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Human beings are genetically adapted to conditions of scanty and irregular nutrition. In case of food abundance this advantage turned into a significant part of population's predisposition to �diseases of civilization�. This conclusion has been made by I.S. Liberman, Doctor of Sciences, based on his own data and findings of other investigators. Atherosclerosis, type II (insulin-independent) diabetes, primary hypertension, and obesity often accompanying them are called diseases of civilization. Within the last decades, these diseases are found with younger people and are often found with patients at the age over 30. According to some researchers, practically everybody has atherosclerosis of aorta and coronary arteries, their manifestation intensifying with years. Such mass distribution, in fact, pandemic of vascular pathology allows to assume that mankind is predisposed to this pathology in the conditions of civilization. Naturally, the degree of such predisposition varies with different people. The genotype, which determines disposition to diseases of civilization, was formed at the early stages of the mankind development. Its nutrition was then scanty and irregular, and in these conditions the possibility to eat one's fill for future use was very important. Excessive fat and carbohydrates were laid in the adipose tissue, and mature adipose tissue was a big advantage, particularly with women, who had to give birth and to nurse children. Men spent a lot of energy on hunting, cattle-raising and farming, therefore, their muscles were better developed. The majority of people did not enjoy abundance of food, and there was certain balance between caloric content of food and energy consumption. During the era of civilization, the major part of mankind passed to abundant nutrition without starvation periods which were quite natural previously and without significant spending of muscular energy. Along with that, the organism is constantly producing a large amount of insulin, upon the signal of which the adipose tissue accepts excess of fat and carbohydrates. However, when the cells are overloaded all the time, they lose sensitivity to insulin. Figuratively speaking, the storehouses' doors are closed, as the storehouses are overfilled. This natural defense reaction of cells results in type II diabetes. So, adipose tissue does not accept lipids any longer. Where should they go? One of the most suitable places is walls of arteries, where lipids are laid in the form of plaques. Lipid penetration into walls of vessels is highly promoted by insulin, which continues to be produced in large quantities. People with badly developed adipose tissue do not have the possibility to create energy resource. If nutrition is unbalanced, excess lipids immediately rush into vascular walls, that is why thin people run the risk of falling ill with atherosclerosis, perhaps even more frequently than people with mature fatty tissue, its possibilities not being unlimited either. That is why men, who have less mature adipose tissue as compared to women and consequently less opportunities for creating energy reserves, pay for satiety and sedentary life with ischemic heart-disease much more frequently than women do. The St. Petersburg physicians have determined that atherosclerosis patients and their relatives often suffer from chronic venous insufficiency with disrupted microcirculation. Apparently, atherogenic metabolic derangements result in the entire vascular system pathology. By the way, microcirculatory injure often causes arterial hypertension. According to I.S. Liberman's opinion, atherosclerosis, type II diabetes and arterial hypertension are natural clinical presentations of the same pathological process: redundant production of insulin and cells losing sensitivity to insulin. Pathological changes are progressing with age and their clinical presentations become more noticeable. Thus, genetically secured advantage has turned into predisposition to diseased in new conditions.