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Histoire Des Oeufs Fabergé

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Histoire Des Oeufs Fabergé

  1. 1. Histoire des oeufs Fabergé
  2. 2. C'est en Russie que la célébration de Pâques atteint son plus grand éclat. Pâques est la plus grande fête du calendrier orthodoxe russe. Tolstoï, Gogol, Dostoïevski ne choisissent-ils pas la nuit de Pâques pour faire renaître leurs personnages après des drames et des bouleversements.
  3. 3. Ici, Pâques est célébrée par un échange d'oeuf et trois baisers accolades. Le type d'oeuf offert dépend de la fortune de chacun mais l'oeuf de poule peint est, sans conteste, le plus populaire. Vient ensuite l'oeuf de verre, de porcelaine, de bois, d'argent jusqu'à l'oeuf précieux en or.
  4. 9. Les œufs de Pâques impériaux sont les réalisations les plus célèbres de Carl Fabergé. Entre 1885 et 1916, les tsars Alexandre III et Nicolas II commandent cinquante-quatre de ces objets éblouissants pour les offrir aux tsarines Marie et Alexandra Feodorovna à l'occasion des fêtes pascales. On en connaît aujourd'hui quarante-sept. Chacun d'eux a caché une « surprise » à l'intérieur, astucieusement ouvragée. Chaque œuf est un chef-d'œuvre d'ingéniosité et de savoir-faire!
  5. 14. C'est en 1885, qu'Alexandre III commande le premier œuf, destiné à son épouse, la tsarine Maria Feodorovna. La coutume d'offrir ces œufs le matin de Pâques et d'échanger trois baisers, était profondément ancrée dans les mœurs de la Russie orthodoxe. Ce jour était considéré comme le plus important de l'année et l'œuf, symbole de la résurrection, en était un élément essentiel.
  6. 19. Carl Fabergé s'inscrit donc dans une tradition déjà bien établie. Mais il va l'enrichir de son imagination débordante et de son infinie créativité. Alexandre III ne s'y trompe pas. Enchanté par la première création du joaillier, il lui en commande désormais une nouvelle chaque année, et après sa mort, son fils Nicolas II poursuit la coutume en offrant deux œufs, un à sa mère et l'autre à la nouvelle tsarine, son épouse Alexandra Feodorovna.
  7. 24. Fabergé s'inspirait de l'art byzantin. D'autres oeufs furent ajoutés à la collection et commémoraient certaines dates importantes comme le couronnement du Tzar Nicholas II, l'avènement du chemin de fer jusqu'en Sibérie, certains anniversaires. D'autres mirent en scène le yacht impérial, la cathédrale Uspensky, le palais Gatchina et, plus tard, durant la Guerre, les oeufs représentèrent la Croix rouge et les militaires. La collection comporte 56 oeufs impériaux.
  8. 29. Entre 1885 et 1894, année de sa mort, Alexandre III offre 10 œufs de Pâques à son épouse, l'impératrice Marie Feodorovna. Leurs fils, le tsar Nicolas II, offre un de ces somptueux cadeaux, non seulement a sa femme, mais aussi à sa mère. Donc, de 1895 à 1916, chaque impératrice recevra 22 œufs de Pâques (44 pour les deux.). Le nombre total en serait donc 54! Mais à ce jour, personne n'a pu prouver que des œufs de Pâques ont été remis en 1917, l'année de la révolution!
  9. 34. Des 47 œufs qui nous sont connus, dix sont conservés à Moscou, au Kremlin, onze font partie de la collection Forbes à New York, seize sont détenus par d'autres américains, huit sont dans les collections privées européennes et deux œufs échappent à toute localisation...
  10. 39. Quant aux 2 œufs manquants…il y a certainement des possesseurs de Fabergé qui souhaitent garder l'anonymat. C'est tout à fait compréhensible quand on sait que Malcolm Forbes a déboursé en 1985, 1.760.000 dollars pour l'œuf au coucou!..
  11. 43. Fabergé a crée des œufs uniquement pour la Famille du Tsar? Pas du tout, le milliardaire et magnat de l'or sibérien, Alexandre Ferdinandovitch Kelch a offert à sa femme une série d'œufs de Pâques aussi somptueux que ceux des tsars. On en connaît sept, exécutés entre 1898 et 1904. Bien que Fabergé ne produise jamais, pour ses clients impériaux, il se sent en revanche libre de copier ses propres models pour d'autres clients: " l'œuf à la poule" fait pour Kelch est une copie conforme du model impérial, mais en émail rouge!
  12. 45. Sources http://www.russie.net/russie/art_faberge.htm http://www.saveursdumonde.net/
  13. 46. Musique: André Rieu (Plaisir d`amour) Jean-Guy (2007)

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