for UE in connected mode in LTE RAN at high load: The ‘‘default’’ non-GBR types of E-RAB are activated whenever the UE enters connected mode, irrespective if they are going to be used; conservative values should be chosen, reflecting an expected low or moderate duty rate on these E-RABs. • QCI=5 (default for IMS signaling), the expected bit rate is typically very low (not exceeding 3 kbps). • for a default Internet Service Provision (ISP) E-RAB, a suitable value can be based on the typical UE data consumption over a longer time period in relation to the time spent in connected mode over the same time period; the value should focus on the conditions in LTE RAN at high load. • For on-demand non-GBR types of E-RAB, values should be chosen based on the typical minimum QoS requirements of the intended applications. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Definitions 4
  5. 5. (every 15 seconds) 1. Determine cell load status 2. Exchange and compare load status with target relations 3. If own cell has higher load than target, select offload candidate UEs 4. If target has good RSRP, then send UEs to target to balance load 5. New own cell load status Inter Frequency Load Balancing Flow Overview Inter-Frequency Load Balancing feature handles uneven distribution of traffic in the Shared RAN network. For cells that have load relations established, the high-level behavior is: 5
  6. 6. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Parameters / Flow Overview 6
  7. 7. Every load balancing cycle, each cell determines its load status. The ratio load based is based on total sum of qciSubscriptionQuanta over cellSubscriptionCapacity – Subscription quanta is weighted based on QCI and represents a generic cost of each bearer. › The value for each QCI is configured with the parameter qciSubscriptionQuanta (QciProfilePredefined / QciProfileOperatorDefined). Cell subscription capacity represents an estimate of the total cell capacity. The value for each cell is configured with the parameter cellSubscriptionCapacity (EUtranCellFDD / EUtranCellTDD). › Average subscription ratio is observed with the counters pmLbSubRatioSum and pmLbSubRatioSamp (EUtranCellFDD / EUtranCellTDD) Inter Frequency Load Balancing Load Status 7
  8. 8. This is done based on the following: (a) Load difference to each target cell. Source and target cells exchange load info and the difference in load are checked against minimum and maximum offload thresholds. (b) Minimum load difference, lbThreshold, to trigger load balancing action. Total off-loading from the source cell. If multiple target cells exist, the total off-loading is split between those. (c) Maximum load difference, lbCeiling, taken into account in one round of load balancing action. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Info Exchange (a) (b) (c) 8
  9. 9. • If the difference in load subscriptionRatio (a) is grater than lbThreshold (b)the load balancing Load_Balance_Magnitude (c) is calculated. • The amount of UEs to load balance is determined and the maximum amount of UE’s is limited by lbCeiling. • UEs are randomly selected and requested to reconfigure for a A4 Measurement report. • The following checks are performed before the UE is requested to perform the A4 Measurement report. • Not in an emergency call * • Not in bad coverage in the source cell # • Support the frequency of the target cell • UE is not restricted by the Handover Restriction List (HRL) to measure the target frequency. • If the UE successfully reports the A4 Measurement, a final check is done to see if load balancing amount has been met before the UE is then sent for IFHOUE’s that report the A4 Measurement have acceptable coverage in the target cell Inter Frequency Load Balancing Candidate Selection 9
  10. 10. • Increasing the value of the lbThreshold parameter may reduce the rate of load balancing actions back and forth between cells as a result of random variation of the traffic load up and down. • However, certain degree of UE shuffling between the cells may be useful, as it reduces the risk of UE segregation due to differences in traffic behavior. • An increase of the lbThreshold parameter may also increase the ‘‘burstiness’’ of load balancing actions (all at once rather than a sequence of small steps). • A reduction of the lbCeiling parameter may help to distribute a sudden large amount of load balancing action over a period of time. • However, care is required to ensure the lbCeiling parameter is configured large enough to outbalance any systematic drift in the load balance; for example, due to poor coverage triggered mobility or due to mobility between neighbor cells on particular carrier frequencies. • The lbThreshold parameter can be configured greater than the lbCeiling parameter. The effect may be that the load gap between the cells is not entirely closed. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Candidate Selection 10
  11. 11. • If the UE has reported the target cell as the best server and has met all verifications , it UE will be sent for a regular Inter-Frequency Handover to the target cell. • A UE can only be balance to its reported best server. • The cell will continue the load balancing process until the 15sec lbCycle has finished. At this time, the cell will have its new load balancing status and the new lbCycle will start. • The a5Threshold1Rsrp, a5Threshold2Rsrp and hysteresisA5 parameters are configured for each source cell for the inter-frequency event A5 measurement reporting in the UE selection for load balancing action. • To ensure that the UE is able to stay in the target cell after a load balancing action, the a5Threshold2Rsrp parameter should be configured with a value above the ‘‘Event A2 Poor Coverage’’ threshold in the target cell. • If QCI dependent thresholds are applied in the target cell, the a5Threshold2Rsrp parameter should be configured with a value above the maximum of those. • The a5Threshold1Rsrp parameter can be used to exclude UEs in very good radio environment from load balancing. Inter Frequency Load Balancing LB Action 11
  12. 12. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Parameters 12
  13. 13. • pmLbSubRatioSum This PM records the subscription ratio as the result of the traffic load assessment at every load balancing cycle. The values are accumulated during each ROP, allowing the average subscription ratio to be presented for each period. • pmLbSubRatioSamp The number of load balancing cycles during the ROP. This together with the counter pmAvSubRatioSum can be used to calculate an average subscription ratio. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Counters 13
  14. 14. • pmLbMeasuredUe Records the number of UEs selected for measurements qualifying for load balancing action towards cells on the related frequency. These values are accumulated each ROP. It is used to calculate the LB measurement success rate for the related cells. • pmLbQualifiedUe Records the number of UEs qualified for load balancing action towards the related cell. These values are accumulated each ROP. It is used to calculate the LB measurement success rate for the related cell. Inter Frequency Load Balance Counters 14
  15. 15. • pmHoPrepAttLteInterFLb The number of attempts to start outgoing intra LTE inter frequency handover preparation due to load balancing. Sub-counter to pmHoPrepAttLteInterF (legacy) • pmHoPrepSuccLteInterFLb The number of successful outgoing intra LTE inter frequency handover preparations that was performed for load balancing reasons. Sub-counter to pmHoPrepSuccLteInterF (legacy) Inter Frequency Load Balance Counters 15
  16. 16. • pmHoExeAttLteInterFLb The number of outgoing intra LTE inter frequency handover execution attempts due to load balancing.Sub- counter to pmHoExeAttLteInterF (legacy) • pmHoExeSuccLteInterFLb The number of successful outgoing intra LTE inter frequency HO that was performed for load balancing reasons. Sub-counter to pmHoExeSuccLteInterF (legacy) Inter Frequency Load Balance Counters 16
  17. 17. According to 3GPP **, the UE shall: 1) consider the entering condition for this event to be satisfied when 2) consider the leaving condition for this event to be satisfied when where: • Ms is the measurement of the serving cell, not taking into account any offsets. • Mn is the measurement of the neighboring cell, not taking into account any offsets. • Ofn is the frequency offset corresponding to the frequency of the neighbor cell. • Ocn is the cell specific offset of the neighbor cell. • Hys is the hysteresis parameter for this event . • Thresh1 is the threshold parameter for this event (i.e. a5-Threshold1). • Thresh2 is the threshold parameter for this event (i.e. a5-Threshold2). • Mn, Ms are expressed in dBm in case of RSRP, or in dB in case of RSRQ. • Ofn, Ocn, Hys are expressed in dB. • Thresh1 is expressed in the same unit as Ms. • Thresh2 is expressed in the same unit as Mn. ** 3GPP 36331 – RRC Protocol Specification, Measurement Report Triggering, Event A5 (Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and neighbour becomes better than threshold2) Inter Frequency Load Balance Event A5 Description 2ThreshHysOcnOfnMn ThreshHysMs  ThreshHysMs  2ThreshHysOcnOfnMn  ** * 17
  18. 18. Inter Frequency Load Balance Event A5 Description *** 18
  19. 19. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Settings Plan The Inter Frequency LB will be applied and it’s parameters will be updated according to: • The feature should be applied per cell in a vertical relation (i.e. alpha 800 <-> alpha 1900 (1)&(2)) • IFLB parameters will follow the GPL setting • A5 event thresholds will be the same for IFLB and for coverage trigger • The feature will be applied as need according to CFR caused by load • Test Site: zzz • According to GPL, the following parameters must be updated: • lbActivationThreshold: Not active from 8321 to 8665 • loadBalancing between same sector and different bands should be set to 1 (Allowed) 19
  20. 20. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Settings Plan The Inter Frequency LB will be applied and it’s parameters will be updated according to: 20
  21. 21. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Inter Freq HO GPL -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 800 MHz Site A1A2S A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq 0 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +5 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 1900 MHz Site A1A2S A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq 0 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 8665 A5 2 + Offset freq -2 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 2500 MHz Site (TDD) A1 A2 A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq -24 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +10 dB 2ThreshHysOcnOfnMn  A5 2 8321 Needs update from Nokia 21 ThreshHysMs In: Out: 2ThreshHysOcnOfnMn ThreshHysMs  Initial Settings
  22. 22. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Inter Freq HO Proposition -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 800 MHz Site A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq +3 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +5 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 1900 MHz Site A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq 0 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 8665 A5 2 + Offset freq -2 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 2500 MHz Site A1 A2 A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq -24 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +10 dB HysOcnOfnThreshMn  2 A5 2 8665 8321 -10dB 22 HysThreshMs  1In: Out: HysOcnOfnThreshMn  2HysThreshMs  1 A1A2 A1A2S 15dB 3dB 6dB 3dB 3dB 6dB Moderate Settings Needs update from Nokia
  23. 23. Inter Frequency Load Balancing Inter Freq HO Proposition -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 800 MHz Site A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq +3 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +5 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 1900 MHz Site A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 - Ofn -5dB - Ocn -8dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 8665 A5 2 + Offset freq -2 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 1900 MHz800 MHz 2500 MHz Serving 2500 MHz Site A1 A2 A5 1 -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 + Offset freq -24 dB -120 -118 -116 -114 -112 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 A5 2 A5 2 + Offset freq +10 dB HysOcnOfnThreshMn  2 A5 2 8665 8321 -10dB 23 HysThreshMs  1In: Out: HysOcnOfnThreshMn  2HysThreshMs  1 A1A2 A1A2S 18dB 3dB 9dB 3dB 3dB 6dB Aggressive Settings Needs update from Nokia

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