Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×

Paper 3 hl extension

Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Publicité
Prochain SlideShare
Paper 3 hl extension
Paper 3 hl extension
Chargement dans…3
×

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 17 Publicité
Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Similaire à Paper 3 hl extension (20)

Publicité

Paper 3 hl extension

  1. 1. IB PHILOSOPHY Paper 3- HL Extension
  2. 2. Introduction —  It is unique to Higher Level (20% of mark) —  Examined by a written paper- 1.5 hours length —  The paper consists of one unseen text, students are expected to write a response to this text of 800-1000 words —  It is strongly recommended that you spend 20-30 minutes to read and reflect on the text carefully before formulating response.
  3. 3. Rationale ‘The purpose of the unseen text in the paper 3 examination is to allow students to demonstrate an understanding of philosophy as an activity by means of a holistic application of the philosophical skills, knowledge and ideas they have developed throughout the course. The text will be chosen to reflect the nature, function, methodology and meaning of philosophy as a reflective activity’ ‘The emphasis of this exercise is on students’ understanding of philosophy as an activity, and on their appreciation of the nature of the different methodologies and approaches they encounter in philosophical activity.’ IB Philosophy guide
  4. 4. Philosophy as an activity —  Human beings have a unique facility to reason, it stems from our self conscious ability to know that we exist. We are not like computers which simply manipulate information and are not self-aware (this is obviously debatable). —  Philosophy involves thinking in abstract ideas (for example…. not where I should go this afternoon? but why am I here at all… the ‘ultimate questions’. —  This sort of thinking helps us to ask questions that concern our existence in relation to our place as individuals in an often puzzling world. First it allows us to work out whether the question is meaningful (and that we are justified in pursuing an answer), second, it helps us to work through the problem, obtain a conclusion and decide whether that conclusion is valid. Whether or not the conclusion is true will depend on the truth contained in the argument.
  5. 5. The origins of Philosophy Philosophy first started when human beings began to wonder why their world was like it was. They assumed that the earth was created by God but when they began to wonder about the nature of God himself (eg who is he or she? Where is God? Is God completely powerful? Is God good?) they began to philosophise. This sort of thinking is called ‘metaphysics’ and is to do with thinking about what and why things ‘really are’. All philosophy in some way connects to this central metaphysical theme.
  6. 6. What is the best approach to philosophy? We can approach philosophy by looking at its history (The ancient Greeks, Descartes) or we can study by topic (philosophy of science, philosophy of mind). Both have their merits. Whichever we choose, its important to have an understanding of what philosophers have thought about and we will be examining key works of the key philosophers. Philosophy is also about using our imagination to come up with new ideas and argue in their defence, or to challenge existing ideas by providing rational arguments against them. It is an activity. To argue effectively we need to be aware of what it is to reason. There is little (or nothing) to be gained by proclaiming we have a ‘philosophy’ about this or that without supporting our ideas by reason or if we have no declared reasons for holding a view to simply state ‘’that’s what I believe and that’s all there is to it’’
  7. 7. Doing Philosophy- An exercise   —  For each of the following decide how you wish to respond to the question then work out: —  Why you think this? —  What reasons you have for thinking this? —  Where these reasons came from? —  Why you believe your reasons? —  If you would change your view if someone could convince you otherwise?
  8. 8. Doing Philosophy – An exercise 1.  Do you believe that war is wrong? 2.  Do you believe that criminals should be punished for their crimes or helped to lead better lives? 3.  Do you think computers are intelligent? 4.  Do you think that everyone in the world should have the same amount of money? 5.  Do you think homosexuality is natural and acceptable?
  9. 9. Argument —  We argue in different ways: we ‘quarrel’, debate or persuade. In a philosophical sense argument is used to persuade others of your point of view. Although quarrels may not have rules, persuasive arguments do. —  An argument consists of a group of statements (premises) some of which purportedly provide support for one another (the conclusion) —  For an argument to be convincing it must use true reasons, blend them into a logical framework and draw valid conclusions from the reasons used. Any sound argument must show : how it is justified, what makes it true and provide reasons why you should believe it.
  10. 10. Deductive and Inductive reasoning 1.  Deductive argument is a method of ascertaining validity. A properly constructed deductive argument is valid if all its premises are true- because the conclusion must then be true. 2.  Inductive argument is a method of ascertaining the degree of certainty the premises confer on the conclusion. A properly constructed inductive argument has strength in that if all the premises are true then the conclusion is probably true
  11. 11. Logic —  Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning which is associated with the formation and analysis of arguments. —  A claim is shown to be true or false as a result of evidence, which can take the form of either direct testimony of your senses, explanations, the testimony of others, appeal to well-established theories, appeal to appropriate authority, appeal to definitions and good arguments, among others.
  12. 12. Deduction as a ‘way of doing philosophy’ —  Aristotle (384-322BC) is credited with inventing deductive arguments as a means to drawing conclusions. By looking at his own example we can see the form deductive arguments take: —  If the question were asked ‘Is Socrates mortal?’ then the following deductive argument could be applied. All men are mortal (1st premise) Socrates is a man (2nd premise) Socrates is mortal (conclusion) —  The conclusion follows from the premise. A valid deductive argument will always lead to a valid conclusion but the truth of the conclusion relies on the truth of the premises.
  13. 13. What to include in your response 1.  A concise description of philosophical activity as presented in the text 2.  An exploration of the pertinent issues regarding philosophical activity raised in the text, relating this to YOUR experiences of doing philosophy throughout the whole course. 3.  Appropriate references to the text that illustrate your understanding of philosophical activity. 4.  Your personal evaluation of the issues regarding philosophical activity raised in the text.
  14. 14. Guiding Questions •  What general impression does the article give you of Philosophy in general? Or does it give you a specific comment relevant to a topic within philosophy? Is it positive, negative or neutral? •  What is the extract focusing on in terms of 'doing philosophy'? •  What does the extract highlight in terms of the important aspects of Philosophy? (And the unimportant aspects of Philosophy?) •  How does the extract relate philosophy to other areas of knowledge? •  Does there exist one method of doing philosophy?
  15. 15. Guiding Questions •  Is it fair to say that Philosophy tries to uncover points of agreement and shared presuppositions between disputing parties? What does this description of Philosophy miss? •  Does questioning the grounds of all assumptions help you live a better life? •  What is the difference between a casual, common-sense approach to important aspects of human existence as opposed to a more philosophical approach? •  Must we approach all aspects of life in a philosophical manner? Is this possible? Is this probable? Is this desirable? •  Compare and contrast the idea of philosophy suggested in one piece with another perspective.
  16. 16. How to plan- Step by Step 1.  Skim read the whole piece to get an impression of what the author is saying. 2.  Number the paragraphs and then read each one slowly and summarise it in one sentence. Highlight the issues to do with philosophical activity (look for things to agree with or disagree with). 3.  Identify what the text claims is philosophical activity- there will be more than one element here. Make a list of the elements which you identify. 4.  Ask yourself the question- ‘does the text’s claim tie in with philosophical activity as I have encountered it’? 5.  Decide on the extent to which you agree/disagree with the text’s claims and how you are going to illustrate this in your response. 6.  Plan the knowledge and skills which you are going to use to address the text’s claims.
  17. 17. Writing your answer- step by step 1.  Open with a short description of the texts claims regarding the philosophical activity you have identified within it. This might be one, possibly two, paragraphs long. 2.  You should have identified several issues that the text raises about philosophical activity. You should then take each issue separately. Quote the relevant bit from the text, and then look at the issues from one or two sides. You must refer to your experience of doing philosophy and cite examples which help justify whether the issue is treated acceptably in the text. This should take from four to seven paragraphs. 3.  Conclude with a paragraph on how much you agree or disagree with the text’s claims about philosophical activity.

×