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A PROJECT REPORT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR REGARDING VARIOUS BRANDED SHOES SUBMITTED TO: PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH in partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of MASTER OF COMMERCE (M.COM)SUPERVISED BY:- SUBMITTED BY:-Mrs. Ranjit Kaur Jasdeep Kaur M.com 2nd SEM 2298GURU NANAK NATIONAL COLLEGE, DORAHA
LIST OF CONTENTSCHAPTER NO. CHAPTER NAMECHAPTER 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYCHAPTER 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVESCHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYCHAPTER 4 LIMITATIONSCHAPTER 5 COMPANY PROFILECHAPTER 6 DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONCHAPTER 7 SUGGESTION & CONCLUSIONCHAPTER 8 ANNEXURECHAPTER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSuccess is an effort bounded activity that involves co-operation of all.I hereby take the opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitudeand reverence to all those who have helped and encouraged me towardssuccessful completion of the Project Report. It has been a great experienceworking on the concept of CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR REGARDINGVARIOUS BRANDED SHOES. It gives me complete insight of this conceptof marketing and its application.I would like to thank my Project Guide Mrs. Ranjit Kaur for her immenseguidance, valuable help and the opportunity provided to me to complete theproject under her guidance.I would like to thank all faculty members of GURU NANAK NATIONALCOLLEGE DORAHA for guiding and supporting me in the completion ofproject from time to time. Last but not the least, my gratitude to great almighty and my parentswithout whose concerned and devoted support the project would not have been the way it is today. JASDEEP KAUR
PREFACEThe project study on CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR REGARDING VARIOUSBRANDED SHOES has been conducted to observe the preferences ofconsumers. This system of education is highly appreciated as it providesthe students with an opportunity to acquaint them with the outside world.The practical work helps the students to view the real business worldclosely, which in turn widely influences their conception and perception. In this project 50 respondents are selecting for knowing theirperception regarding branded shoes. For this purpose information iscollected from some areas of Ludhiana.
This project takes a look in various kinds of Merchandising activities,market share of different shoes and various sales promotion schemes,which are followed in the shoe industry. The three major players i.e.Reebok, Nike and Adidas dominate the sports shoe industry in India. Indiais one of few battlegrounds in the world where there is neck-to-neckcompetition between the three. The companies claim to be in number onesport coating the data produced by two different marketing researchcompanies.In the 1980s, Adidas sneakers became popular amongst teenagers andyoung men. The Adidas sneakers were popularized by the Run DMC song“My Adidas” and became a huge fashion trend. The Tapie affair the historyof the company as presented by its official web site is incomplete, perhapsbecause it is indirectly linked to financial scandals. After a period of serioustrouble. The death of Adolf Dassler‟s son Horst Dassler in 1987, thecompany was bought in 1990 by Bernard Tapie, for 1.6 billion Frenchfrancs ($320million), which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time afamous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, a business on which hebuilt his fortune.Nike is the world‟s #1 manufacturer and marketer of athletic footwear andapparel. Almost out of the blue, the company established itself as one ofthe world‟s most familiar brands during the 1980s and 1990s.As familiar as a coke bottle or Big Mac, the Nike “swoosh” logo came tosymbolize not just sports culture, but street culture, as the appeal of thestar players who endorsed the brand was carried onto city streets. Theapproach of the new century set Nike new problems.Trainers went out of fashion, economic slowdown and labor problems hitAsian performance. But the group has bounced back, retaining its iron gripon the sporting apparel sector and still undisputed lender in sports-orientedstreet wear.Reebok is the world‟s third- largest maker of sneakers, athletic shoes andsport apparel. Goods are sold under the brands Reebok, Rockport andGreg Norman Collection. Reebok is also the official outfitter of the NFL andhas an exclusive deal to supply NBA jerseys beginning the seasonReebok announced in July it will merge with German Sporting apparelcompany adidas-saloman in a deal valued at @3.8 billion. The merger is
expected to be completed by the first half of 2008 and will create thesecond-largest sporting goods company behind Nike with @11billion inrevenues. Adidas will maintain its corporate headquarter in Germany and its NorthAmerican headquarters in Portland, OR Paul Fireman will remain as chiefexecutive officer of the Reebok international ltd. And will continue to leadthe Reebok team. Reebok will continue to operate under its name and willretain its headquarters in Canton, MA.In fiscal 2008, Reebok had net income of @192.4million and sales firstname.lastname@example.org.The Action group is one of the Indias leading business conglomerates. Thegroup commenced its operations as a source of footwear and itscomponents in domestic and export markets, gradually moving its coreother diversified fields such as: (API) Chemicals and Plasticizers,(MICROTEK ) Computer Monitors and Peripherals, Power BackUp/Inverters, (OKAYA) Batteries, (SUN CITY) Housing Projects and (SRIBALAJI ACTION MEDICAL INSTITUTE) Health Care.There are different individual companies under a common umbrella, eachdedicated to a specific line of product manufacturing, procuring or otherparticular business activities.
The research study tends to follow and achieve specific objectives.The objectives of this particular study are:- To know the personal views of the people regarding various branded shoes. To study which branded shoe is mostly preferred by people as per their choices. Comparison between various branded shoes. Find out factors influencing the people at the time of purchasing shoes such as Quality, Durability, Variety, Price, And Use in Sport s.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch methodology is a way to systematically solve the researchproblem, it not only takes the research methods but also consider the logicbehind the methods. The study of research methodology for developing theproject gives us the necessary training in gathering materials and arrangingthem, participation in the field work when required, and provides training intechniques for the collection of data appropriate to particular problems.RESEARCH PROBLEMS:- Consumer‟s preference about differentbranded and non branded shoes.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:- Exploratory method.SAMPLING PLAN:-SAMPLE METHODS:- Random simple samplingSAMPLE SIZE:- 50PRIMARY DATA:- Questionnaire InterviewSAMPLEWhile deciding about the sample of research, it is required from the
Researcher‟s point to pay attention to these under mentioned points: a) Sample Units: A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before selecting a sample, sampling unit may be a geographical one such as state, district, village etc. so in this research sampling unit is Ludhiana area. b) Source of Data: Data required for the study was collected through primary sources i.e. market survey. c) Sampling Size: This refers to the no. of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. This is a major problem before the researcher. The size of sample should neither be excessively large not too small, it should be optimum. This size of population must be kept in view for this also limits the sample size. Sample size in this research is 50. INSTRUMENTS USED Primary data collected through sample survey from the selected elementsin malls and super markets. So for this purpose I have most popular tool ofprimary data collection through direct communication with respondents.The tools I used are questionnaire. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTIONActually data is of two kinds which are following-a) Primary Data: primary data are those, which are afresh and for thefirst time and this happen to be original in character.b) Secondary Data: secondary data are those data which have alreadybeen collected by someone else and which have already been used as perrequired.
There are basically two sources to collect secondary dataa) Internally: provided by company/organizationb) Externally: various publication of central, state and local government. Books, magazines, newspapers InternetAfter only keeping in mind one can think about what type of data has to becollected during research as our research is concerned I have to getherprimary data for customer preference. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS:QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN:As the questionnaire is self administered one, the survey is kept simple anduser friendly. Words used in questionnaire are readily understandable to allrespondent.I have made the questionnaire in which questions are according to theresearch and these are convenience for the respondent.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY While surveying I encounter with some problems like- In some of the retail showroom it is not allowed to get the questionnaire filled. Many of the respondents were not willing to fill the questionnaire. Some people were not willing to respond and few of them who responded were in hurry hence the active participation was lacking. Due to which I faced difficulties in collecting information‟s regarding our questionnaire. Another problem which I face was that people were hesitating to give information about their views freely.
AdidasINTRODUCTIONAdidas was formed by German sports apparel by the founder Adi Dasslerduring the 1920‟s. “For over 80 years, Adidas has been part of the world ofsports on every level, delivering state-of-the-art sportsfootwear, apparel and accessories. Today, Adidas isa global leader not only in the shoe industry, but alsoin the sporting goods industry. Shoes from the Adidasare available in virtually every country of the world. .Besides sports footwear, the company also producesother products such as bags, shirts, watches,eyewear and other sports and clothing-relatedgoods. The company is the largest sportswearmanufacturer in Europe and the second biggest sportswear manufacturerin the world, after its American rival Nike. The company‟s clothing and shoe design typically involve three parallelstripes of the same color and the same motive is incorporated into Adidas‟official logos. HISTORY: The history of Adidas is one ofconsistently meeting the evolving needs of the athlete. Focusing more onfunction and less on fashion, Adidas strives to provide athletes with shoesthat can make a noticeable difference in their performance. Meeting athleteneeds is what makes Adidas the best. The company Adidas was founded
in the early 1920s as Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik, in Herzogenaurach inGermany. Adolf Dassler designed a pair of sport shoes in 1925 and fewyears later he and his brother Rudolph were selling special shoes for tennisplayers and began design specific shoes for different sports. The familycompany split in 1948. After the split, Adolf (Adi) Dassler founded Adidasand his brother Rudolph founded Puma. The three-stripe logo wasdesigned in 1941 by Adi Dassler and he registered it as a trademark forAdidas after the split.The strength of Adidas was its product innovation. Adi Dassler registeredmore than seven hundred patents. Adidas began selling its shoes in theUnited States after 1968 and in few years the company dominated theAmerican market. The most important marketing breakthrough was theactive promotion of global sporting events, especially the Olympics. Theconnection of Adidas to the Olympics has a rich heritage. At the 1972Olympic game in Munich, every official wore Adidas.Adidas has 107 subsidiaries in 20 countries, and exports to 160 countries.Activities of the company and its subsidiaries are directed from Adidas-Salomon AGs headquarters in Herzogenaurach, Germany.Products: Adidas - footwear, apparel, and hardware such as bags andballs. Salomon - Winter sports incl. skis, snowboards, snowblades, skiboots and bindings, inline skates, hiking, apparel. Mavic -Cyclecomponents, Bonfire - Snowboard apparel. ArcTeryx - Outdoor apparel,climbing equipment, Cliché - Skateboard equipment, footwear and apparel,Taylor Made-Adidas Golf - Golf equipment, golf apparel, golf shoes andfinally, Maxfli - Golf balls, irons and accessories.
COMPETITORS: Rudolf Dassler, Adie‟s brother, founded a rivalcompany, PUMA the chief competitors of Adidas are PUMA andNIKE. In August 2005, the company announced that it had made adeal to acquire rival REEBOK for$3.8 billion. The acquition wouldincrease its market share in North America and allow it to furthercompete with Nike. This will propel Adidas to the number two spot inthe foot apparel market behind Nike. Adidas‟ trademark saying is„impossible is nothing‟.ENHANCEMENTIn the 1980s, Adidas sneakers became popular amongst teenagersand young men. The Adidas sneaker was popularized by the RUNDMC song “My Adidas” and became a huge fashion trend.After a period of serious trouble following the death of AdolfDasseler‟s son Horst Dasseler in 1987, the company was bough t in1990 by Bernard Tapie for 1.6 billion French Frances ($320million),which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialistrescuing bankrupt companies, a business on which he built hisfortune.Tapie decided to move production offshore toAsia.he also hiredMadonna for promotion.In 1992, Tapie was unable to pay interest from his loan. Hemandated the Credit Lyonnis bank to sell Adidas, and banksubsequently converted the outstanding debt owed to equity of theenterprise, which was unusual for then-current French bankingpractice. Apparently, the State-owed bank had tried to get Tapie outof dire financial straits as a personal favour to Tapie,reportedlybecause Tapie was a minister of Urban Affairs in the Frenchgovernment at the time.February 1993, Credit Lyonnais sold Adidas to Robert Louis Dreyfus,a friend of Bernard Tapie, for a much higher amount of money thanwhat Tapie owed 4.485 billion francs rather than 2.85billion.Forgetting why the bank actually bought Adidas, Tapie later sued thebank, because he felt spoiled by the indirect sale.
Robert Louis-Dreyfus became the new CEO of the company. He isalso the president of the Olymique de Marseille football team, towhich Tapie is closely linked.Tapie went bankrupt himself in1994. He was the object of severallawsuits, notably related to match fixing at the football club. Hespent 6 months in La Santé prison in Paris in1997.POST -TAPIE ERAIn 1997, Adidas AG acquired the Salomon Group, and its corporatename was changed toAdidas-Salomon AG.In August 2005, Adidas declared its intention to buy Anglo -Americanrival Reebok for US$3.8 billion. This takeover was completed inaugust 2005 and meant that the company will now have closerbusiness sales as those of Nike in Northern America. The acquisitionof Reebok will also allow Adidas to compete with Nike Worldwide.World cup 1954 when West Germany miraculously won the soccer1954 World Cup, their footwear was supplied by Adidas. Theseshoes introduced a technological breakthrough: studs withscrews.When weather were good and pitch was hard, the shoeswere equipped with short studs; when it rained; longer studs werescrewed on the bottom of the shoes. As the final game against thehighly-favoured team from Hungary was played in heavy rain, thisgave the German players a firmer hold on the slippery pitch.Celebrities: Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaignssuch as television or print adverts to advertise specific or generalproducts. Adidas use David Bekham as their brand ambassador andmany more celebrities in every region to promote their product.Adidas already has heavy weight sportsmen such as SachinTendulkar, Leander Paes & Mahesh Bhupathi endorsing the brand inIndia. They had the image, apart from endorsing the performanceelement in the brand. Adidas steps out of crease with a clear sportspositioning.
ADIDAS IN INDIAAdidas entered the Indian market in 1996 by setting up a 100%subsidiary of Adidas AG called Adidas India Ltd. and announced its jointventure with Magnum International Trading Company Ltd. on October 1,1996. The new joint venture – Adidas India Ltd. – was incorporated with aninitial investment of US $ 205 million with Adidas India Ltd. holding 80% ofthe equity and Magnum holding the balance 20%. This investment wasraised to US $ 6.4 million with the equity structure remaining the same.Currently, the total investment stands at US $ 11.4 Million with the equitystructure changing to 91.4% by Adidas and 8.6% by magnum.Adidas’ Range of Products in India: A month after announcing the jointventure, Adidas India Ltd. launched its range of sports footwear, appareland accessories in New Delhi on November 1, 1996. Subsequently, Adidasproducts were also launched in Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabadand Calcutta. Currently, Adidas products are available in 30 cities in India.The range of Adidas products available in India include sports footwearfeaturing some of the most popular innovations and technologiesdeveloped by Adidas such as Feet You Wear, Torsion system and adiwear. The sports footwear available in India includes a wide range of corecategories such as adventure, basketball cricket, golf, indoor, running,tennis, training, soccer and workout.Adidas has introduced in India, a wide range of sportswear for both menand women. These include apparel for athletics, basketball, cricket, golf,running, soccer, swimming, tennis and training for Men and women.
BRAND VALUE AND STRATEGY OF ADIDAS:Brand value and strategy of Adidas Ag, a leading producer of sportsapparel. In 2006, Adidas owned another big brand Reebok for more than3.5 million dollars.The brand value of Adidas Ag, the leading leisure wear, sports footwearand equipment producer across the globe is currently almost 2748 milliondollars. The companys brand name is Adidas and it is displayed with a trefoil logo.This logo, a very popular one, is a signature of Adidas brand. It had beenlaunched in 1972.The new Adidas logo, three stripes running across its several products,was introduced in 1991.In 2006, Adidas acquired the Reebok brand for 3.8 million dollars.In 2007, Adidas repositioned its Reebok brand to attract the consumers ofathletics apparel. Moreover, the company adopted several plans to expandits brand name .Adidas has given lot of emphasis on advertising. Thestrong brand management has successfully branded the company over theworld.Adidas has introduced several market campaigning ideas, for example, the"Run Easy" campaign for the Reebok brand. After acquisition, the main challenge was to avoid the competitionbetween the past two rival brands, Reebok, the producer of athleticssneaker, and Adidas. ButReeboks brand managers have not only successfully done that but alsothey increased the brand value of both Reebok and Adidas.
A HAWK EYE VIEWIn 1998, Adidas sued the NCAA over theirrules limiting the size and number ofcommercial logos on team uniforms andapparel. Adidas withdrew the suit, and thetwo groups established guidelines as to whatthree-stripe designs would be considered uses Of the Adidas AG ADIDASType PublicFounded 1949Location Herzogenaurach, GermanyKey people Adolph Dassler, founder Herbert Hainer, CEO Robin Stalker, CFO Andreas Gellner, Managing Director , India Industry TextileProducts Footwear Accessories
REEBOKINTODUCTIONReebok is the world‟s third-largest maker of sneakers, athletic shoesand sports apparels. Good are sold under the brandsReebok, Rockport, and Greg Norman Collection.Reebok is also the official Outfitter of the NFL and has an exclusive deal tosupply NBA jerseys beginning this season.Reebok announced in July it will merge with German sporting apparelcompany adidas-saloman in a deal valued at $3.8 billion. The merger isexpected to be completed by the first half of 2006 and will create thesecond-largest sporting goods company behind Nike with$11billion inrevenue.Adidas will maintain its corporate headquarters in Germany and its NorthAmerican headquarters in Portland, OR. Paul Fireman will remain as ChiefExecutive officer of Reebok international Ltd. And will continue to operateunder its name and will retain its headquarters in canton, MA.In fiscal 2004, Reebok had net income of $192.4 million and sales of $3.7billion.HISTORY:Reebok‟s origins go back to 1895 when JosephWilliam Foster made running shoes with spikes in them. He formed acompany called J.W.Foster and sons which made shoes for athletes in the1924 summer Olympics.In 1958, two of the founder‟s grandsons started a companion company thatcame to be known as Reebok, named for an African gazelle.
In 1979, Paul Fireman, a partner in an outdoor sporting goodsdistributorship, spotted Reebok shoes at an international trade show. Henegotiated for the North American distribution license and introduced threerunning shoes in the U.S that year. At $60, they were the most expensiverunning shoes on the market.By 1981, Reebok‟s sales exceed @1.5 million, but a dramatic was plannedfor the next year. In 1982, Reebok introduced the first athletic shoedesigned especially for the women; a shoe for a new fitness exercise calledaerobic dance. The shoe was called the freestyle, and with it Reebokanticipated and encouraged three major trends that transformed the athleticfootwear industry: the aerobic exercise movement, the influx of women intosports and exercise and the acceptance of well-designed athletic footwearby adults for street and casual wear.Reebok went public in 1985. The Chairman and CEO of Reebok was Paul Fireman. He was the one tointroduce the Freestyle in 1980 he was the founder and innovator ofReebok. He left his position in 2006 and sold Reebok to Adidas for $3.8billion. Paul Harrington took his place in April for two years. In March 2008Uli Becker became CEO of Reebok. He is now responsible for Reebokbrands business around the world, and he reports to the chairman andCEO of the Adidas group. The top 3 CEO connections are Mr. John Warrenwho is the chief financial officer and general manager of sports licenseddivision, Mr. Terry R. Pillow senior vice president, and Mr. Rick Paternosenior Vice President. The top five shareholders are Bardwil Industries Inc,Dr. Martens Airwair USA, llc, Native Intimates Ltd., Welspun USA, Ins.,Alpha Mills Corporation. Its headquarters are in Canton, Massachusetts,U.S.A. its regional offices are in Amsterdam, Montreal, Hong Kong, andMexico City.REEBOKS VISIONReebok is dedicated to providing each and every athlete - from
professional athletes to recreational runners to kids on the playground -with the opportunity, the products, and the inspiration to achieve what theyare capable of. We all have the potential to do great things. As a brand,Reebok has the unique opportunity to help consumers, athletes and artists,partners and employees fulfill their true potential and reach heights theymay have thought un-reachable.REEBOK’S MISSIONAt Reebok, we see the world a little differently and throughout our historyhave made our mark when we‟ve had the courage to challenge convention.Reebok creates products and marketing programs that reflect the brand‟sunlimited creative potential.REEBOKS POSITIONINGCelebrate Individuality in Sport and LifeReebok understands that people are, above all, unique. Reebok‟spositioning reflects this; celebrating the distinct qualities that make peoplewho they are - their unique points of view, their individual style and theirremarkable talents and accomplishments. Reebok celebrates theirindividuality, their authenticity and the courage it takes to forge their ownpath to greatness. While some may call them crazy or eccentric, Reebokcalls them visionary and original.REEBOKS PURPOSETo Empower Global Youth to Fulfill their PotentialCommitment to Corporate Responsibility is an important legacy andhallmark of the Reebok brand. For two decades, Human Rights, throughthe Reebok Human Rights program, were the primary focus of this effort.Reebok has expanded on what had been built and created a GlobalCorporate Citizenship platform with a purpose for the brand that will help
underprivileged, underserved youth around the world fulfill their potentialand live healthy, active lives.REEBOKS BRAND TERRITORYHaving Fun Staying in ShapeHaving Fun Staying in Shape comes to life through a fun, bold, provocativemanner expressed through fresh, eye catching imagery signed off with aunique Reeword. The tone and manner allows the consumer to look atsport and lifestyle through our lens of Ree. Reebok Shoes Industry - Fastest Growing Industries InIndia: Reebok shoes company offers a wide range of shoes, apparels andaccessories and the prices of these stuffs depend upon the design, comfortand material used. Reebok shoes, apparels and other accessories in Indiaare expensive when we compare it with other brands but still are popularand the choice of the elite class of the society. Now a day the shoe price starts from Rs.1000 and goes up to Rs.15000depending upon the kind of shoes one is looking for. The brand hasachieved great recognition amongst youngsters, middle aged and oldpeople because of its comfort, fitting characteristics and style.To distinguish themselves from the other brands, Reebok also offers a widerange of apparels for both men and women keeping into consideration thelatest fashion, style and brand image. The company is manufacturingjackets, t-shirts, sweat shirts, pull over‟s, tracksuits, wind cheater etc. indifferent designs and colours. Prices of these apparels depend upon the
quality and style of the product being taken. During season sale thecompany also offers discounts on these products. Recent Activities of Reeboka) In 2009, Reebok launched JUKARI Fit to Fly, an innovative gym workoutdesigned for all women with one single objective – to make fitness forwomen fun again. JUKARI, the result of a long-term relationship betweenReebok and the globally renowned entertainment company.b) In 2009, Reebok launched the EasyTone footwear collection that allowsconsumers to "take the gym with them." The EasyTone technology involvestwo balance pods under the heel and forefoot of the shoe that create anatural instability with every step, which Reebok claims forces the musclesto adapt and develop tone.c) In April 2008 Reebok launched its online store in UK and France. InJanuary 2009 Reebok had extended the store to Germany, Austria,Netherlands, Belgium and Ireland and had also introduced Your Reebok –an application to design your own Reeboks.d) For the 2008–09 season, Reebok created the Reebok Edge 2 uniformsystem, for National Hockey Leagues players. The league adopted thejersey and now all teams sport the new style for both their home and awayjerseys.e) In July 2007, Reebok launched its Lifestyle Footwear Collection inassociation with Daddy Yankees new album. In December 2007, Reeboklaunched the GOAL Collection of football gear on the release of the Indianfootball movie Dhan Dhana Dhan Goal.f) In June 2007, Reebok announced Scarlett Johansson on its array ofbrand ambassadors. Johansson promotes the Scarlett Hearts Rbk"collection, a fashion-forward, athletic-inspired footwear targeted at theIndian market.
NIKEINTODUCTIONNike is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based inthe United States. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon,which is part of the Portland metropolitan area. It is the worlds leadingsupplier of athletic and apparel and a major manufacturer of sportsequipment with revenue in excess of US$18.6 billion in its fiscal year 2008(ending May 31, 2008). As of 2008, it employed more than 30,000 peopleworldwide. Nike and Precision Castparts are the only Fortune500companies headquartered in the state of Oregon, according to TheOregonian. The company was founded on January 25, 1964 as Blue RibbonSports by Bill Bower man and Philip Knight, and officially became Nike, Inc.on May 30, 1978. The company takes its name from Nike the Greekgoddess of victory. Nike markets its products under its own brand as wellas Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Nike+, Air Jordan, Nike Skateboarding andsubsidiaries including Cole, Hurley International, Umbro and Converse. Nikealso owned Bauer Hockey (later renamed Nike Bauer) between 1995 and2008. In addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, thecompany operates retail stores under the Niketown name. Nike sponsorsmany high profile athletes and sports teams around the world, with thehighly recognized trademarks of "Just do it" and the Swoosh logo.
HISTORYNike, originally known as "Blue Ribbon Sports", was founded by Universityof Oregon track athlete Philip Knight and his coach Bill Bowerman inJanuary 1964. The company initially operated as a distributor for Japaneseshoe maker Onitsuka Tiger (now ASICS), making most sales at trackmeets out of Knights automobile.The companys profits grew quickly, and in 1967, BRS opened its first retailstore, located on Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California. By 1971, therelationship between BRS and Onitsuka Tiger was nearing an end. BRSprepared to launch its own line of footwear, which would bear the newlydesigned Swoosh by Carolyn Davidson. The Swoosh was first used byNike on June 18, 1971, and was registered with the U.S. Patent andTrademark Office on January 22, 1974.The first shoe sold to the public to carry this design was a soccer shoenamed Nike, which was released in the summer of 1971. In February 1972,BRS introduced its first line of Nike shoes, with the name Nike derived fromthe Greek goddess of victory. In 1978, BRS, Inc. officially renamed itselfto Nike, Inc.. Beginning with Ilie Năstase, the first professional athlete tosign with BRS/Nike, the sponsorship of athletes became a key marketingtool for the rapidly growing company.The companys first self-designed product was based on Bowermans"waffle" design. After the University of Oregon resurfaced the trackat Hayward Field, Bowerman began experimenting with different potentialoutsoles that would grip the new urethane track more effectively. His effortswere rewarded one Sunday morning when he poured liquid urethane intohis wifes waffle iron. Bowerman developed and refined the so-calledwaffle sole which would evolve into the now-iconic Waffle Trainer in 1974.
By 1980, Nike had reached a 50% market share in the U.S. athletic shoemarket, and the company went public in December of that year. Its growthwas due largely to word-of-foot advertising (to quote a Nike print ad fromthe late 1970s), rather than television ads. Nikes first national televisioncommercials ran in October 1982 during the broadcast of the New YorkMarathon. The ads were created by Portland-based advertisingagency Wieden+Kennedy, which had formed several months earlier in April1982.Together, Nike and Wieden+Kennedy have created many print andtelevision advertisements and the agency continues to be Nikes primarytoday. It was agency co-founder Dan Wiedenwho coined the now-famousslogan "Just Do It" for a 1988 Nike ad campaign, which was chosenby Advertising Age as one of the top five ad slogans of the 20th century,and the campaign has been enshrined in the Smithsonian Institution. SanFranciscan Walt Stack was featured in Nikes first "Just Do It"advertisement that debuted on July 1, 1988. Wieden credits the inspirationfor the slogan to "Let‟s do it", the last words spoken by Gary Gilmore beforehe was executed.Throughout the 1980s, Nike expanded its product line to include manyother sports and regions throughout the world.PRODUCTNike produces a wide range of sports equipment. Their first products weretrack running shoes. They currently also make shoes, jerseys,shorts, baselayers etc. for a wide range of sports including track and
field, baseball, ice hockey, tennis, associationfootball (soccer), lacrosse,basketball and cricket. Nike Air Max is a line ofshoes first released by Nike, Inc. in 1987. The most recent additions to theirline are the Nike 6.0, Nike NYX, and Nike SB shoes, designedfor skateboarding. Nike has recently introduced cricket shoes, called AirZoom Yorker, designed to be 30% lighter than their competitors. In 2008,Nike introduced the Air Jordan XX3, a high-performance basketball shoedesigned with the environment in mind.Nike sells an assortment of products, including shoes and apparel forsports activities like association football, basketball, running, combatsports, tennis, American football, athletics, golf and cross training for men,women, and children. Nike also sells shoes for outdoor activities such astennis, golf, skateboarding, association football, baseball, Americanfootball, cycling, volleyball, wrestling, cheerleading, aquatic activities, autoracing and other athletic and recreational uses. Nike is well known andpopular in youth culture, chav culture and hip hop cultureas theysupply urban fashion clothing. Nike recently teamed up with Apple Inc. toproduce the Nike+ product which monitors a runners performance via aradio device in the shoe which links to the iPod nano. While the productgenerates useful statistics, it has been criticized by researchers who wereable to identify users RFID devices from 60 feet (18 m) away using small,concealable intelligence motes in a wireless sensor network.In 2004, they launched the SPARQ Training Program/Division.Some of Nikes newest shoes contain Flywire and Lunarlite Foam. Theseare materials used to reduce the weight of many types of shoes.
MANUFACTURINGNike has contracted with more than 700 shops around the world and hasoffices located in 45 countries outside the United States Most of thefactories are located in Asia, including Indonesia, China, Taiwan, India,Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan, Philippines, and Malaysia Nike is hesitant todisclose information about the contract companies it works with. However,due to harsh criticism from some organizations like CorpWatch, Nike hasdisclosed information about its contract factories in its CorporateGovernance Report. A Hawk Eye view Type: PublicTraded as: NYSE: NKEIndustry: Clothing and Sports equipmentFounded: 1964 (as Blue Ribbon Sports)Founder(s) : William J. "Bill" Bowerman Philip H. KnightHeadquarters: Washington County, Oregon, United StatesArea served: WorldwideKey people: Philip H. Knight (Chairman) Mark Parker (President and CEO)Products: Athletic shoes
ACTION PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION:“A relentless race against time.The burning passion to win..A strong desire to set thetrends...No wonder, life is all Action...."What one needs is a partner thats always on the move, that tracks yourEvery move, just right and smartly too. And thats exactly the inspirationbehind our trendy footwear collection ranging from performance sportshoes to semi-formal and formal footwear for men, women, teenagers andkids. Ultimate in design, comfort, and fit. Action shoes not only look goodbut also are good for your feet. Each Action product is the manifestationofour high standards of workmanship, access to latest technology. Thatshow Action issynonymous with maximum quality and performance.... and ofcourse that essential look.So gets into Action. And feel free to walk on therough roads of life. Surely youll be thewinner. ABOUT THE COMPANY:The Action group is one of the Indias leading business conglomerates. Thegroupcommenced its operations as a source of footwear and itscomponents in domestic and export markets, gradually moving its coreother diversified fields such as: (API) Chemicals and Plasticizers,(MICROTEK ) Computer Monitors and Peripherals, Power BackUp/Inverters, (OKAYA) Batteries, (SUN CITY) Housing Projects and (SRIBALAJI ACTION MEDICAL INSTITUTE) Health Care.
There are different individual companies under a common umbrella, eachdedicated to a specific line of product manufacturing, procuring or otherparticular business activities.Today the group strategy is to be competitive and to be a leader in thequality of goods and services provided ABOUT COMPANY’S WORKINGS:With over three decades of experience in footwear industry, Action issynonymous with quality shoes for the whole family-ranging from casuals toformals; from daily wear to sportswear and from an elegant collection forladies to a fun range for kids.True to its name Action is always on the move to scale newer heights infootwear designing and manufacturing. Intensive R& D efforts and thelatest technology go into the making of Action footwear. We have in housemanufacturing facilities, including modern equipments and machineriesspecially procured from different countries to manufacture footwear at parwith international class and quality.Each Action shoe is the product of a relentless quest for quality, high levelof workmanship and a true commitment to customer satisfaction. At Actionwe strive to listen to the customers in their local markets and identify theirfootwear needs and then provide products that exceed the customersexpectations in terms of quality, style and value.Hardly surprising, Action has carved a special niche in the Indian footwearmarket and in the hearts of millions of its consumers throughoutthe country.
COMPANY’S LOCATION:Action is headquartered in Delhi, supported by multiple manufacturing anddevelopment units in rest of the states like - Haryana, Himachal Pradeshand Daman etc. A number of its executives are based in customergeographies with the express purpose of creating and nurturing channelpartners as well as customers relationship. STRATEGIC INTENT VISION To nurture a financially strong, growth oriented group through leadershipand innovation and to widen future options by entering newly emergingindustries where the potential seems enormous. We as a group shallcontinue to seek opportunities where we can leverage our resources. MISSIONAt Action group our mission is to work together, respecting each other, ourskills and knowledge to:- Build higher quality of products and services Continually strive to enhance customer satisfaction. Improve customer retention and loyalty. Gain a competitive advantage and larger market share
Elimination of scrap, waste, defects and errors. To create a great place to work. Be welcomed in the communities in which we operate. VALUESHow we accomplish our mission is as important as the mission itself.Fundamental to the success for the company are these basic values.TeamworkLearning and InnovationEnergy and PassionEmployee involvement in process improvement. Integrity andaccountability. MARKET POSITIONINGAction has consistently used "COMPLETE FAMILY FOOTWEAR"positioning and continues to use it. The company virtually makes shoes forthe entire family- more precisely-for everyone- for all occasions.
DISTRIBUTION NETWORKTo complement our philosophy of catering to every walk of life, ourpowerful distribution network is mushroomed far and wide. Action has established a wide marketing network for distributingits products in India. The extensive distribution network, built over theyears, is a major strength for Action products. Action products are availableto consumers, even in the most remote places and in the smallest ofvillages with a very meager population. The distribution network comprising of DISTRIBUTORS, WHOLESALERS,RETAILERS AND EBOs throughout the country, ensures that thecustomer wherever located is served efficiently. We have network of morethan50,000 retail outlets all over India to sell our footwear, which is being soldthrough more than500 distributors appointed by the company.
AGEAge considered as an important factor which affects the buying habits ofindividuals like as preferences of young persons are differ as compared toold ones.AGE (IN YEARS) FREQUENCT OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTS15-25 23 4626-35 27 54 AGE OF RESPONDENT 54% %OF RESPONDENT 52% 50% 54% 48% 46% 26-35 46% 44% 15-25 42% 15-25 26-35 AGEINTERPRETATION: Analysis indicate that out of 50 respondents 23persons belongs to age group between 15-25 and another 27 personsbelong to age group of 26-35 years old. Teenagers like to wear sportsshoes and younger people prefer to wear formal shoes.
EDUCATION LEVEL OF RESPONDENTSEducation greatly influenced the choice, preference and habit of a person.Many living habits learn from education. Education makes him aware aboutthe running fashion.EDUCATION LEVEL FREQUENCT OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSU. GRADUATE 19 38GRADUATE 16 32POST GRADUATE 5 10ANY OTHER 10 20INTERPRETATION: Studies revealed that 38% respondents are undergraduate and they prefer to wear sport shoes. There are 32% persons aregraduate and they wear shoes according to latest fashion and 10%respondents are post graduate and they prefer to wear formal shoes.There are 20% respondents who belong to another field of courses.
TYPE OF FAMILYFamily is a group comprising a husband and wife and their dependentchildren, constituting a fundamental unit in the organization of society.TYPE OF FAMILY FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTNUCLEAR 27 54JOINT 23 46 TYPE OF FAMILY 54% %OF RESPONDENT 52% 50% 54% 48% 46% joint 46% NUCLEAR 44% 42% NUCLEAR JOINT TYPE OF FAMILYINTERPRETATION: Family plays an important role in decision making.Data consists of 54% nuclear families where family members take theirown decisions and have enough money to spend. There are 46%respondents come from joint families and they take buying decisionaccording to budget of the family.
MARITAL STATUSMarriage is a social union or legal contract between people that createskinship.MARITAL STATUS FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTMARRIED 19 38UNMARRIED 31 62. MARITAL STATUS 70% % OF RESPONDENT 60% 62% 50% 40% 30% 38% 20% UNMARRIED 10% MARRIED 0% MARRIED UNMARRIED MARITAL STATUSINTERPRETATION: Data consists of 38% married respondents who buybranded shoes after considering price and other attributes of the product.And another 62% respondent takes their own decision and they spendmoney according to their will.
INCOME LEVELFor household and individual income is the sum of all the wages, salaries,profits, interest‟s payments, rents and other forms of earning received in agiven period of time?INCOME (IN 000) FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENT5-10 10 2010-15 12 2415-20 13 2620&ABOVE 15 30 FAMILY INCOME 30% % OF RESPONDENT 25% 20% 15% 26% 30% 20% 24% 10% 5% 0% %OF RESPONDENT INCOME LEVELINTERPRETATION: Data indicate that 20% belong to income category ofRs 5-10and 24% fall between Rs 10-15. There is 26% fall between incomecategories of 15-20. And another 30% come under income group of20&above. Low income group prefer to wear unbranded shoes
TYPE OF SHOES LIKE TO WEARType of shoe a customer wants to wear depends upon his choice andprofession.TYPE OF SHOES FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE RESPONDENT OF RESPONDETSFORMAL 20 40SPORTS 14 28CASUAL 12 24ANY OTHER 4 8 8% FORMAL 24% 40% SPORTS CASUAL ANY 28% OYHERINTERPRETATION: It is analyzed that 40% peoples prefer to wear formalshoes and these shoes are mostly referred by businessmen andprofessionals.Sports shoes are first preferred by young hunks, sportsmen and collegegoing students.Casual shoes are worn on special occasions.
PRESENT CONSUMERS OF BRANDED SHOESBranded shoes represent status symbol of a person in the society.RESPONSES FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTSYES 34 68NO 10 20INDIFFERENT 6 12 present consumers of branded 80% 70% shoes %of respondents 60% 50% 40% 68% 30% 20% 10% 20% 12% 0% yes no indifferent ResponsesINTERPRETATION: The analysis showed that 68% consumers like to wearbranded shoes. There are other 20% consumers who never wear brandedshoes and 12% not even conscious about branded shoes..
BRAND AWERENESS OF RESPONDENTSA consumer can buy any product only when he or she aware about theavailability of that product in the market.BRANDS FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTNIKE 30 60ACTION 24 48ADIDAS 38 76REEBOK 31 62ANY OTHER 12 24(NOTE:-%vary because respondents are free to tick more than one option) 24% NIKE 60% 62% ACTION 48% ADIDAS 76% REEBOK ANY OTHERINTERPRETATION: Analysis revealed that Adidas is most popular brandamong consumers so it serves 76% customers. NIKE and REEBOK havealso strong place in the market and they both fetch 60% and 62%customers respectively. There is also strong competition among them.There are 48%of the consumers are aware about Action shoes.
BRAND LIKE THE MOSTA customer like only that brand which provide him or her more satisfactionas compared to other brands available in the market.BRANDS FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSNIKE 11 22ACTION 5 10ADIDAS 19 38REEBOK 13 26ANY OTHER 2 4 Brand like the most 40% %of respondent 35% 30% 25% NIKE 20% 38% 15% 26% ACTION 10% 22% 5% 10% ADIDAS 0% 4% NIKE ACTION ADIDAS REEBOK ANY REEBOK OTHER ANY OTHER Name of brandINTERPRETATION: The image of the brand affects the purchasingdecision; study concludes that Adidas is popular brand among other brandsand 38% respondents using it. There are 26% customers wearing Reebokshoes, 22% wearing Nike shoes and 10% wearing Action shoes. There is4% respondent wearing other shoes.
PURCHASING PLACEPlace play an important role in the marketing of products.PLACE FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSDEPARTMENTAL 9 18STOREORDINARY 17 34SHOWROOMEXCLUSIVE 20 40SHOWROOMANY OTHER 4 8 45% 40% purchasing place % of respondent 35% 30% 25% 20% 40% 15% 34% 10% 18% 5% 8% 0% D. STORE O.SHOWROOM EX. SHOWROOM ANY OTHER placeINTERPRETATION: Most of the consumers prefer to buy branded shoesfrom exclusive showroom and their percentage is 40% and 34% like to buyfrom ordinary showrooms and 18%, consumer go to departmental stores.
ADVERTISING MEDIAAdvertising is the art of influencing human action to buy or possess onesproduct. The term „media‟ refers to the mean through which the advertisinginformation is communicated by the advertiser to the prospectivecustomers.TYPE OF MEDIA FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSADVERTISEMENT 13 26FRIENDS 9 18SALES PERSONS 19 38EXCLUSIVE 9 18SHOWROOM ANY OTHER NIL NIL Advertising media E.SHO WROO ADVERT M ISEMEN 18% T 26% SALESP ERSON 38% FRIEND S 18%INTERPRETATION: Analysis revealed that 38% of the total respondentsbecome aware about particular brands through salespersons, 26%throughadvertisement, 18% through friends, and another 18% through exclusiveshowroom.
AFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON BUYING DECISIONAdvertising provides maximum information about the availability of productsto consumers, so they can select appropriate products.RESPONSES FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSYES 36 72NO 14 28 80% Affect of advertisement 70% %of respondents 60% 50% 40% 72% 30% 20% 28% 10% 0% YES NO ResponsesINTERPRETATION: To measure the effective of advertisement it isnecessary to know the effect of advertisement on the consumer, as studyindicates 72% are those whose purchasing decision is affected byadvertisement and 28%respondent‟s decision is not affected byadvertisement.
EFFECT OF PRICEPrice may be defined as money consideration asked for or offered orexchanged for a specified unit of a good or service. Prices are generallydetermined by market conditions.RESPONSES FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSYES 39 78NO 11 22 Effect of price 80% %of respondents yes 60% no 40% 78% 20% 22% 0% YES NO ResponsesINTERPRETATION: Analysis shows that 78% respondents change theirpurchasing decision if there is any increase in price and 22%respondentsdo not change their decision even if there is any increase in price becauseof brand image.
REPURCHASE PERIODPurchasing decision of consumer depends upon the income level of theconsumer.REPURCHASE PERIOD FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSONCE A YR 18 36TWICE A YR 14 28THRICE A YR 2 4 SEASONAL 12 24 SPECIAL OCCASION 4 8 40% purchasing behaviour 35% %of respondents 30% 25% 20% 36% 15% 28% 10% 24% 5% 8% 0% 4% PeriodINTERPRETATION: Most of the consumer purchase once in a year andtheir percentage is 36% and 28% purchase twice a year, 4%thrice a year,24% purchase seasonally and 8% purchase on special occasions.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE PURCHASING DECISIONPrice and quality of the product are the main factors which affect the finaldecision of the consumer.FACTORS LARGE SOME LEAST WEIGHTED EXTENT(3) EXTENT(2) EXTENT(1) AVERAGEPRICE 28 13 9 2.38QUALITY 45 5 - 2.9SIZE 50 - - 3DESIGN 26 17 7 2.38COLOR 19 18 13 2.1DURABILITY 35 10 5 2.6AVAILABILITY 38 8 4 2.68BRANDIMAGE 29 19 2 2.54 3.5 Factors considering while purchasing 3 3 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.38 2.38 weighted average 2 2.1 1.5 1 WEIGHTED AVERAGE 0.5 0 FactorsINTERPRETATION: Studies reveals that price, quality, size, design,durability, availability and brand image fall between large extent and someextent, other attributes like colors of the shoes lies between the someextent and least extent.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION LEVEL FROM DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF A PRODUCT Customer is king of the market so he wants maximum satisfactionfrom the product that he buys.FACTORS HIGHLY SATISFI NEUTR DISSATISFI HIGHLY WEIGHT SATISFI ED AL ED DISSATISFI -ED ED (4) (3) (2) ED AVERA (5) GEPRICE 7 23 17 2 1 3.64BRAND 23 15 7 5 _ 4.12IMAGEQUALITY 18 21 11 - - 4.14SIZE 17 19 13 1 - 4.04COMFOR 25 17 8 - - 4.34TDURABILI 15 27 8 - 1 4.14TY Satisfaction level of customer 4.4 4.34 4.2 4.12 4.14 4.14 weighted average 4 4.04 3.8 3.6 3.64 WEIGHTED AVG. 3.4 3.2 FactorsINTERPRETATION: A Study show that consumers are not highly satisfiedwith the prices of branded shoes but they are satisfied with other attributesto large extent.
BRAND LOYALTYBrand loyalty refers to that a customer being permanent consumer of brandand he never switch over to other brand.RESPONSES FREQUENCY OF PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENT RESPONDENTSYES 21 42NO 29 58 BRAND LOYALTY 42% YES 58% NOINTERPRETATION: Study indicates that only42% is the loyal customersand 58% will change their brand if all the qualities are available with thenew products.
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONRESEARCH FINDING:After assessing the overall market scenarios what came in picture was asfollows: Consumer reaction suggests that Adidas is the marker leader among all its close counterparts in the sport shoes and apparel segments. NIKE is chasing its position most aggressively so now it requires maintaining its position with new stuff. ADIDAS has been major competitor for NIKE and REEBOK. 60% Customers are still pro NIKE believer. The new stuff of the ADIDAS is attracting the consumers more which might lead ADIDAS at the top spot in the pack in coming financial year. Consumers are not showing that kind of craze in ACTION for past few years. Probably it could be because of the aggressive attention snatched by brands like NIKE and ADIDAS especially in India. Celebrities also affect the sale of brand .ADIDAS shoes promoted by David Beckham. 72% respondents take their buying decision after considering the advertisement of brand. Most of respondents prefer to purchase shoes from exclusive showrooms. Businessman, serviceman and professionals prefer to wear formal shoes because of status and students like to wear only sports and casual branded shoes.
SUGGESTIONS: Department stores are the prime sales and marketing channel for branded shoes. In addition, store decorations and product displays should be designed to create a strong first impression. Seasonal promotion campaigns, like special discounts and advertisements, could be employed. New lines of collections should be introduced for festivals. The prices of branded shoes must be reduced to increase sales. Conclusion“THE BOTTOM LINE” OF THE MARKET RESEARCHSPEAKS THAT BRANDED SHOES IN INDIA HAS BEEN INCREASING ON DAY BY DAY BASIS.THAT SOUNDS GOOD FOR INTERNATIONAL AS WELL AS DOMESTIC MARKET
QUESTIONNAIRE PERSONAL PROFILE I. NAME : II. AGE : III. ADDRESS : IV. TELEPHONE : V. OCCUPATION : VI. EDUCATION Under Graduation Graduate Post Graduate Any other VII. TYPE OF FAMILY NUCLEAR Joint FamilyVIII. MARITAL STATUS Married Unmarried Any other IX. FAMILY INCOME (RS. Per month) 5000-10000 10000-15000
15000-2000020000 & above 1. Which type of shoes do you like to wear? Formal Sports Casual Any Other 2. Do you wear Branded Shoes? Yes No Indifferent 3. Are you Aware about the following Brands of Shoes? Nike Adidas Action Reebok Any Other 4. Which Brand does you like the most? Nike Adidas Action Reebok Any Other
5. Up to what extent do you consider following features of Brand while purchasing? Large Extent Some Extent Least Extent Price Quality Size Design Color Durability Availability Brand image Special offers6. How do you get aware about this particular Brand? Advertisement Sales Persons Friends Exclusive Showrooms Any Other7. From where do you like to purchase your Branded shoes?Departmental Stores Ordinary Showrooms
Exclusive showrooms any other 8. Do you think advertisement effect your purchasing decision? Yes No 9. How often do you buy branded shoes? Once a Year Twice a Year Thrice a Year Seasonally Special occasion any other 10. Up to what extent have you satisfied by the following attributes? Highly Satis- Neutral Dissatisfied Highly dis Satisfied fied -satisfiedPriceBrand imageQualitySizeComfortDurabilityAny Other
11. Where is any increase in price of this brand, is that Effect your purchase decision? Yes No Indifferent 12. Would you like to buy another brand if all the attributes Are Available in other brand? Yes No
BIBLIOGRAPHYThe list of reference for the purpose of completing this marketingproject is as given below:BOOKS:Marketing management By: Philip KotlerMarketing management By: J.C GandhiFunctional management By: R.K.SharmaINTERNET:www.google.comwww.wlkipedia.comwww.paradise.comNEWSPAPER: