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Presentation By Design2011 S

  1. 1. Developing Training and Presentation Skills Presentation by Design Dr. David Peat, CEO Transformational Education, Inc. Calgary, AB Canada ©Transformational Education, Inc
  2. 2. Goals of Presentation <ul><li>To improve the ability of participants to plan and conduct presentations, workshops and discussions </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce a planning framework to help in this process </li></ul><ul><li>To enable participants to confidently tailor their presentations to the needs of their audiences </li></ul>
  3. 3. ACTIVITY <ul><li>i) In groups of 3, share the range of presentations you have conducted, or will be conducting. </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Identify problems encountered, or feared. </li></ul><ul><li>ii)Identify a spokesperson to report back to the main group. </li></ul>Trio
  4. 4. Types of Presentations: A Planning/presentation Continuum <ul><li>Leader-centred </li></ul>Learner- centred The focus of attention and activity is centred on what the leader says and does The focus of attention and activity is centred on what the participant (learner) says and does
  5. 5. Activity 1. When should a leader-centred approach be taken? Why? 2. When should a learner-centred approach be taken? Why? Structured Brainstorming.
  6. 6. When is it best to design leader -centered presentations? Leader-Centred Learner-Centred <ul><li>To efficiently present new information </li></ul><ul><li>For short presentations </li></ul><ul><li>For large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational/Inspirational Topics </li></ul><ul><li>To model behaviours for the participants </li></ul>
  7. 7. When is it best to design learner -centered presentations? Leader-Centred Learner-Centred <ul><li>To provide opportunities to examine information </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of information and experiences of participants </li></ul><ul><li>To facilitate change through discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Practice, application and/or transfer of concepts, skills and/or principals to the real-world of the participants </li></ul><ul><li>To meet pre-set audience expectations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Underlying Assumptions Leader-Centred Presentation Learner-Centred Presentation <ul><li>Participants are there to learn new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Role of presenter is to disseminate information </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is resident in participants </li></ul><ul><li>Role of presenter is to facilitate the expression of this knowledge </li></ul>
  9. 9. Application of Adult Learning Principals <ul><li>As much as possible, for both leader-centered and learner-centered presentations, principals of adult learning should be taken into consideration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adult Learning Principles <ul><li>Adults learn best when : </li></ul><ul><li>They are motivated to learn </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment is conducive to learning </li></ul><ul><li>They play an active part in the learning process; they learn by doing </li></ul><ul><li>The content relates to and builds on their own experiences; they learn by making or learning about other’s mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>They can transfer content to personal situations </li></ul><ul><li>They are accountable to apply content </li></ul>
  11. 11. During your presentation, it’s too late to say…. If only I had prepared some hand-outs. Where are the power points? What! No notebook! I didn’t want to speak immediately after lunch. I never expected that question. I did not know I had to use a microphone. I did not know so many were coming.
  12. 12. Some guiding principles 80% of a presentation is preparation. Good presenters are good planners. “ A presentation is an exercise in persuasion.”
  13. 13. 9 Golden Planning Rules 1. Analyse the situation. 2. Analyse your audience 3. Analyse what you want to say. 4. Analyse the environment. 5. Schedule your activities. 6. Plan your visuals and hand-outs. 7. Plan your publicity. 8. Plan your delivery. 9. Evaluate your presentation.
  14. 14. 1. Analyse the situation <ul><li>Why are you making the presentation? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were you asked or did you volunteer? </li></ul><ul><li>What was their/your motives? </li></ul><ul><li>How much time have you been allocated? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the audience already know about your subject? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be their attitude towards your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What will be their attitude towards you as a presenter? </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Analyse your audience <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs, attitudes and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them interested & motivated - do your homework. Don’t tell them what they already know. </li></ul><ul><li>Get attention at the beginning. Catch them when they are alert. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple. The simpler your presentation, the better chance you have to persuade. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep to the time allocated. Give out a handout if you have more to say. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3. Analyse what you want to say <ul><li>What is your purpose? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade; present facts; convince; inform; justify a bigger budget. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write down your objectives first. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare an outline. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare your spoken version but don’t read your speech/slides. Hang messages, anecdotes and stories onto the outline. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4. Analyse the environment <ul><li>Most suggestions for improvement are not aimed at the presenters but at their own physical comforts - seats too hard, not enough food, bad coffee! </li></ul><ul><li>Select a good venue and provide good catering. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the venue and equipment beforehand. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 5. Schedule your activities <ul><li>Plan your activities and programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Build your confidence as a presenter - get experience to perform in front of an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Build in spare time when planning preparations - everything takes longer than you think! </li></ul>
  19. 19. 6. Plan your visuals & hand-outs <ul><li>Use graphics to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gain attention; clarify or emphasis a point;add variety;change the focus;summarize the main points or objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan your slides - keep them simple: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no more than 6 words per line; no more than 6 lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Font, colour and design - Can they be seen from the back of the room </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edit your slides heavily; punctuate with anecdotes, examples etc . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Activity Leader-Centred Presentation Learner-Centred Presentation 1. Think about one of the following areas - situation; audience; purpose; environment; visuals. 2. Identify situations which are more suited to leader or learner centred presentations. 3. Turn to a partner and share your thoughts and ideas. You have 1 minute each. 4. Feedback and share your ideas with the larger group. 5. Develop 2 checklists for leader and learner centred presentations covering all 5 areas. Present to total group. Think, Pair & Share.
  21. 21. Leader Centred Techniques <ul><li>Handouts: - ‘fill-in-blanks’ - outline with note-taking space </li></ul><ul><li>Personal illustrations/applications </li></ul><ul><li>Humour: - cartoons - jokes </li></ul><ul><li>Memory strategies: - mnemonics - visual imagery - multi-modal imagery </li></ul>
  22. 22. Leader Centred Techniques Eliciting audience participation: - Group Questions (Are you with me? ) - Group Responses (How many, ….? Raise your hands!) - Small Group Responses (Turn to your neighbour and say, ….) - Hand-clapping, movement
  23. 23. Leader Centred Techniques <ul><li>Reviews/re-caps </li></ul><ul><li>Use quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Vary intonation and vocal variety in the delivery - be dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise barriers between yourself and the audience (e.G., Lecterns, tables) </li></ul><ul><li>Smile, show enthusiasm, use eye-contact </li></ul>
  24. 24. PNI - Leader Centred Presentations Positive Negative Interesting
  25. 25. <ul><li>Solo: - Self Assessments - Form Completion - Listing personal responses to presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Pairs: - Case Studies - Paired Problem Solving - Sharing of information/experiences (e.g., ‘ice-breakers) </li></ul>Learner Centred Techniques - Group Size
  26. 26. Learner Centred Techniques - Group Size <ul><li>Trios: - practising tasks, developing skills, providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Fours to sixes: - demonstrations, role-plays, summarising information, brain storming </li></ul><ul><li>Total group: - mini lectures, questions and answers, summaries of small group findings </li></ul>
  27. 27. Learner Centred Techniques - How to Break Into Groups <ul><li>Pairs- ask participants to : - join person next to them, behind them or in front of them - with someone they don’t know; or - with someone they do know. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Learner Centred Techniques - How to Break Into Groups <ul><li>Small groups- ask participants to : - join with others nearby; - number off (well-planned, clear instructions); or - interest groups (according to common interest, concern or approach. Signs can be posted on tables or wall areas to indicate where to gather.) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Plan your publicity <ul><li>Set the scene: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- what’s in in for the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- what are you going to tell them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduce the speaker: - what are his/her qualifications and experiences to talk on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>- give brief notes to the chair to set the scene for you, and make the audience receptive to your presentation </li></ul>
  30. 30. Plan your delivery <ul><li>Dress code: Dress for your audience - mirror their dress. Clothes must be comfortable and suit the occasion. It’s better to be overdressed than to be dressed to casually. </li></ul><ul><li>Check your non-verbal communication - facial expressions, voice tones, movements, gestures. </li></ul><ul><li>Make an effort to be enthusiastic. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a practice run. Invite honest, helpful people. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Establishing rapport <ul><li>Establish rapport right from the start; use non-verbal communication before you begin. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact with your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to experiences you hold in common with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Quote persons participants hold in high regard. </li></ul><ul><li>Be polite and respectful; Show understanding and friendliness to your listeners. </li></ul><ul><li>Never start a talk with an apology. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sincere, honest and straightforward. </li></ul><ul><li>Show you know your subject but be careful not to appear conceited or antagonistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Use anecdotes, a story to begin. Use humour carefully and in good taste. Tell stories against yourself, not against others. </li></ul><ul><li>Never lose your cool - if you lose your temper, you lose your argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept feedback politely; try not to become defensive. </li></ul>
  32. 32. “ Language exists to communicate whatever it can communicate. Some things it communicates so badly that we never attempt to communicate them by words if any other medium is available” C.S. Lewis, Studies in Words.
  33. 33. Evaluate your presentations Take time to craft an evaluation sheet - to improve as a presenter, you need feedback.
  34. 34. Activity: Designing a Presentation. <ul><li>1.Divide into groups of 3. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Person A describes an upcoming presentation, concerns and planning so far. </li></ul><ul><li>3. B and C ask questions and check for correct understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>4. B & C suggest improvements and solution strategies. A listens and questions to gain correct understanding of proposed strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Present to main group. </li></ul>Helping Trios
  35. 35. Thank you! Q & A