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Fashion Marketing - Advanced Consumer Behaviour Class

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Applying Cialidini's Influence Framework to Fashion Marketing

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Fashion Marketing - Advanced Consumer Behaviour Class

  1. 1. ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS ADVANCED
 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR DR. PAUL MARSDEN PHD, CPSYCHOL, FRSA CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGIST @MARSATTACKS MASTERCLASS I
  2. 2. 2ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  3. 3. 3
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  5. 5. 5ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS “The single most must-have quality of a fashion buyer is a sound market knowledge and an understanding of consumer behaviour MIGUEL HEBRERO
  6. 6. 6 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR WHAT IS CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR? Processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Source: Solomon, M. R. 2015, p.28
  7. 7. HOW DO CONSUMERS CHOOSE? HOW DO RETAILERS INFLUENCE CHOICE? 7ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS PSYCHOLOGY OF INFLUENCE BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICS
  8. 8. 8 THROUGH THE LENS OF BUSINESS BESTSELLERS 
 MAKING WAVES IN INDUSTRY ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS PSYCHOLOGY OF INFLUENCE BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICS
  9. 9. 9 THROUGH THE LENS OF BUSINESS BESTSELLERS 
 MAKING WAVES IN INDUSTRY ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS ROBERT CIALDINI RICHARD THALER DAN ARIELY DANIEL KAHNEMAN
  10. 10. 10 ROBERT CIALDINI’S INFLUENCE THE PSYCHOLOGY OF INFLUENCE Born 1945. Regents’ Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University. One of the most influential and most cited psychologists alive today. Cialdini’s Influence is a global bestselling business book and industry bible on applying the psychology of social influence to influence consumer behaviour (Cialdini, 1993, 2009). ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  11. 11. 11ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  12. 12. 12 APPLIED SOCIAL INFLUENCE INFLUENCE Influence refers to the effects that others, whether real or imagined, deliberate or not, have on how we think, feel and behave In business, we continually influence others and are influenced by others. The science of influence is a core topic of social psychology ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  13. 13. 13 IN TWO MINDS DUAL PROCESS MODEL OF INFLUENCE There are many forms of influence, but we may respond to influence in one of two ways. If we have the motivation, ability and opportunity, we may engage in slow deliberate consideration of information and options If not, we may simply respond quickly and intuitively based on how we feel, and how we feel is partly determined by the presence of ‘influence cues’ used by the influencer. Cialdini’s Influence focuses on six of these cues ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  14. 14. 14ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS CHOICE SITUATION MOTIVATION ABILITY OPPORTUNITY TO PROCESS? HIGH 
 LEVEL LOW 
 LEVEL CENTRAL PERIPHERAL CAREFUL (‘SYSTEMATIC’) MINDFUL NOT CAREFUL (‘HEURISTIC’) MINDLESSNESS DEPENDS ON QUALITY OF ARGUMENTS DEPENDS ON PRESENCE OF INFLUXENCE CUES Attitude/Behaviour Change Information Processing RouteElaboration HOW CONSUMERS CHOOSE. THE DUAL PROCESS ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL (ELM) Based on Petty & Cacioppo (1986)
  15. 15. 15 SOCIAL PROOF FOLLOW 
 THE HERD AUTHORITY FOLLOW 
 THE LEADER CONSISTENCY FOLLOW YOUR HABITS AND COMMITMENTS LIKING FOLLOW THE GOOD SCARCITY FOLLOW WHAT’S IN SHORT SUPPLY RECIPROCITY FOLLOW 
 THE FAVOUR SUMMARY CIALDINI’S SIX INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  16. 16. SOCIAL PROOF CUE INFLUENCE CUES 16ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  17. 17. 17 SOCIAL PROOF We have a tendency to follow what others are doing in unfamiliar or uncertain situations Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by conforming to what similar others appear to be doing in a similar situation FOLLOW THE HERD INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  18. 18. 18 SOCIAL PROOF We have a tendency to follow what others are doing in unfamiliar or uncertain situations Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by conforming to what similar others appear to be doing in a similar situation FOLLOW THE HERD INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgRoiTWkBHU
  19. 19. 19 SOCIAL PROOF FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS X 1 2 3 In a set of famous experiments by psychologist Solomon Asch in 1951, over one third of people gave obviously wrong answers to a simple question and instead conformed to the group view (Asch, 1951) We may conform because we want to be right (“informational conformity”), but also because we want to be liked (“normative conformity”) INFLUENCE CUES
  20. 20. 20 SOCIAL PROOF FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In a set of famous experiments by psychologist Solomon Asch in 1951, over one third of people gave obviously wrong answers to a simple question and instead conformed to the group view (Asch, 1951) We may conform because we want to be right (“informational conformity”), but also because we want to be liked (“normative conformity”) INFLUENCE CUES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyDDyT1lDhA
  21. 21. 21 SOCIAL PROOF If people take their cue from what appears popular and in fashion, then present your product and business as popular and in fashion. For example, use social media likes or lists to show your popularity Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the social proof cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  22. 22. 22 SOCIAL PROOF If people take their cue from what appears popular and in fashion, then present your product and business as popular and in fashion. For example, use social media likes or lists to show your popularity Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the social proof cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Trend articles Social media followers/likes Best seller lists Sort by popularity Wait lines Customer favourites/reviews
  23. 23. 23 SOCIAL PROOF If people take their cue from what appears popular and in fashion, then present your product and business as popular and in fashion. For example, use social media likes or lists to show how your products are popular Can you think of any other examples of how businesses apply the social proof cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  24. 24. AUTHORITY CUE INFLUENCE CUES 24ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  25. 25. 25 AUTHORITY We have a tendency to comply with or follow authority figures because they have ‘source credibility’ Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by following what a credible source (a trusted authority figure with expertise and experience) appears to be doing or recommending FOLLOW THE LEADER INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS CHIARA FERRAGNI
  26. 26. 26 AUTHORITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In a famous experiment on obedience led by psychologist Stanley Milgram published in 1963, nearly two thirds (65%) of volunteers were willing to administer a potentially lethal 450V electric shock to a stranger when asked to do so by someone masquerading as a scientist in a lab coat (Milgram, 1963) INFLUENCE CUES
  27. 27. 27 AUTHORITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In a famous experiment on obedience led by psychologist Stanley Milgram published in 1963, nearly two thirds (65%) of volunteers were willing to administer a potentially lethal 450V electric shock to a stranger when asked to do so by someone masquerading as a scientist in a lab coat (Milgram, 1963) INFLUENCE CUES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yr5cjyokVUs
  28. 28. 28 AUTHORITY If people follow fashion experts, industry insiders and fashion influencers, then ‘influence the influencers’ by targeting and selling through fashion influencers and opinion leaders. If they buy or recommend, then others will follow Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the authority cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS AIMEE SONG @SONGOFSTYLE
  29. 29. 29 AUTHORITY If people follow fashion experts, industry insiders and fashion influencers, then ‘influence the influencers’ by targeting and selling through fashion influencers and opinion leaders. If they buy or recommend, then others will follow Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the authority cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS AIMEE SONG @SONGOFSTYLE Influencer marketing Product seeding Opinion leader outreach Magazine editorials Fashion shows Fashion professionals You!
  30. 30. CONSISTENCY CUE INFLUENCE CUES 30ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  31. 31. 31 CONSISTENCY We have a desire to appear consistent in what we say and do Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by following our past habits, self- image, or public commitments FOLLOW YOUR HABITS AND COMMITMENTS INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  32. 32. 32 CONSISTENCY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In the ‘beach blanket experiment’ psychologist Tom Moriarty tested whether bystanders would attempt to stop a beach theft of someone else’s property (a radio). The proportion jumped from 20% to 95% if bystanders had previously agreed to watch their possessions (Moriarty, 1975). INFLUENCE CUES
  33. 33. 33 CONSISTENCY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In the ‘beach blanket experiment’ psychologist Tom Moriarty tested whether bystanders would attempt to stop a beach theft of someone else’s property (a radio). The proportion jumped from 20% to 95% if bystanders had previously agreed to watch their possessions (Moriarty, 1972). INFLUENCE CUES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DXQx2AnDb2M
  34. 34. 34 CONSISTENCY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Asking people to write down on a slip of paper the date and time of their next doctor’s appointment (an active, public commitment) reduced DNAs (did not attends) by 18% (Martin, Bassy & Dunbar-Rees, 2012). INFLUENCE CUES
  35. 35. 35 CONSISTENCY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Psychologists Jonathon Freedman and Scott Fraser found that only 17% of residents in a Palo Alto neighbourhood were prepared to put up a huge ‘drive carefully’ sign in their front garden. However, this rose to 55% for residents who had previously agreed to sign a drive safely petition, and 79% for residents who had agreed to display a small drive ‘safely sticker’ on their window (Freedman and Fraser, 1966) INFLUENCE CUES
  36. 36. 36 CONSISTENCY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Psychologists Jonathon Freedman and Scott Fraser found that only 17% of residents in a Palo Alto neighbourhood were prepared to put up a huge ‘drive carefully’ sign in their front garden. However, this rose to 79% for residents who had previously agreed to display a small drive ‘safely sticker’ on their window (Freedman and Fraser, 1966) INFLUENCE CUES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8epi0gqAGPI
  37. 37. 37ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS YOU MAKE A SMALL REQUEST THEY AGREE YOU MAKE A BIGGER BUT CONSISTENT 
 REQUEST Stage 2Stage 1Technique Source Based on Hogg and Vaughan 2011 Foot-in-the-Door Stage 3 Bait-and-Switch
 (Low Balling) YOU TELL THEM IT’S NO LONGER AVAILABLE YOU MAKE A BIGGER BUT CONSISTENT
 REQUEST YOU GET AGREEMENT TO A SMALL REQUEST Door-in-the-Face ? ?? ConsistencyCueReciprocity
  38. 38. 38 CONSISTENCY APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS DOVE REAL BEAUTY SKETCHES If people prefer things that are consistent with their behaviour, self- image or public commitments, then stimulate demand by presenting products as consistent with their past behaviour, self-image or past commitments Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the consistency cue to influence fashion consumers?
  39. 39. 39 CONSISTENCY If people prefer things that are consistent with their behaviour, self- image or public commitments, then stimulate demand by presenting products as consistent with their past behaviour, self-image or past commitments Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the consistency cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS DOVE REAL BEAUTY SKETCHES Newsletter Signups Following on Social Media Wishlists Rentals (rent-the-runway) Fragrances and accessories Loyalty clubs Member get member Logo apparel Outlet/Discounts
  40. 40. 40 CONSISTENCY If people prefer what’s consistent with their behaviour, self-image or public commitments, then stimulate demand by presenting products as consistent with their past behaviour, self-image or past commitments Can you think of any other examples of how businesses apply the consistency cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS DOVE REAL BEAUTY SKETCHES https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XpaOjMXyJGk
  41. 41. 41 ACTIVITY: THE STORE MANAGER AT THE FLAGSHIP STORE OF FAST-FASHION STORE ON OXFORD ST. WANTS ADVICE ON BOOSTING STORE SALES WORK IN GROUPS, AND BUILD A 3-POINT PLAN (3 INITIATIVES) EACH USING A DIFFERENT INFLUENCE CUE. PRESENT BACK TO THE GROUP PROVIDING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL RATIONALE FOR YOUR RECOMMENDATIONS - SOCIAL PROOF - AUTHORITY - CONSISTENCY ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  42. 42. BREAK ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  43. 43. 43 ACTIVITY: LOOK AT THE PHOTO IN YOUR HANDOUT SHEET, AND BASED ON YOUR EXPECTATIONS, GIVE THEM A SCORE 0-10 FOR THESE CHARACTERISTICS ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS 1. HOW POPULAR ARE THEY? 2. HOW HAPPY ARE THEY? 3. HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE THEY? 4. HOW FRIENDLY ARE THEY? 5. HOW INTELLIGENT ARE THEY? 6. HOW SEXUAL ARE THEY? 7. HOW GOOD ARE THEY? Trained experts in person perception can make detailed assessments of people based on a just few visible cues. How well will you do?
  44. 44. 44 A ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS B 1. POPULAR 2. HAPPY 3. SUCCESSFUL 4. FRIENDLY 5. INTELLIGENT 6. SEXUAL 7. GOOD 1. POPULAR 2. HAPPY 3. SUCCESSFUL 4. FRIENDLY 5. INTELLIGENT 6. SEXUAL 7. GOOD
  45. 45. 45 1. POPULAR = 7 2. HAPPY = 5 3. SUCCESSFUL = 7 4. FRIENDLY = 6 5. INTELLIGENT = 7 6. SEXUAL = 7 7. GOOD = 5 A ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS B 1. POPULAR = 4 2. HAPPY = 4 3. SUCCESSFUL = 6 4. FRIENDLY = 4 5. INTELLIGENT = 7 6. SEXUAL = 4 7. GOOD = 5 n = 14)
  46. 46. 46 THE HALO EFFECT The ‘halo effect’ is the tendency to assume that if a person has one positive characteristic, then they will have others An example of the halo effect is the ‘what is beautiful is good’ principle which is our tendency to ascribe positive characteristics to beautiful people Halo effect studies show that beautiful people can appear more intelligent, more successful, more likeable, more qualified, more talented, having a better personality and being a better person People who appear more physically attractive can be more likely to receive help, get hired, get elected, and even found innocent in a court of law ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Dion, Berscheid & Walster (1972), Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo (1991), Nisbett & Wilson (1977)
  47. 47. 47 THE HALO EFFECT The ‘halo effect’ is the tendency to assume that if a person has one positive characteristic, then they will have others An example of the halo effect is the ‘what is beautiful is good’ principle which is our tendency to ascribe positive characteristics to beautiful people Halo effect studies show that beautiful people can appear more intelligent, more successful, more likeable, more qualified, more talented, having a better personality and being a better person People who appear more physically attractive can be more likely to receive help, get hired, get elected, and even found innocent in a court of law ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Dion, Berscheid & Walster (1972), Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo (1991), Nisbett & Wilson (1977) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyDDyT1lDhA
  48. 48. 48 THE HALO EFFECT The ‘halo effect’ is the tendency to assume that if a person has one positive characteristic, then they will have others An example of the halo effect is the ‘what is beautiful is good’ principle which is our tendency to ascribe positive characteristics to beautiful people Halo effect studies show that beautiful people can appear more intelligent, more successful, more likeable, more qualified, more talented, having a better personality and being a better person People who appear more physically attractive can be more likely to receive help, get hired, get elected, and even found innocent in a court of law ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Dion, Berscheid & Walster (1972), Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani, & Longo (1991), Nisbett & Wilson (1977) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYhCn0jf46U
  49. 49. 49 SOCIAL PROOF FOLLOW 
 THE HERD AUTHORITY FOLLOW 
 THE LEADER CONSISTENCY FOLLOW YOUR HABITS AND COMMITMENTS LIKING FOLLOW THE GOOD SCARCITY FOLLOW WHAT’S IN SHORT SUPPLY RECIPROCITY FOLLOW 
 THE FAVOUR CIALDINI’S SIX INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  50. 50. LIKING CUE INFLUENCE CUES 50ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  51. 51. 51 LIKING We have a tendency to comply with or follow people we like or admire because they have ‘source attractiveness’ Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by following what someone we like, admire or find attractive appears to be doing or recommending FOLLOW THE GOOD INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS BEYONCÉ IVY PARK
  52. 52. 52 LIKING FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS The original ‘what is beautiful is good’ study by psychologist Karen Dion and colleagues in 1972 asked people to make inferences from photos about the personality, happiness, competence, and occupational and marital status of an attractive, average and unattractive person depicted in the photos. Participants systematically rated the attractive person more positively (Dion, Berscheid & Walster 1972) INFLUENCE CUES
  53. 53. 53 LIKING If people take their cue from people they like, admire or find attractive, then use these people in endorsements and advertising, and as models or spokespersons to stimulate demand Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the liking cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  54. 54. 54 LIKING If people take their cue from people they like, admire or find attractive, then use these people in endorsements and advertising, and as models or spokespersons to stimulate demand Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the liking cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Celebrity ‘creative directors’ Celebrity endorsements Attractive models Sponsorships
  55. 55. SCARCITY CUE INFLUENCE CUES 55ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  56. 56. 56 SCARCITY If something appears to be scarce, we perceive it as more desirable and more valuable Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we simply use a peripheral cue by attributing value and desirability to things in short supply FOLLOW WHAT’S IN SHORT SUPPLY INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS THE BIRKIN BAG
  57. 57. 57 SCARCITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In 1975, the power of scarcity was demonstrated by psychologist Steven Worchel and colleagues in the ‘cookie jar experiments’. When the cookie jar was nearly empty participants wanted, valued and appreciated cookies more (Worchel, Lee, & Adewole, 1975) INFLUENCE CUES
  58. 58. 58 SCARCITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In 1975, psychologist Steven Worchel and colleagues demonstrated in the ‘cookie jar experiments’ how people wanted, valued and appreciated cookies more as fewer remained available in the jar (Worchel, Lee and Adewole, 1975). INFLUENCE CUES https://www.lynda.com/B2C-Marketing-tutorials/Exclusivity-incentive/191493/370784-4.html
  59. 59. 59 SCARCITY If people take their cue from the relative scarcity of what’s available (supply and demand), then use use exclusivity, limited editions, limited offers and limited information (insider secrets) to stimulate demand. People will want what others can’t have Can you think of any other examples of how businesses apply the scarcity cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS LIMITED EDITION CONVERSE SNEAKERS
  60. 60. 60 SCARCITY If people take their cue from the relative scarcity of what’s available (supply and demand), then use use exclusivity, limited editions, limited offers and limited information (insider secrets) to stimulate demand. People will want what others can’t have Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the scarcity cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS LIMITED EDITION CONVERSE SNEAKERS Limited editions Secret sales Countdowns Only 2 left in stock Flash sales Personalisation Unique pieces
  61. 61. RECIPROCITY CUE INFLUENCE CUES 61ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  62. 62. 62 RECIPROCITY We can feel obliged to say yes to those we owe Rather than evaluate information or options carefully (central or systematic processing), we may simply use a peripheral cue by following a basic rule of social interaction, to reciprocate favours or concessions (tit-for-tat) FOLLOW THE FAVOUR INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS STRINGS ATTACHED? (INSTRUMENTAL GIFTING)
  63. 63. 63 RECIPROCITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS In the ‘Sweetening the Till’ experiment, David Strohmetz found that leaving chocolates with a restaurant bill increased tips. When one chocolate was left, tips increased 3%. When two chocolates were left, tips increased by 14%. And when one chocolate was left, and then another brought out and added tips increased by 21% (Strohmetz, Rind, Fisher, & Lynn, 2002) INFLUENCE CUES
  64. 64. 64 RECIPROCITY FAMOUS EXPERIMENT ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Robert Cialdini and colleagues published demonstrated how people also reciprocate concessions. They first made an unreasonable request of participants (volunteer two hours a week for two years) in order to elicit a rejection. They then made a concession, asking for help once-only for just two hours (what they really wanted all along). Participants reciprocated making a concession, and were three times as likely (50% vs. 17%) to agree to this request compared people who had not previously been asked the unreasonable request (Cialdini et al. 1975) INFLUENCE CUES
  65. 65. 65ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS YOU MAKE A SMALL REQUEST THEY AGREE YOU MAKE A BIGGER BUT CONSISTENT 
 REQUEST Stage 2Stage 1Technique Source Based on Hogg and Vaughan 2011 Foot-in-the-Door Stage 3 Bait-and-Switch
 (Low Balling) YOU TELL THEM IT’S NO LONGER AVAILABLE YOU MAKE A BIGGER BUT CONSISTENT
 REQUEST YOU GET AGREEMENT TO A SMALL REQUEST Door-in-the-Face THEY DECLINE YOU MAKE A CONCESSION BY MAKING A SMALLER REQUEST YOU MAKE A BIG UNREASONABLE REQUEST ConsistencyCueReciprocity
  66. 66. 66 RECIPROCITY If people have a tendency to return favours, pay back debts, and treat others as they have been treated, then give them something first, such as a free gift or experience, before you ask for their money Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the reciprocity cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  67. 67. 67 RECIPROCITY If people have a tendency to return favours, pay back debts, and treat others as they have been treated, then give them something first, such as a free gift or experience, before you ask for their money Can you think of any other examples of how fashion businesses apply the reciprocity cue to influence fashion consumers? APPLIED IN THE BUSINESS OF FASHION INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS VIP invitations Fitting room services Personal shopping services Charity/cause giving Free guides Free shopper facilities (charging, drinks) Special previews Secret sales for best customers Free gifts
  68. 68. 68 SOCIAL PROOF FOLLOW 
 THE HERD AUTHORITY FOLLOW 
 THE LEADER CONSISTENCY FOLLOW YOUR HABITS AND COMMITMENTS LIKING FOLLOW THE GOOD SCARCITY FOLLOW WHAT’S IN SHORT SUPPLY RECIPROCITY FOLLOW 
 THE FAVOUR SUMMARY CIALDINI’S SIX INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  69. 69. 69 ACTIVITY: THE STORE MANAGER AT THE FLAGSHIP STORE OF AN UPSCALE FASHION STORE ON NEW BOND ST. WANTS ADVICE ON BOOSTING STORE SALES Work in groups, and build a 3-point Plan (3 initiatives) each using a different influence cue. PRESENT Back to the group providing the psychological rationale for your recommendations - LIKING consumer tendency to comply with or follow people they like or admire because of ‘source attractiveness’ - SCARCITY - RECIPROCITY ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  70. 70. 70 ETHICS You are now an influencer. Influence plays a central role in the business of fashion and as a business school graduate, your psychological insight will be in demand You can choose how to use these influence cues - for good or for bad. The choice is yours WITH GREAT POWER COMES GREAT RESPONSIBILITY INFLUENCE CUES ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS
  71. 71. 71ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS Asch, S. E., & Guetzkow, H. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments. Groups, Leadership, and Men, 222-236. Baumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). Social psychology and human nature. 2nd ed., Wadsworth Bem, D. J. (1970) Beliefs, Attitudes, and Human Affairs, Belmont, Brooks Cole Publishing. Carmona, C., Buunk, A. P., Peiró, J. M., Rodríguez, I., & Bravo, M. J. (2006). Do social comparison and coping styles play a role in the development of burnout? Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(1), 85-99. Cialdini, R. B. (1993) Influence: Science and practice. 3rd ed., New York, HarperCollins. Cialdini, R. B. (2009) Influence: The psychology of influence. Revised ed., New York, Collins. Cialdini, R. B., Vincent, J. E., Lewis, S. K., Catalan, J., Wheeler, D., & Darby, B. L. (1975). Reciprocal Concessions Procedure for Inducing Compliance: The Door-in-the-Face Technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(2), 206-215. Dion, K., Berscheid, E., & Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(3), 285-290. REFERENCES
  72. 72. 72ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS REFERENCES Eagly, A. H., Ashmore, R. D., & Makhijani, M. G. (1991). What is beautiful is good, but...: a meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 109-128. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2), 117-140. Freedman, J. L., & Fraser, S. C. (1966). Compliance without pressure: the foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(2), 195-202. Hogg, M. A., & Vaughan, G. M. (2011). Social psychology: An introduction. 6th ed., Prentice Hall, Pearson Education. Marsden, P. (2000). The ‘Werther effect’: fact or fantasy? Media contagion and suicide in the internet age: critical evaluation, theoretical reconceptualisation and empirical investigation. DPhil Research Thesis-July. Martin, S. J., Bassi, S., & Dunbar-Rees, R. (2012). Commitments, norms and custard creams–a social influence approach to reducing did not attends (DNAs). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 105(3), 101-104. Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral Study of obedience. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(4), 371. Moriarty, T. (1975). Crime, commitment, and the responsive bystander: Two field experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31(2), 370.
  73. 73. 73ADVANCED CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR MASTERCLASS REFERENCES Nisbett, R. E., & Wilson, T. D. (1977). The Halo Effect: Evidence for Unconscious Alteration of Judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(4), 250-256. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of influence. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 123-205. Pirkis, J., Blood, R. W., Beautrais, A., Burgess, P., & Skehan, J. (2006). Media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. Crisis, 27(2), 82-87. Richins, M. L. (1991). Social comparison and the idealized images of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 18(1), 71-83. Stack, S. (2003). Media coverage as a risk factor in suicide. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 57(4), 238-240. Strohmetz, D. B., Rind, B., Fisher, R., & Lynn, M. (2002). Sweetening the till: The use of candy to increase restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(2), 300-309. Taylor, S. E., & Lobel, M. (1989). Social comparison activity under threat: downward evaluation and upward contacts. Psychological Review, 96(4), 569-575. Worchel, S., Lee, J., & Adewole, A. (1975). Effects of Supply and Demand on Ratings of Object Value. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(5), 906-914.

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